• Clicking on the title will open a new window with all details of the bibliographic entry.
  • Clicking on the DOI link will open a new window with the original bibliographic entry from the publisher.
  • Clicking on a single author will show all publications by the selected author.
  • Clicking on a single keyword, will show all publications by the selected keyword.

Found 2 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 2


Initial Results From the GEM Challenge on the Spacecraft Surface Charging Environment

Spacecraft surface charging during geomagnetically disturbed times is one of the most important causes of satellite anomalies. Predicting the surface charging environment is one prevalent task of the geospace environment models. Therefore, the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Focus Group \textquotedblleftInner Magnetosphere Cross-energy/Population Interactions\textquotedblright initiated a community-wide challenge study to assess the capability of several inner magnetosphere ring current models in determining surface charging environment for the Van Allen Probes orbits during the 17 March 2013 storm event. The integrated electron flux between 10 and 50 keV is used as the metrics. Various skill scores are applied to quantitatively measure the modeling performance against observations. Results indicate that no model consistently perform the best in all of the skill scores or for both satellites. We find that from these simulations the ring current model with observational flux boundary condition and Weimer electric potential driver generally reproduces the most realistic flux level around the spacecraft. A simple and weaker Volland-Stern electric field is not capable of effectively transporting the same plasma at the boundary toward the Earth. On the other hand, if the ring current model solves the electric field self-consistently and obtains similar strength and pattern in the equatorial plane as the Weimer model, the boundary condition plays another crucial role in determining the electron flux level in the inner region. When the boundary flux spectra based on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model/empirical model deviate from the shape or magnitude of the observed distribution function, the simulation produces poor skill scores along Van Allen Probes orbits.

Yu, Yiqun; ätter, Lutz; Jordanova, Vania; Zheng, Yihua; Engel, Miles; Fok, Mei-Ching; Kuznetsova, Maria;

Published by: Space Weather      Published on: 02/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018SW002031

GEM challenge; IMCEPI Focus Group; ring current model assessment; Space weather; spacecraft surface charging; Van Allen Probes


Particle fluxes in the outer geomagnetic field

The outer geomagnetic field comprises the outer radiation belt, consisting of electrons with energies of 104\textendash107 ev, and the unstable radiation zone. The outer radiation belt is bounded on its inner side by a gap, which is at various times located at a distance of 2.2\textendash3.5 RE and in which a considerable precipitation of electrons from radiation belts occurs, possibly owing to a high intensity of electromagnetic waves. The boundary separating the outer radiation belt from the unstable radiation zone is at λ \~ 71\textdegree and \~9 RE in the equatorial plane on the sunlit side, and at 7\textendash8 RE in the equatorial plane on the nightside. Beyond this, the unstable radiation zone extends out to the magnetosphere boundary and up to λ \~ 77\textdegree on the sunlit side, and out to 14\textendash15 RE on the nightside. The relatively rapid electron intensity variations with periods of 1\textendash7 days are essentially absent at distances less than that of the outer belt but are distinctly seen in the outer belt. In the unstable radiation zone the intensity of electrons with energies of the order of 105 ev changes by several times, and good correlation is observed with the increase in Kp. Analysis of the outer belt data shows that this belt is formed partly by electron diffusion into the magnetosphere (like the belt of protons with energies of 105\textendash107 ev) and partly by the simultaneous acceleration of electrons at various distances from the earth. A comparison of electron intensity changes with the solar activity cycle shows little or no correlation for electrons with Ee > 40 kev. The intensity of electrons with Ee > 500 kev has changed significantly; in 1964 it was 30 times lower than in 1959. The absence of significant dependence of the diffusion coefficients for electrons with E \~ 104\textendash105 ev on the phase of the solar activity cycle shows that the relatively weak magnetic disturbances that do not change with the phase of the cycle are of major importance in diffusion. This suggests that these magnetic disturbances appear at great distances from the sun because of the instabilities of plasma itself and, therefore, that they depend little on solar activity.

Vernov, S.; Gorchakov, E.; Kuznetsov, S.; Logachev, Yu.; Sosnovets, E.; Stolpovsky, V.;

Published by: Reviews of Geophysics      Published on: 02/1969

YEAR: 1969     DOI: 10.1029/RG007i001p00257

Radial Transport