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Generation of Highly Oblique Lower-band Chorus via Nonlinear Three-wave Resonance

Chorus in the inner magnetosphere has been observed frequently at geomagnetically active times, typically exhibiting a two-band structure with a quasi-parallel lower-band and an upper-band with a broad range of wave normal angles. But recent observations by Van Allen Probes confirm another type of lower-band chorus, which has a large wave normal angle close to the resonance cone angle. It has been proposed that these waves could be generated by a low-energy beam-like electron component or by temperature anisotropy of keV electrons in the presence of a low-energy plateau-like electron component. This paper, however, presents an alternative mechanism for generation of this highly oblique lower-band chorus. Through a nonlinear three-wave resonance, a quasi-parallel lower-band chorus wave can interact with a mildly oblique upper-band chorus wave, producing a highly oblique quasi-electrostatic lower-band chorus wave. This theoretical analysis is confirmed by 2D electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations. Furthermore, as the newly generated waves propagate away from the equator, their wave normal angle can further increase and they are able to scatter low-energy electrons to form a plateau-like structure in the parallel velocity distribution. The three-wave resonance mechanism may also explain the generation of quasi-parallel upper-band chorus which has also been observed in the magnetosphere.

Fu, Xiangrong; Gary, Peter; Reeves, Geoffrey; Winske, Dan; Woodroffe, Jesse;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074411

oblique whistler; PIC simulation; Ray Tracing; three-wave resonance; Van Allen Probes


Whistler Anisotropy Instabilities as the Source of Banded Chorus: Van Allen Probes Observations and Particle-in-Cell Simulations

Magnetospheric banded chorus is enhanced whistler waves with frequencies ωr < Ωe, where Ωe is the electron cyclotron frequency, and a characteristic spectral gap at ωr ≃ Ωe/2. This paper uses spacecraft observations and two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in a magnetized, homogeneous, collisionless plasma to test the hypothesis that banded chorus is due to local linear growth of two branches of the whistler anisotropy instability excited by two distinct, anisotropic electron components of significantly different temperatures. The electron densities and temperatures are derived from HOPE instrument measurements on the Van Allen Probes A satellite during a banded chorus event on 1 November 2012. The observations are consistent with a three-component electron model consisting of a cold (a few tens of eV) population, a warm (a few hundred eV) anisotropic population, and a hot (a few keV) anisotropic population. The simulations use plasma and field parameters as measured from the satellite during this event except for two numbers: the anisotropies of the warm and the hot electron components are enhanced over the measured values in order to obtain relatively rapid instability growth. The simulations show that the warm component drives the quasi-electrostatic upper-band chorus, and that the hot component drives the electromagnetic lower-band chorus; the gap at \~ Ωe/2 is a natural consequence of the growth of two whistler modes with different properties.

Fu, Xiangrong; Cowee, Misa; Friedel, Reinhard; Funsten, Herbert; Gary, Peter; Hospodarsky, George; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Larsen, Brian; Liu, Kaijun; MacDonald, Elizabeth; Min, Kyungguk; Reeves, Geoffrey; Skoug, Ruth; Winske, Dan;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020364

Chorus; HOPE; particle-in-cell simulation; Van Allen Probes