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2019 
Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves can play an important role in the evolution of the inner magnetosphere. However, there is still not an effective method to quantitatively identify such waves for observations of the Van Allen Probes reasonably. In this paper, we used Van Allen Probes data from 18 September 2012 to 30 September 2014 to find a more comprehensive automatic detection algorithm for fast MS waves through statistical analysis of the major properties, including the planarity, ellipticity, and wave normal angle of whole fluctuations using the singular value decomposition method. According to a control variate method, we find an obvious difference between fast MS waves and other waves in the statistical distribution of their major properties. After eliminating the influence of background noises, by excluding fluctuations at L < 1.8, we set up an automatic detection algorithm applied to fast MS waves, that is, smaller than 0.2 for the absolute value of wave ellipticity, larger than 70\textdegree for the wave normal angle, with frequency range of 2 Hz to 1.5 fLHR (fLHR is the local lower hybrid resonance frequency). Finally, we have checked the planarity to verify availability of this method and tested this completely automatic method on the Van Allen Probes data and found some results consistent with previous studies. Inside the plasmapause, we found that there is a more obviously favorable occurrence of MS waves at dusk sector with increasing magnetic latitudes. Yuan, Zhigang; Yao, Fei; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Ouyang, Zhihai; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: Apr052021 YEAR: 2019 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026387 ellipticity; magnetosonic wave; normalized distribution; planarity; Van Allen Probes; wave normal angle 
Quenching of Equatorial Magnetosonic Waves by Substorm Proton Injections Near equatorial (fast) magnetosonic waves, characterized by high magnetic compressibility, are whistlermode emissions destabilized by proton shell/ring distributions. In the past, substorm proton injections are widely known to intensify magnetosonic waves in the inner magnetosphere. Here we report the unexpected observations by the Van Allen Probes of the magnetosonic wave quenching associated with the substorm proton injections under both high and lowdensity conditions. The enhanced proton thermal pressure distorted the background magnetic field configuration and the cold plasma density distribution. The reduced phase velocities locally allowed the weak growth or even damping of magnetosonic waves. Meanwhile, the spatially irregularly varying refractive indices might suppress the cumulative growth of magnetosonic waves. For intense injections, this wave quenching region could extend over 2 hr in magnetic local time and 0.5 Earth radii in radial distance. These results provide a new understanding of the generation and distribution of magnetosonic waves. Dai, Guyue; Su, Zhenpeng; Liu, Nigang; Wang, Bin; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 05/2019 YEAR: 2019 DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082944 Bernstein mode instability; magnetosonic wave; Radiation belt; ring current; substorm injection; Van Allen Probes; Waveparticle interaction 
2018 
Magnetosonic waves play a potentially important role in the complex evolution of the radiation belt electrons. These waves typically appear as discrete emission lines along the proton gyrofrequency harmonics, consistent with the prediction of the local Bernstein mode instability of hot proton ring distributions. Magnetosonic waves are nearly dispersionless particularly at low harmonics and therefore have the roughly unchanged frequencytime structures during the propagation. On the basis of Van Allen Probes observations, we here present the first report of magnetosonic harmonic falling and rising frequency emissions. They lasted for up to 2 h and occurred primarily in the dayside plasmatrough following intense substorms. These harmonic emission lines were well spaced by the proton gyrofrequency but exhibited a clear falling (rising) frequency characteristic in a regime with the temporal increase (decrease) of the proton gyrofrequency harmonics. Such unexpected structures might be produced by the nonlinear interactions between the locally generated magnetosonic waves at the proton gyrofrequency harmonics and a constant frequency magnetosonic wave propagating away from the Earth. Liu, Nigang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 07/2018 YEAR: 2018 DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079232 Bernstein mode instability; magnetosonic wave; Radiation belt; ring current; rising/falling frequency; Van Allen Probes; wave propagation 
The effect of the plasmapause on equatorially radially propagating fast magnetosonic (MS) waves in the Earth\textquoterights dipole magnetic field is studied by using finite difference time domain method. We run 1D simulation for three different density profiles: (1) no plasmapause, (2) with a plasmapause, and (3) with a plasmapause accompanied with finescale density irregularity. We find that (1) without plasmapause the radially inward propagating MS wave can reach ionosphere and continuously propagate to lower altitude if no damping mechanism is considered. The wave properties follow the cold plasma dispersion relation locally along its trajectory. (2) For simulation with a plasmapause with a scale length of 0.006 RE compared to wavelength, only a small fraction of the MS wave power is reflected by the plasmapause. WKB approximation is generally valid for such plasmapause. (3) The multiple finescale density irregularities near the outer edge of plasmapause can effectively block the MS wave propagation, resulting in a terminating boundary for MS waves near the plasmapause. Liu, Xu; Chen, Lunjin; Yang, Lixia; Xia, Zhiyang; Malaspina, David; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 01/2018 YEAR: 2018 DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024336 finescale density structure; finite difference time domain; magnetosonic wave; Plasmapause; Van Allen Probes 
2017 
The Radiation Belt Electron Scattering by Magnetosonic Wave: Dependence on Key Parameters Magnetosonic (MS) waves have been found capable of creating radiation belt electron butterfly distributions in the inner magnetosphere. To investigate the physical nature of the interactions between radiation belt electrons and MS waves, and to explore a preferential condition for MS waves to scatter electrons efficiently, we performed a comprehensive parametric study of MS waveelectron interactions using test particle simulations. The diffusion coefficients simulated by varying the MS wave frequency show that the scattering effect of MS waves is frequency insensitive at low harmonics (f < 20 fcp), which has great implications on modeling the electron scattering caused by MS waves with harmonic structures. The electron scattering caused by MS waves is very sensitive to wave normal angles, and MS waves with off 90\textdegree wave normal angles scatter electrons more efficiently. By simulating the diffusion coefficients and the electron phase space density evolution at different L shells under different plasma environment circumstances, we find that MS waves can readily produce electron butterfly distributions in the inner part of the plasmasphere where the ratio of electron plasmatogyrofrequency (fpe/fce) is large, while they may essentially form a twopeak distribution outside the plasmapause and in the inner radiation belt where fpe/fce is small. Lei, Mingda; Xie, Lun; Li, Jinxing; Pu, Zuyin; Fu, Suiyan; Ni, Binbin; Hua, Man; Chen, Lunjin; Li, Wen; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 12/2017 YEAR: 2017 DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023801 magnetosonic wave; parametric study; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; Waveparticle interaction 
Energetic (hundreds of keV) electrons in the radiation belt slot region have been found to exhibit the butterfly pitch angle distributions. Resonant interactions with magnetosonic and whistlermode waves are two potential mechanisms for the formation of these peculiar distributions. Here we perform a statistical study of energetic electron pitch angle distribution characteristics measured by Van Allen Probes in the slot region during a threeyear period from May 2013 to May 2016. Our results show that electron butterfly distributions are closely related to magnetosonic waves rather than to whistlermode waves. Both electron butterfly distributions and magnetosonic waves occur more frequently at the geomagnetically active times than at the quiet times. In a statistical sense, more distinct butterfly distributions usually correspond to magnetosonic waves with larger amplitudes and vice versa. The averaged magnetosonic wave amplitude is less than 5 pT in the case of normal and flattop distributions with a butterfly index BI = 1 but reaches \~ 35\textendash95 pT in the case of distinct butterfly distributions with BI > 1.3. For magnetosonic waves with amplitudes >50 pT, the occurrence rate of butterfly distribution is above 80\%. Our study suggests that energetic electron butterfly distributions in the slot region are primarily caused by magnetosonic waves. Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Funsten, H.; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 03/2017 YEAR: 2017 DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073116 butterfly distributions; Electron acceleration; Landau resonance; magnetosonic wave; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; Waveparticle interaction 
An interesting form of \textquotedblleftzipperlike\textquotedblright magnetosonic waves consisting of two bands of interleaved periodic risingtone spectra was newly observed by the Van Allen Probes, the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), and the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) missions. The two discrete bands are distinct in frequency and intensity; however, they maintain the same periodicity which varies in space and time, suggesting that they possibly originate from one single source intrinsically. In one event, the zipperlike magnetosonic waves exhibit the same periodicity as a constantfrequency magnetosonic wave and an electrostatic emission, but the modulation comes from neither density fluctuations nor ULF waves. A statistical survey based on 3.5 years of multisatellite observations shows that zipperlike magnetosonic waves mainly occur on the dawnside to noonside, in a frequency range between 10 fcp and fLHR. The zipperlike magnetosonic waves may provide a new clue to nonlinear excitation or modulation process, while its cause still remains to be fully understood. Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.; Breneman, A.; Thaller, S.; Funsten, H.; Mitchell, D.; Manweiler, J.; Torbert, R.; Le Contel, O.; Ergun, R.; Lindqvist, P.A.; Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Andriopoulou, M.; Russell, C.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 01/2017 YEAR: 2017 DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023536 magnetosonic wave; Radiation belt; risingtone; Van Allen Probes; zipperlike 
2014 
Excitation of nightside magnetosonic waves observed by Van Allen Probes During the recovery phase of the geomagnetic storm on 3031 March 2013, Van Allen Probe A detected enhanced magnetosonic (MS) waves in a broad range of L =1.84.7 and MLT =1722 h, with a frequency range ~10100 Hz. In the meanwhile, distinct proton ring distributions with peaks at energies of ~10 keV, were also observed in L =3.24.6 and L =5.05.6. Using a subtracted biMaxwellian distribution to model the observed proton ring distribution, we perform three dimensional ray tracing to investigate the instability, propagation and spatial distribution of MS waves. Numerical results show that nightside MS waves are produced by proton ring distribution and grow rapidly from the source location L =5.6 to the location L =5.0, but remain nearly stable at locations L <5.0 Moreover, waves launched toward lower Lshells with different initial azimuthal angles propagate across different MLT regions with divergent paths at first, then gradually turn back toward higher Lshells and propagate across different MLT regions with convergent paths. The current results further reveal that MS waves are generated by a ring distribution of ~10 keV proton and proton ring in one region can contribute to the MS wave power in another region. Zhou, Qinghua; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Wygant, J.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 11/2014 YEAR: 2014 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020481 magnetosonic wave; RBSP results; Van Allen Probes; Waveparticle interaction 
First observation of risingtone magnetosonic waves Magnetosonic (MS) waves are linearly polarized emissions confined near the magnetic equator with wave normal angle near 90\textdegree and frequency below the lower hybrid frequency. Such waves, also termed equatorial noise, were traditionally known to be \textquotedbllefttemporally continuous\textquotedblright in their timefrequency spectrogram. Here we show for the first time that MS waves actually have discrete wave elements with risingtone features in their spectrogram. The frequency sweep rate of MS waves, ~1 Hz/s, is between that of chorus and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. For the two events we analyzed, MS waves occur outside the plasmapause and cannot penetrate into the plasmasphere; their power is smaller than that of chorus. We suggest that the risingtone feature of MS waves is a consequence of nonlinear waveparticle interaction, as is the case with chorus and EMIC waves. Fu, H.; Cao, J.; Zhima, Z.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; ik, O.; Omura, Y.; Taubenschuss, U.; Chen, L.; Huang, S; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 11/2014 YEAR: 2014 DOI: 10.1002/grl.v41.2110.1002/2014GL061867 discrete; frequency sweep rate; magnetosonic wave; nonlinear waveparticle interaction; Plasmapause; rising tone 
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