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1970 
Radial Diffusion of OuterZone Electrons: An Empirical Approach to ThirdInvariant Violation The nearequatorial fluxes of outerzone electrons (E>0.5 Mev and E>1.9 Mev) measured by an instrument on the satellite Explorer 15 following the geomagnetic storm of December 17\textendash18, 1962, are used to determine the electron radial diffusion coefficients and electron lifetimes as functions of L for selected values of the conserved first invariant \textmu. For each value of \textmu, the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be timeindependent and representable in the form D = DnLn. The diffusion coefficients and lifetimes are then simultaneously obtained by requiring that the Ldependent reciprocal electron lifetime, as determined from the FokkerPlanck equation, deviate minimally from a constant in time. Applied to the data, these few assumptions yield a value of D that is smaller by approximately a factor of 10 than the value recently found by Newkirk and Walt in a separate analysis of 1.6Mev electron data obtained during the same time period on another satellite. The electron lifetimes are found to be strong functions of L, with 4 to 6day lifetimes observed at the higher L values (4.6\textendash4.8). Lanzerotti, L.; Maclennan, C.; Schulz, Michael; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 10/1970 YEAR: 1970 DOI: 10.1029/JA075i028p05351 
1969 
Diffusion of Equatorial Particles in the Outer Radiation Zone Expansions and contractions of the permanently compressed magnetosphere lead to the diffusion of equatorially trapped particles across drift shells. A general technique for obtaining the electric fields induced by these expansions and contractions is described and applied to the Mead geomagnetic field model. The resulting electric drifts are calculated and are superimposed upon the gradient drift executed by a particle that conserves its first (μ) and second (J = 0) adiabatic invariants. The noonmidnight asymmetry of the unperturbed drift trajectory (resulting from gradient drift alone) is approximated by means of a simple model. In this model the angular drift frequency is found to be the geometric mean of a particle\textquoterights angular drift velocities at noon and midnight. The radial diffusion coefficient D = (\textonehalf) (ΔL)\texttwosuperior/time is calculated as a function of the McIlwain parameter L and in terms of the spectral density of fluctuations in the standoff distance of the magnetosphere boundary. Because the unperturbed drift trajectories are asymmetric, driftresonant diffusion of particles is produced by spectral components at all harmonics of the drift frequency, although the first (fundamental) harmonic is the major contributor. Schulz, Michael; Eviatar, Aharon; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 05/1969 YEAR: 1969 DOI: 10.1029/JA074i009p02182 
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