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Found 3 entries in the Bibliography.

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Low Frequency ULF Waves in the Earth’s Inner Magnetosphere: Statistics During Coronal Mass Ejections and Seeding of EMIC Waves

Abstract Here we perform a statistical analysis of low frequency ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves (mHz-Hz) in the Earth’s inner magnetosphere excluding electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves concurrently observed. We use the magnetic field data from the two Van Allen Probes during their first magnetic local time (MLT) revolution that cover the periods of coronal mass ejections. The major results of our analysis are as follows. (1) Spectra of both the transverse and compressional ULF waves are well approximated by the power-laws in the mHz-Hz frequency range. (2) There are two sources of the low frequency ULF waves: an internal magnetospheric source and an external source outside of the magnetosphere. (3) The average transverse power in the 6-24 hr MLT sector dominates that in the 0-6 hr sector, whereas the compressional power in the 12-24 hr sector dominates that in the 0-12 hr sector. (4) The average powers of transverse and compressional ULF waves in the plasmasphere dominate the average powers in the high L shell region of , and there is a deep power minimum in the intermediary region of . (5) The compressional ULF wave power has a maximum in the near equatorial region, whereas the transverse power has a minimum there. (6) A wave energy cascade from low frequency ULF waves into the higher frequency range of EMIC waves (Hz) supplies the nonthermal seed fluctuations from which EMIC waves can then grow due to instabilities of the energetic magnetospheric ions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Gamayunov, Konstantin; Engebretson, Mark;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

coronal mass ejection; low frequency ULF waves; Earth s inner magnetosphere; statistics of ULF waves; turbulent energy cascade; seeding of EMIC waves; Van Allen Probes


Generation of EMIC Waves Observed by Van Allen Probes at Low L Shells

Observation of linearly polarized He+-band electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves at low L shells is a new, and quite unexpected, result from the Van Allen Probes mission. Here we analyze the two EMIC wave events observed by Van Allen Probes at low L shells and put forward a new-generation mechanism for the low-L EMIC waves. Both events were observed at L \~ 3 but one of them has a discrete spectrum near the O+ gyrofrequency and its second harmonic, whereas the second event has a broad spectrum between the O+ gyrofrequency and its second harmonic. For both events, the major conclusions of our analysis can be summarized as follows. (1) Only O+ causes EMIC wave generation, and instability is driven by the positive derivatives of distribution functions over perpendicular component of velocity. (2) The timing and frequencies of generated waves are in agreement with observations. The generated wave normal angles, however, are highly oblique being in strong disagreement with the minimum variance angles obtained from Fast Fourier transform. (3) The wave step analysis shows that a signal nonstationarity is not a major cause for disagreement between the minimum variance angles and theoretical predictions for normal angles. (4) A superposition of plane sine waves with the same frequency and normal angle but with different azimuthal angles for wave vector around the background magnetic field can reconcile the polarization properties of EMIC waves obtained from Fast Fourier transform and/or the wave step analysis with those predicted by the linear theory of EMIC waves.

Gamayunov, Konstantin; Min, Kyungguk; Saikin, Anthony; Rassoul, Hamid;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025629

effects of wave superposition on EMIC waves; EMIC wave generation; EMIC waves at low L shells; growth rate calculations for EMIC waves; polarization properties of EMIC waves; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observations at low L shells


Model of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the inner magnetosphere

The evolution of He+-mode electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is studied inside the geostationary orbit using our global model of ring current (RC) ions, electric field, plasmasphere, and EMIC waves. In contrast to the approach previously used by Gamayunov et al. (2009), however, we do not use the bounce-averaged wave kinetic equation but instead use a complete, nonbounce-averaged, equation to model the evolution of EMIC wave power spectral density, including off-equatorial wave dynamics. The major results of our study can be summarized as follows. (1) The thermal background level for EMIC waves is too low to allow waves to grow up to the observable level during one pass between the \textquotedblleftbi-ion latitudes\textquotedblright (the latitudes where the given wave frequency is equal to the O+\textendashHe+ bi-ion frequency) in conjugate hemispheres. As a consequence, quasi-field-aligned EMIC waves are not typically produced in the model if the thermal background level is used, but routinely observed in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. To overcome this model-observation discrepancy we suggest a nonlinear energy cascade from the lower frequency range of ultralow frequency waves into the frequency range of EMIC wave generation as a possible mechanism supplying the needed level of seed fluctuations that guarantees growth of EMIC waves during one pass through the near equatorial region. The EMIC wave development from a suprathermal background level shows that EMIC waves are quasi field aligned near the equator, while they are oblique at high latitudes, and the Poynting flux is predominantly directed away from the near equatorial source region in agreement with observations. (2) An abundance of O+ strongly controls the energy of oblique He+-mode EMIC waves that propagate to the equator after their reflection at bi-ion latitudes, and so it controls a fraction of wave energy in the oblique normals. (3) The RC O+ not only causes damping of the He+-mode EMIC waves but also causes wave generation in the region of highly oblique wave normal angles, typically for θ > 82\textdegree, where a growth rate γ > 10-2rad/s is frequently observed. The instability is driven by the loss cone feature in the RC O+ distribution function, where ∂F/∂v⟂>0 for the resonating O+. (4) The oblique and intense He+-mode EMIC waves generated by RC O+ in the region L≈2\textendash3 may have an implication to the energetic particle loss in the inner radiation belt.

Gamayunov, K.; Engebretson, M.; Zhang, M.; Rassoul, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.910.1002/2014JA020032

electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves; outer radiation belt; ring current