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Found 10 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 10


Reconstruction of the Radiation Belts for Solar Cycles 17 – 24 (1933 – 2017)

AbstractWe present a reconstruction of the dynamics of the radiation belts from Solar Cycles 17 – 24 which allows us to study how radiation belt activity has varied between the different solar cycles. The radiation belt simulations are produced using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB)-3D code. The VERB-3D code simulations incorporate radial, energy, and pitch angle diffusion to reproduce the radiation belts. Our simulations use the historical measurements of Kp (available since Solar Cycle 17, i.e., 1933) to model the evolution radiation belt dynamics between L* = 1 – 6.6. A nonlinear auto regressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) neural network was trained off GOES 15 measurements (Jan. 2011 – March 2014) and used to supply the upper boundary condition (L* = 6.6) over the course of Solar Cycles 17 – 24 (i.e., 1933 – 2017). Comparison of the model with long term observations of the Van Allen Probes and CRRES demonstrates that our model, driven by the NARX boundary, can reconstruct the general evolution of the radiation belt fluxes. Solar Cycle 24 (Jan 2008 – 2017) has been the least active of the considered solar cycles which resulted in unusually low electron fluxes. Our results show that Solar Cycle 24 should not be used as a representative solar cycle for developing long term environment models. The developed reconstruction of fluxes can be used to develop or improve empirical models of the radiation belts.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Saikin, A.; Shprits, Y; Drozdov, A; Landis, D.; Zhelavskaya, I.; Cervantes, S.;

Published by: Space Weather      Published on: 02/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Radiation belts; numerical modeling; Particle acceleration; Magnetosphere: inner; forecasting; Van Allen Probes

Simulating the Ion Precipitation From the Inner Magnetosphere by H-Band and He-Band Electro Magnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

Abstract During geomagnetic storms, magnetospheric wave activity drives the ion precipitation which can become an important source of energy flux into the ionosphere and strongly affect the dynamics of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. In this study, we investigate the role of Electro Magnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves in causing ion precipitation into the ionosphere using simulations from the RAM-SCBE model with and without EMIC waves included. The global distribution of H-band and He-band EMIC wave intensity in the model is based on three different EMIC wave models statistically derived from satellite measurements. Comparisons among the simulations and with observations suggest that the EMIC wave model based on recent Van Allen Probes observations is the best in reproducing the realistic ion precipitation into the ionosphere. Specifically, the maximum precipitating proton fluxes appear at L = 4–5 in the afternoon-to-night sector which is in good agreement with statistical results, and the temporal evolution of integrated proton energy fluxes at auroral latitudes is consistent with earlier studies of the stormtime precipitating proton energy fluxes and vary in close relation to the SYM-H index. Besides, the simulations with this wave model can account for the enhanced precipitation of < 20 keV proton energy fluxes at regions closer to Earth (L < 5) as measured by NOAA/POES satellites, and reproduce reasonably well the intensity of <30 keV proton energy fluxes measured by DMSP satellites. It is suggested that the inclusion of H-band EMIC waves improves the intensity of precipitation in the model leading to better agreement with the NOAA/POES data.

Shreedevi, P.; Yu, Yiqun; Ni, Binbin; Saikin, Anthony; Jordanova, Vania;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

EMIC waves; Geomagnetic storms; proton precipitation; ring current modeling; MI coupling; wave particle interaction; Van Allen Probes


Storm Time Depletions of Multi-MeV Radiation Belt Electrons Observed at Different Pitch Angles

During geomagnetic storms, the rapid depletion of the high-energy (several MeV) outer radiation belt electrons is the result of loss to the interplanetary medium through the magnetopause, outward radial diffusion, and loss to the atmosphere due to wave-particle interactions. We have performed a statistical study of 110 storms using pitch angle resolved electron flux measurements from the Van Allen Probes mission and found that inside of the radiation belt (L* = 3 - 5) the number of storms that result in depletion of electrons with equatorial pitch angle αeq = 30o is higher than number of storms that result in depletion of electrons with equatorial pitch angle αeq = 75o. We conclude that this result is consistent with electron scattering by whistler and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. At the outer edge of the radiation belt (L* >= 5.2) the number of storms that result in depletion is also large (~40\textendash50\%), emphasizing the significance of the magnetopause shadowing effect and outward radial transport.

Drozdov, A; Aseev, N.; Effenberger, F.; Turner, D.; Saikin, A.; Shprits, Y;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027332

EMIC waves; multi-MeV electrons; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Storm Time EMIC Waves Observed by Swarm and Van Allen Probe Satellites

The temporal and spatial evolution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves during the magnetic storm of 21\textendash29 June 2015 was investigated using high-resolution magnetic field observations from Swarm constellation in the ionosphere and Van Allen Probes in the magnetosphere. Magnetospheric EMIC waves had a maximum occurrence frequency in the afternoon sector and shifted equatorward during the expansion phase and poleward during the recovery phase. However, ionospheric waves in subauroral regions occurred more frequently in the nighttime than during the day and exhibited less obvious latitudinal movements. During the main phase, dayside EMIC waves occurred in both the ionosphere and magnetosphere in response to the dramatic increase in the solar wind dynamic pressure. Waves were absent in the magnetosphere and ionosphere around the minimum SYM-H. During the early recovery phase, He+ band EMIC waves were observed in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. During the late recovery phase, H+ band EMIC waves emerged in response to enhanced earthward convection during substorms in the premidnight sector. The occurrence of EMIC waves in the noon sector was affected by the intensity of substorm activity. Both ionospheric wave frequency and power were higher in the summer hemisphere than in the winter hemisphere. Waves were confined to an MLT interval of less than 5 hr with a duration of less than 186 min from coordinated observations. The results could provide additional insights into the spatial characteristics and propagation features of EMIC waves during storm periods.

Wang, Hui; He, Yangfan; ühr, Hermann; Kistler, Lynn; Saikin, Anthony; Lund, Eric; Ma, Shuying;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026299

EMIC wave; storm; substorm; Swarm; Van Allen Probes


Generation of EMIC Waves Observed by Van Allen Probes at Low L Shells

Observation of linearly polarized He+-band electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves at low L shells is a new, and quite unexpected, result from the Van Allen Probes mission. Here we analyze the two EMIC wave events observed by Van Allen Probes at low L shells and put forward a new-generation mechanism for the low-L EMIC waves. Both events were observed at L \~ 3 but one of them has a discrete spectrum near the O+ gyrofrequency and its second harmonic, whereas the second event has a broad spectrum between the O+ gyrofrequency and its second harmonic. For both events, the major conclusions of our analysis can be summarized as follows. (1) Only O+ causes EMIC wave generation, and instability is driven by the positive derivatives of distribution functions over perpendicular component of velocity. (2) The timing and frequencies of generated waves are in agreement with observations. The generated wave normal angles, however, are highly oblique being in strong disagreement with the minimum variance angles obtained from Fast Fourier transform. (3) The wave step analysis shows that a signal nonstationarity is not a major cause for disagreement between the minimum variance angles and theoretical predictions for normal angles. (4) A superposition of plane sine waves with the same frequency and normal angle but with different azimuthal angles for wave vector around the background magnetic field can reconcile the polarization properties of EMIC waves obtained from Fast Fourier transform and/or the wave step analysis with those predicted by the linear theory of EMIC waves.

Gamayunov, Konstantin; Min, Kyungguk; Saikin, Anthony; Rassoul, Hamid;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025629

effects of wave superposition on EMIC waves; EMIC wave generation; EMIC waves at low L shells; growth rate calculations for EMIC waves; polarization properties of EMIC waves; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observations at low L shells

Comparing simulated and observed EMIC wave amplitudes using in situ Van Allen Probes\textquoteright measurements

We perform a statistical study calculating electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave amplitudes based off in situ plasma measurements taken by the Van Allen Probes\textquoteright (1.1\textendash5.8 Re) Helium, Oxygen, Proton, Electron (HOPE) instrument. Calculated wave amplitudes are compared to EMIC waves observed by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science on board the Van Allen Probes during the same period. The survey covers a 22-month period (1 November 2012 to 31 August 2014), a full Van Allen Probe magnetic local time (MLT) precession. The linear theory proxy was used to identify EMIC wave events with plasma conditions favorable for EMIC wave excitation. Two hundred and thirty-two EMIC wave events (103 H+-band and 129 He+-band) were selected for this comparison. Nearly all events selected are observed beyond L = 4. Results show that calculated wave amplitudes exclusively using the in situ HOPE measurements produce amplitudes too low compared to the observed EMIC wave amplitudes. Hot proton anisotropy (Ahp) distributions are asymmetric in MLT within the inner (L < 7) magnetosphere with peak (minimum) Ahp, \~0.81 to 1.00 (\~0.62), observed in the dawn (dusk), 0000 < MLT <= 1200 (1200 < MLT <= 2400), sectors. Measurements of Ahp are found to decrease in the presence of EMIC wave activity. Ahp amplification factors are determined and vary with respect to EMIC wave-band and MLT. He+-band events generally require double (quadruple) the measured Ahp for the dawn (dusk) sector to reproduce the observed EMIC wave amplitudes.

Saikin, A.A.; Jordanova, V.K.; Zhang, J.C.; Smith, C.W.; Spence, H.E.; Larsen, B.A.; Reeves, G.D.; Torbert, R.B.; Kletzing, C.A.; Zhelavskaya, I.S.; Shprits, Y.Y.;

Published by: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2018.01.024

EMIC waves Van Allen Probes Linear theory Wave generation; Van Allen Probes


EMIC waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation on 25-26 January 2013

Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes and the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL), we perform a case study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation (REP) observed on 25\textendash26 January 2013. Among all the EMIC wave and REP events from the two missions, the pair of the events is the closest both in space and time. The Van Allen Probe-B detected significant EMIC waves at L = 2.1\textendash3.9 and magnetic local time (MLT) = 21.0\textendash23.4 for 53.5 min from 2353:00 UT, 25 January 2013. Meanwhile, BARREL-1T observed clear precipitation of relativistic electrons at L = 4.2\textendash4.3 and MLT = 20.7\textendash20.8 for 10.0 min from 2358 UT, 25 January 2013. Local plasma and field conditions for the excitation of the EMIC waves, wave properties, electron minimum resonant energy Emin, and electron pitch angle diffusion coefficient Dαα of a sample EMIC wave packet are examined along with solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field parameters, geomagnetic activity, and results from the spectral analysis of the BARREL balloon observations to investigate the two types of events. The events occurred in the early main phase of a moderate storm (min. Dst* = -51.0 nT). The EMIC wave event consists of two parts. Unlike the first part, the second part of the EMIC wave event was locally generated and still in its source region. It is found that the REP event is likely associated with the EMIC wave event.

Zhang, Jichun; Halford, Alexa; Saikin, Anthony; Huang, Chia-Lin; Spence, Harlan; Larsen, Brian; Reeves, Geoffrey; Millan, Robyn; Smith, Charles; Torbert, Roy; Kurth, William; Kletzing, Craig; Blake, Bernard; Fennel, Joseph; Baker, Daniel;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022918

BARREL; EMIC waves; FFT; Geomagnetic storm; relativistic electron precipitation (REP); Van Allen Probes

The dependence on geomagnetic conditions and solar wind dynamic pressure of the spatial distributions of EMIC waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

A statistical examination on the spatial distributions of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes against varying levels of geomagnetic activity (i.e., AE and SYM-H) and dynamic pressure has been performed. Measurements taken by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science for the first full magnetic local time (MLT) precession of the Van Allen Probes (September 2012\textendashJune 2014) are used to identify over 700 EMIC wave events. Spatial distributions of EMIC waves are found to vary depending on the level of geomagnetic activity and solar wind dynamic pressure. EMIC wave events were observed under quiet (AE <= 100 nT, 325 wave events), moderate (100 nT < AE <= 300 nT, 218 wave events), and disturbed (AE > 300 nT, 228 wave events) geomagnetic conditions and are primarily observed in the prenoon sector (~800 < MLT <= ~1100) at L ≈ 5.5 during quiet activity times. As AE increases to disturbed levels, the peak occurrence rates shift to the afternoon sector (1200 < MLT <= 1800) between L = 4 and L = 6. A majority of EMIC wave events (~56\%) were observed during nonstorm times (defined by SYM-H). Consistent with the quiet AE levels, nonstorm EMIC waves are observed in the prenoon sector. EMIC waves observed through the duration of a geomagnetic storm are primarily located in the afternoon sector. High solar wind pressure (Pdyn > 3 nPa) correlates to mostly afternoon EMIC wave observations.

Saikin, A.; Zhang, J.; Smith, C.; Spence, H.; Torbert, R.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022523

EMIC waves; geomagnetic activity; solar wind dynamic pressure; spatial distributions; Van Allen Probes


The occurrence and wave properties of H + -, He + -, and O + -band EMIC waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

We perform a statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves detected by the Van Allen Probes mission to investigate the spatial distribution of their occurrence, wave power, ellipticity, and normal angle. The Van Allen Probes have been used which allow us to explore the inner magnetosphere (1.1 to 5.8 Re). Magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science onboard the Van Allen Probes are used to identify EMIC wave events for the first 22 months of the mission operation (8 September 2012 \textendash 30 June 2014). EMIC waves are examined in H+-, He+-, and O+-bands. Over 700 EMIC wave events have been identified over the three different wave bands (265 H+-band events, 438 He+-band events, and 68 O+-band events). EMIC wave events are observed between L = 2 \textendash 8, with over 140 EMIC wave events observed below L = 4. Results show that H+-band EMIC waves have two peak MLT occurrence regions: pre-noon (0900 < MLT <= 1200) and afternoon (1500 < MLT <= 1700) sectors. He+-band EMIC waves feature an overall stronger dayside occurrence. O+-band EMIC waves have one peak region located in the morning sector at lower L-shells (L < 4). He+-band EMIC waves average the highest wave power overall (>0.1 nT2/Hz), especially in the afternoon sector. Ellipticity observations reveal that linearly polarized EMIC wave dominate in lower L-shells.

Saikin, A.; Zhang, J.-C.; Allen, R.C.; Smith, C.; Kistler, L.; Spence, H.; Torbert, R.; Kletzing, C.; Jordanova, V.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021358

EMIC waves; Fast Fourier Transform; spatial distribution; Van Allen Probes


Excitation of EMIC waves detected by the Van Allen Probes on 28 April 2013

We report the wave observations, associated plasma measurements, and linear theory testing of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave events observed by the Van Allen Probes on 28 April 2013. The wave events are detected in their generation regions as three individual events in two consecutive orbits of Van Allen Probe-A, while the other spacecraft, B, does not detect any significant EMIC wave activity during this period. Three overlapping H+ populations are observed around the plasmapause when the waves are excited. The difference between the observational EMIC wave growth parameter (Σh) and the theoretical EMIC instability parameter (Sh) is significantly raised, on average, to 0.10 \textpm 0.01, 0.15 \textpm 0.02, and 0.07 \textpm 0.02 during the three wave events, respectively. On Van Allen Probe-B, this difference never exceeds 0. Compared to linear theory (Σh > Sh), the waves are only excited for elevated thresholds.

Zhang, J.-C.; Saikin, A.; Kistler, L.; Smith, C.; Spence, H.; Mouikis, C.; Torbert, R.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Allen, R.; Jordanova, V.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060621

Van Allen Probes