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Found 6 entries in the Bibliography.

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On the estimation of the ratio of ULF wave electric fields in space and the magnetic fields at the ground.

Abstract Three new methods for estimating a ratio of the ultra-low frequency (ULF; 1–100 mHz) wave equatorial electric field amplitude in the Earth’s magnetosphere to ground magnetic field amplitudes for field line resonances are described. These methods use ratios of the time series extrema, ratios of the envelope waveform and the ratio of the spectral amplitude at the field line resonance frequency. These methods were applied to four ULF resonance intervals; three detected by the Van Allen Probe A spacecraft and one detected by the POLAR spacecraft. The intervals were conjoined with the CARISMA and IMAGE ground magnetometer arrays. The spectral ratio results for the Van Allen Probe intervals were approximately twice to three times the ratios estimated from the two time series based methods. The POLAR interval showed similar values across all three methods. The differences are attributed to broad-band frequency signals that modify the time series amplitudes, while the spectral method avoids these off-resonant frequencies. Based on the results of this study, a spectral based method for calculating the ratio at the field line resonance frequency is best.

Warden, L.; Waters, C.; Sciffer, M.; Hull, A.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

remote sensing; ULF plasma waves; Van Allen Probes; estimation; equatorial electric fields


Correlations Between Dispersive Alfvén Wave Activity, Electron Energization, and Ion Outflow in the Inner Magnetosphere

Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes, we show that field-aligned fluxes of electrons energized by dispersive Alfvén waves (DAWs) are prominent in the inner magnetosphere during active conditions. These electrons have preferentially field-aligned anisotropies from 1.2 to >2 at energies ranging from tens of electron volts to several kiloelectron volts (keV), with largest values being coincident with magnetic field dipolarizations. Comparisons reveal that DAW energy densities and Poynting fluxes are strongly correlated with precipitating electron energies and energy fluxes and also O+ ion outflow energies. These observations yield empirical inner magnetosphere relations between the DAW and electron inputs and the O+ ion outflow response, providing important constraints for models. They also suggest that DAWs play an important role in enhancing field-aligned electron input into the ionosphere that facilitates the outflow and subsequent energization of O+ ions in the wave fields into the inner magnetosphere.

Hull, A.; Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; Damiano, P.; Wygant, J.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

dispersive Alfvén waves; field-aligned electrons; inner magnetosphere; oxygen ion outflow; Geomagnetic storms; substorms; Van Allen Probes

Episodic Occurrence of Field-Aligned Energetic Ions on the Dayside

The tens of kiloelectron volt ions observed in the ring current region at L ~ 3\textendash7 generally have pancake pitch angle distributions, that is, peaked at 90\textdegree. However, in this study, by using the Van Allen Probe observations on the dayside, unexpectedly, we have found that about 5\% time, protons with energies of ~30 to 50 keV show two distinct populations, having an additional field-aligned population overlapping with the original pancake population. The newly appearing field-aligned populations have higher occurrence rates at ~12\textendash16 magnetic local time during geomagnetically active times. In particular, we have studied eight such events in detail and found that the source regions are located around 12 to 18 magnetic local time which coincides with our statistical result. Based on the ionospheric and geosynchronous observations, it is suggested that these energetic ions with field-aligned pitch angle distributions probably are accelerated near postnoon in association with ionospheric disturbances that are triggered by tail injections.

Yue, Chao; Bortnik, Jacob; Zou, Shasha; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Foster, John; Coppeans, Thomas; Ma, Qianli; Zong, Qiugang; Hull, A.; Henderson, Mike; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 01/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL086384

Van Allen Probes


Electron Distributions in Kinetic Scale Field Line Resonances: A Comparison of Simulations and Observations

Observations in kinetic scale field line resonances, or eigenmodes of the geomagnetic field, reveal highly field-aligned plateaued electron distributions. By combining observations from the Van Allen Probes and Cluster spacecraft with a hybrid kinetic gyrofluid simulation we show how these distributions arise from the nonlocal self-consistent interaction of electrons with the wavefield. This interaction is manifested as electron trapping in the standing wave potential. The process operates along most of the field line and qualitatively accounts for electron observations near the equatorial plane and at higher latitudes. In conjunction with the highly field-aligned plateaus, loss cone features are also evident, which result from the action of the upward-directed wave parallel electric field on the untrapped electron populations.

Damiano, P.A.; Chaston, C.C.; Hull, A.J.; Johnson, J.R.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077748

Alfven waves; field line resonances; kinetic effects; numerical modeling; particle trapping; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Reply to Comment by Nishimura Et Al.

Nishimura et al. (2010,, 2011,, 2013,, and in their comment, hereafter called N18) have suggested that chorus waves interact with equatorial electrons to produce pulsating auroras. We agree that chorus can scatter electrons >10 keV, as do Time Domain Structures (TDSs). Lower-energy electrons occurring in pulsating auroras cannot be produced by chorus, but such electrons are scattered and accelerated by TDS. TDSs often occur with chorus and have power in their spectra at chorus frequencies. Thus, the absence of power at low frequencies is not evidence that TDSs are absent, as an example shows. Through examination of equatorial electric field waveforms and electron pitch angle distributions measured on the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites (in place of examining field and particle spectra, as done by Nishimura et al.), we show that chorus cannot produce the field-aligned electrons associated with pulsating auroras in the Nishimura et al. (2010, events, but TDSs can. Equatorial field-aligned electron distributions associated with pulsating auroras and created by TDS in the absence of chorus or any other wave at the equator are also shown.

Mozer, F.; Hull, A.; Lejosne, S.; Vasko, I;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2018JA025218

chorus cannot precipitate electrons observed in pulsating auroras; time domain structures cause electron precipitation in pulsating auroras; Van Allen Probes


Pulsating auroras produced by interactions of electrons and time domain structures

Previous evidence has suggested that either lower band chorus waves or kinetic Alfven waves scatter equatorial kilovolt electrons that propagate to lower altitudes where they precipitate or undergo further low-altitude scattering to make pulsating auroras. Recently, time domain structures (TDSs) were shown, both theoretically and experimentally, to efficiently scatter equatorial electrons. To assess the relative importance of these three mechanisms for production of pulsating auroras, 11 intervals of equatorial THEMIS data and a 4 h interval of Van Allen Probe measurements have been analyzed. During these events, lower band chorus waves produced only negligible modifications of the equatorial electron distributions. During the several TDS events, the equatorial 0.1\textendash3 keV electrons became magnetic field-aligned. Kinetic Alfven waves may also have had a small electron scattering effect. The conclusion of these studies is that time domain structures caused the most important equatorial scattering of ~1 keV electrons toward the loss cone to provide the main electron contribution to pulsating auroras. Chorus wave scattering may have provided part of the highest energy (>10 keV) electrons in such auroras.

Mozer, F.; Agapitov, O.; Hull, A.; Lejosne, S.; Vasko, I;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024223

pulsating auroras; Van Allen Probes; wave scattering