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Abstract We present a comparison of magnetospheric plasma mass/electron density observations during an 11-day interval which includes the geomagnetic storm of 22 June 2015. For this study we used: equatorial plasma mass density derived from geomagnetic field line resonances (FLRs) detected by Van Allen Probes and at the ground-based magnetometer networks EMMA and CARISMA; in situ electron density inferred by the Neural-network-based Upper hybrid Resonance Determination algorithm applied to plasma wave Van Allen Probes measurements. The combined observations at L ∼ 4, MLT ∼ 16 of the two longitudinally-separated magnetometer networks show a temporal pattern very similar to that of the in situ observations: a density decrease by an order of magnitude about 1 day after the Dst minimum, a partial recovery a few hours later, and a new strong decrease soon after. The observations are consistent with the position of the measurement points with respect to the plasmasphere boundary as derived by a plasmapause test particle simulation. A comparison between plasma mass densities derived from ground and in situ FLR observations during favourable conjunctions shows a good agreement. We find however, for L < ∼3, the spacecraft measurements to be higher than the corresponding ground observations with increasing deviation with decreasing L, which might be related to the rapid outbound spacecraft motion in that region. A statistical analysis of the average ion mass using simultaneous spacecraft measurements of mass and electron density indicates values close to 1 amu in plasmasphere and higher values (∼ 2-3 amu) in plasmatrough. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 06/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029292
Excitation of toroidal mode standing Alfv\ en waves in the midnight sector of the inner magnetosphere in association with substorms is well documented, but studies are sparse on dayside sources for the waves. This paper reports observation of midnight toroidal waves by the Van Allen Probe B spacecraft during a geomagnetically quiet period on 12\textemdash13 May 2013. The spacecraft detected toroidal waves excited at odd harmonics below 30 mHz as it moved within the plasmasphere from ~2100 magnetic local time (MLT) to ~0030 MLT through midnight in the dipole L range 4.2\textemdash6.1. The frequencies and the relationship between the electric and magnetic field components of the waves are consistent with theoretical toroidal waves for a reflecting ionosphere. At the time of the nightside toroidal waves, compressional waves were observed by geostationary satellites located on the dayside, and the amplitudes of both types of waves varied with the cone angle of the interplanetary magnetic field. The nightside toroidal waves were likely driven by fast mode waves that resulted from transmission of upstream ultralow frequency waves into the magnetosphere. Ground magnetometers located near the footprint of the spacecraft did not detect toroidal waves.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 12/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027370
In one model, Pi2 pulsations are driven pulse by pulse by fast mode pulses that are launched as periodic bursty bulk flows brake when they approach the Earth. We have examined this model by analyzing data from multiple spacecraft and ground magnetometers for a Pi2 pulsation event. During the event, which started at \~2226 UT on 8 November 2014, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-D detected an \~2 min period plasma bulk flow oscillation in the near-Earth magnetotail, while THEMIS-E and Van Allen Probes-B, both located on the nightside just earthward of the electron plasmapause, detected a Pi2 pulsation consisting of a 10 mHz oscillation in the azimuthal component of the electric field and a 19-mHz oscillation in the compressional component of the magnetic field. On the ground, magnetic field oscillations containing both frequencies were observed both on the nightside and on the dayside. The nightside observations indicated that the pulsation had a radially standing structure, which is consistent with plasmaspheric virtual resonances (PVRs) excited in a magnetohydrodynamic simulation assuming an impulsive energy source. Cross-spectral analysis of the magnetotail flow oscillation and the Pi2 pulsation indicated low coherence between them. These results suggest that the flow oscillation contributed to the Pi2 pulsation as a broadband energy source and that only the spectral components matching the PVR frequencies were detected with well-defined frequencies. Ionospheric currents connected to the PVRs may be responsible for the appearance of the pulsation on the dayside.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2018
YEAR: 2018   DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025664
Cavity mode oscillations (CMOs) are basic magnetohydrodynamic eigenmodes in the magnetosphere predicted by theory and are expected to occur following the arrival of an interplanetary shock. However, observational studies of shock-induced CMOs have been sparse. We present a case study of a dayside ultra-low-frequency (ULF) wave event that exhibited CMO properties. The event occurred immediately following the arrival of an interplanetary shock at 0829 UT on 15 August 2015. The shock was observed in the solar wind by the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms-B and -C spacecraft, and magnetospheric ULF waves were observed by multiple spacecraft including the Van Allen Probes-A and -B spacecraft, which were located in the dayside plasmasphere at L\~ 1.4 and L\~ 2.4, respectively. Both Van Allen Probes spacecraft detected compressional poloidal mode oscillations at \~13 mHz (fundamental) and \~26 mHz (second harmonic). At both frequencies, the azimuthal component of the electric field (Eϕ) lagged behind the compressional component of the magnetic field (Bμ) by \~90o. The frequencies and the Eϕ-Bμ relative phase are in good agreement with the CMOs generated in a dipole magnetohydrodynamic simulation that incorporates a realistic plasma mass density distribution and ionospheric boundary condition. The oscillations were also detected on the ground by the European quasi-Meridional Magnetometer Array, which was located near the magnetic field footprints of the Van Allen Probes spacecraft.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2018
YEAR: 2018   DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024639