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Found 29 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 29


Simulating the Ion Precipitation From the Inner Magnetosphere by H-Band and He-Band Electro Magnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

Abstract During geomagnetic storms, magnetospheric wave activity drives the ion precipitation which can become an important source of energy flux into the ionosphere and strongly affect the dynamics of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. In this study, we investigate the role of Electro Magnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves in causing ion precipitation into the ionosphere using simulations from the RAM-SCBE model with and without EMIC waves included. The global distribution of H-band and He-band EMIC wave intensity in the model is based on three different EMIC wave models statistically derived from satellite measurements. Comparisons among the simulations and with observations suggest that the EMIC wave model based on recent Van Allen Probes observations is the best in reproducing the realistic ion precipitation into the ionosphere. Specifically, the maximum precipitating proton fluxes appear at L = 4–5 in the afternoon-to-night sector which is in good agreement with statistical results, and the temporal evolution of integrated proton energy fluxes at auroral latitudes is consistent with earlier studies of the stormtime precipitating proton energy fluxes and vary in close relation to the SYM-H index. Besides, the simulations with this wave model can account for the enhanced precipitation of < 20 keV proton energy fluxes at regions closer to Earth (L < 5) as measured by NOAA/POES satellites, and reproduce reasonably well the intensity of <30 keV proton energy fluxes measured by DMSP satellites. It is suggested that the inclusion of H-band EMIC waves improves the intensity of precipitation in the model leading to better agreement with the NOAA/POES data.

Shreedevi, P.; Yu, Yiqun; Ni, Binbin; Saikin, Anthony; Jordanova, Vania;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

EMIC waves; Geomagnetic storms; proton precipitation; ring current modeling; MI coupling; wave particle interaction; Van Allen Probes


Study of spatiotemporal development of global distribution of magnetospheric ELF/VLF waves using ground-based and satellite observations, and RAM-SCB simulations, for the March and November 2017 storms

Magnetospheric ELF/VLF waves have an important role in the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere through wave-particle interaction. It is necessary to understand the spatiotemporal development of magnetospheric ELF/VLF waves to quantitatively estimate this effect of wave-particle interaction, a global process not yet well understood. We investigated spatiotemporal development of magnetospheric ELF/VLF waves using 6 PWING ground-based stations at subauroral latitudes, ERG and RBSP satellites, POES/MetOp satellites, and the RAM-SCB model, focusing on the March and November 2017 storms driven by corotating interaction regions in the solar wind. Our results show that the ELF/VLF waves are enhanced over a longitudinal extent from midnight to morning and dayside associated with substorm electron injections. In the main to early storm recovery phase, we observe continuous ELF/VLF waves from ∼0 to ∼12 MLT in the dawn sector. This wide extent seems to be caused by frequent occurrence of substorms. The wave region expands eastward in association with the drift of source electrons injected by substorms from the nightside. We also observed dayside ELF/VLF wave enhancement, possibly driven by magnetospheric compression by solar wind, over an MLT extent of at least 5 hours. Ground observations tend not to observe ELF/VLF waves in the post-midnight sector, although other methods clearly show the existence of waves. This is possibly due to Landau damping of the waves, the absence of the plasma density duct structure, and/or enhanced auroral ionization of the ionosphere in the post-midnight sector.

Takeshita, Yuhei; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Oyama, Shin-Ichiro; Connors, Martin; Manninen, Jyrki; Jordanova, Vania; Baishev, Dmitry; Oinats, Alexey; Kurkin, Vladimir;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

ELF/VLF wave; Arase; Van Allen Probes; PWING; RAM-SCB simulation; subauroral latitudes

Global Simulation of Electron Cyclotron Harmonic Wave Instability in a Storm-Time Magnetosphere

Abstract Electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves are electrostatic emissions between the ECHs and play a dominant role for precipitating energetic electrons in the magnetotail. Statistically, the ECH wave intensity is stronger at nightside and dawnside than at dayside and duskside. In this study, we, for the first time, simulate the global ECH wave evolution during a geomagnetic storm event using Ring current Atmosphere interactions Model with Self-Consistent Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) combined with a linear growth rate solver. We find that the simulation results are generally consistent with the statistical and real-time observations. The ECH wave instability is much stronger at nightside and dawnside, compared to the instability at dayside and duskside. Before a geomagnetic storm (quiet time), the unstable regions of the ECH waves lie beyond with a weak instability level. During the main phase of a geomagnetic storm, the unstable regions can extend to a lower altitude ( ) with a strong instability level. During the recovery phase, the unstable regions return to . We also find that the inner boundary of unstable ECH wave regions is coincident with the plasmapause location during the whole geomagnetic storm event.

Liu, Xu; Chen, Lunjin; Engel, Miles; Jordanova, Vania;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

ECH wave global instability; RAM-SCB model; Geomagnetic storm; Van Allen Probes

Space weather effects and prediction

Adverse conditions in the space environment, that is, space weather, can affect the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems. The dynamic near-Earth space environment, driven by solar activity, exhibits large variations of energetic particles, plasma, and electromagnetic fields. Abrupt changes or enhancements in these may cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, and electric power grids, leading to a variety of economic losses and impacts on our security. This chapter describes various space weather effects related to energetic particle populations in the inner magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms. Among the most important of these effects are geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) and spacecraft charging. GICs are due to time varying magnetic fields at the Earth’s surface produced by the spatial and time variable electric currents flowing in the ionosphere and magnetosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. Spacecraft surface charging is due to moderate-energy electrons depositing their charge on spacecraft surfaces and driving potential differences, which can lead to discharges that can damage material and electronics. Spacecraft internal (or “deep dielectric”) charging is due to highly energetic electrons that can penetrate through spacecraft shielding and can damage sensitive subsystems or even cause failure of the entire space system. Recent advances in our understanding of these space weather effects and capabilities for their nowcast and forecast are presented.

Roeder, James; Jordanova, Vania;

Published by: Ring Current Investigations The Quest for Space Weather Prediction      Published on:

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-815571-4.00008-1

spacecraft charging; electrostatic discharges; geomagnetically induced currents; electrical power systems; Van Allen Probes

Ring Current Decay

K.Jordanova, Vania;

Published by: Ring Current Investigations The Quest for Space Weather Prediction      Published on:

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-815571-4.00006-8

collisional losses; wave-particle interactions; Geomagnetic storms; Magnetopause Losses; ring current; field line curvature scattering; Van Allen Probes


Comparison of Electron Loss Models in the Inner Magnetosphere During the 2013~St. Patrick\textquoterights Day Geomagnetic Storm

Electrons with energies in the keV range play an important role in the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. Therefore, accurately modeling electron fluxes in this region is of great interest. However, these calculations constitute a challenging task since the lifetimes of electrons that are available have limitations. In this study, we simulate electron fluxes in the energy range of 20 eV to 100 keV to assess how well different electron loss models can account for the observed electron fluxes during the Geospace Environment Modelling Challenge Event of the 2013 St. Patrick\textquoterights Day storm. Three models (Case 1, Case 2, and Case 3) of electron lifetimes due to wave-induced pitch angle scattering are used to compute the fluxes, which are compared with measurements from the Van Allen Probes. The three models consider electron losses due to interactions with whistler mode hiss waves inside the plasmasphere and with whistler mode chorus waves outside the plasmasphere. The Case 1 (historical) model produces excessive loss at low L shells before and after the storm, suggesting that it overestimates losses due to hiss during quiet times. During the storm main phase and early recovery all three models show good agreement with the observations, indicating that losses due to chorus during disturbed times are, in general, well accounted for by the models. Furthermore, the more recent Case 2 and Case 3 models show overall better agreement with the observed fluxes.

Ferradas, C.; Jordanova, V.; Reeves, G.; Larsen, B.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026649

electron lifetime; electron loss; numerical modeling; pitch angle scattering; Van Allen Probes; Weimer electric field model

Initial Results From the GEM Challenge on the Spacecraft Surface Charging Environment

Spacecraft surface charging during geomagnetically disturbed times is one of the most important causes of satellite anomalies. Predicting the surface charging environment is one prevalent task of the geospace environment models. Therefore, the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Focus Group \textquotedblleftInner Magnetosphere Cross-energy/Population Interactions\textquotedblright initiated a community-wide challenge study to assess the capability of several inner magnetosphere ring current models in determining surface charging environment for the Van Allen Probes orbits during the 17 March 2013 storm event. The integrated electron flux between 10 and 50 keV is used as the metrics. Various skill scores are applied to quantitatively measure the modeling performance against observations. Results indicate that no model consistently perform the best in all of the skill scores or for both satellites. We find that from these simulations the ring current model with observational flux boundary condition and Weimer electric potential driver generally reproduces the most realistic flux level around the spacecraft. A simple and weaker Volland-Stern electric field is not capable of effectively transporting the same plasma at the boundary toward the Earth. On the other hand, if the ring current model solves the electric field self-consistently and obtains similar strength and pattern in the equatorial plane as the Weimer model, the boundary condition plays another crucial role in determining the electron flux level in the inner region. When the boundary flux spectra based on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model/empirical model deviate from the shape or magnitude of the observed distribution function, the simulation produces poor skill scores along Van Allen Probes orbits.

Yu, Yiqun; ätter, Lutz; Jordanova, Vania; Zheng, Yihua; Engel, Miles; Fok, Mei-Ching; Kuznetsova, Maria;

Published by: Space Weather      Published on: 02/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018SW002031

GEM challenge; IMCEPI Focus Group; ring current model assessment; Space weather; spacecraft surface charging; Van Allen Probes


Simulations of Van Allen Probes Plasmaspheric Electron Density Observations

We simulate equatorial plasmaspheric electron densities using a physics-based model (Cold PLasma, CPL; used in the ring current-atmosphere interactions model) of the source and loss processes of refilling and erosion driven by empirical inputs. The performance of CPL is evaluated against in situ measurements by the Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) for two events: the 31 May to 5 June and 15 to 20 January 2013 geomagnetic storms observed in the premidnight and postmidnight magnetic local time (MLT) sectors, respectively. Overall, CPL reproduces the radial extent of the plasmasphere to within a mean absolute difference of urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra54637:jgra54637-math-0001 L. The model electric field responsible for E \texttimes B convection and the parameterization of geomagnetic conditions (under the Kp-index and solar wind properties) implemented by CPL did not account for localized enhancements in the duskward electric field during increased activity. Rather, it was found to be largely dependent on the measure of the quiet time background. This property indicates that the agreement between these simulations and observations does not account for the complete set of physical processes during extreme (strong or weak) geomagnetic conditions impacting the plasmasphere. Nevertheless, at the presented resolution of the model CPL does provide good agreement in reproducing Radiation Belt Storm Probes observations of plasmaspheric density and plasmapause location.

De Pascuale, S.; Jordanova, V.; Goldstein, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Thaller, S.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025776

convection; observations; plasmasphere; RBSP; simulation; Van Allen Probes

Comparing simulated and observed EMIC wave amplitudes using in situ Van Allen Probes\textquoteright measurements

We perform a statistical study calculating electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave amplitudes based off in situ plasma measurements taken by the Van Allen Probes\textquoteright (1.1\textendash5.8 Re) Helium, Oxygen, Proton, Electron (HOPE) instrument. Calculated wave amplitudes are compared to EMIC waves observed by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science on board the Van Allen Probes during the same period. The survey covers a 22-month period (1 November 2012 to 31 August 2014), a full Van Allen Probe magnetic local time (MLT) precession. The linear theory proxy was used to identify EMIC wave events with plasma conditions favorable for EMIC wave excitation. Two hundred and thirty-two EMIC wave events (103 H+-band and 129 He+-band) were selected for this comparison. Nearly all events selected are observed beyond L = 4. Results show that calculated wave amplitudes exclusively using the in situ HOPE measurements produce amplitudes too low compared to the observed EMIC wave amplitudes. Hot proton anisotropy (Ahp) distributions are asymmetric in MLT within the inner (L < 7) magnetosphere with peak (minimum) Ahp, \~0.81 to 1.00 (\~0.62), observed in the dawn (dusk), 0000 < MLT <= 1200 (1200 < MLT <= 2400), sectors. Measurements of Ahp are found to decrease in the presence of EMIC wave activity. Ahp amplification factors are determined and vary with respect to EMIC wave-band and MLT. He+-band events generally require double (quadruple) the measured Ahp for the dawn (dusk) sector to reproduce the observed EMIC wave amplitudes.

Saikin, A.A.; Jordanova, V.K.; Zhang, J.C.; Smith, C.W.; Spence, H.E.; Larsen, B.A.; Reeves, G.D.; Torbert, R.B.; Kletzing, C.A.; Zhelavskaya, I.S.; Shprits, Y.Y.;

Published by: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2018.01.024

EMIC waves Van Allen Probes Linear theory Wave generation; Van Allen Probes


The Evolution of the Plasma Sheet Ion Composition: Storms and Recoveries

The ion plasma sheet (~few hundred eV to ~few 10s keV) is usually dominated by H+ ions. Here, changes in ion composition within the plasma sheet are explored both during individual events, and statistically during 54 calm-to-storm events and during 21 active-to-calm events. Ion composition data from the HOPE (Helium, Oxygen, Proton, Electron) instruments onboard Van Allen Probes satellites provide exceptional spatial and temporal resolution of the H+, O+, and He+ ion fluxes in the plasma sheet. H+ shown to be the dominant ion in the plasma sheet in the calm-to-storm transition. However, the energy-flux of each ion changes in a quasi-linear manner during extended calm intervals. Heavy ions (O+ and He+) become increasingly important during such periods as charge-exchange reactions result in faster loss for H+ than for O+ or He+. Results confirm previous investigations showing that the ion composition of the plasma sheet can be largely understood (and predicted) during calm intervals from knowledge of: (a) the composition of previously injected plasma at the onset of calm conditions, and (b) use of simple drift-physics models combined with calculations of charge-exchange losses.

Denton, M.; Thomsen, M.; Reeves, G.; Larsen, B.; Henderson, M.; Jordanova, V.; Fernandes, P.; Friedel, R.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; MacDonald, E.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024475

plasma sheet; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observations of structured whistler mode activity and coincident electron Landau acceleration inside a remnant plasmaspheric plume

We present observations from the Van Allen Probes spacecraft that identify a region of intense whistler mode activity within a large density enhancement outside of the plasmasphere. We speculate that this density enhancement is part of a remnant plasmaspheric plume, with the observed wave being driven by a weakly anisotropic electron injection that drifted into the plume and became nonlinearly unstable to whistler emission. Particle measurements indicate that a significant fraction of thermal (<100 eV) electrons within the plume were subject to Landau acceleration by these waves, an effect that is naturally explained by whistler emission within a gradient and high-density ducting inside a density enhancement.

Woodroffe, J.; Jordanova, V.; Funsten, H.; Streltsov, A.; Bengtson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.; Thaller, S.; Breneman, A.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022219

Ducting; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions; Whistlers

Van Allen Probes Observations of Structured Whistler-mode Activity and Coincident Electron Landau Acceleration Inside a Remnant Plasmaspheric Plume

We present observations from the Van Allen Probes spacecraft that identify an region of intense whistler-mode activity within a large density enhancement outside of the plasmasphere. We speculate that this density enhancement is part of a remnant plasmaspheric plume, with the observed wave being driven by a weakly anisotropic electron injection that drifted into the plume and became non-linearly unstable to whistler emission. Particle measurements indicate that a significant fraction of thermal (<100 eV) electrons within the plume were subject to Landau acceleration by these waves, an effect that is naturally explained by whistler emission within a gradient and high-density ducting inside a density enhancement.

Woodroffe, J.; Jordanova, V.; Funsten, H.; Streltsov, A.; Bengtson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.; Thaller, S.; Breneman, A.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022219

Ducting; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions; Whistlers


Ring Current Pressure Estimation with RAM-SCB using Data Assimilation and Van Allen Probe Flux Data

Capturing and subsequently modeling the influence of tail plasma injections on the inner magnetosphere is important for understanding the formation and evolution of the ring current. In this study, the ring current distribution is estimated with the Ring Current-Atmosphere Interactions Model with Self-Consistent Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) using, for the first time, data assimilation techniques and particle flux data from the Van Allen Probes. The state of the ring current within the RAM-SCB model is corrected via an ensemble based data assimilation technique by using proton flux from one of the Van Allen Probes, to capture the enhancement of the ring current following an isolated substorm event on July 18, 2013. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of the ring current particle distributions in the RAM-SCB model, leading to better agreement with observations. This newly implemented data assimilation technique in the global modeling of the ring current thus provides a promising tool to improve the characterization of particle distribution in the near-Earth regions.

Godinez, Humberto; Yu, Yiqun; Lawrence, Eric; Henderson, Michael; Larsen, Brian; Jordanova, Vania;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 11/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071646

data assimilation; ring current; Van Allen Probes

A new ionospheric electron precipitation module coupled with RAM-SCB within the geospace general circulation model

Electron precipitation down to the atmosphere due to wave-particle scattering in the magnetosphere contributes significantly to the auroral ionospheric conductivity. In order to obtain the auroral conductivity in global MHD models that are incapable of capturing kinetic physics in the magnetosphere, MHD parameters are often used to estimate electron precipitation flux for the conductivity calculation. Such an MHD approach, however, lacks self-consistency in representing the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. In this study we improve the coupling processes in global models with a more physical method. We calculate the physics-based electron precipitation from the ring current and map it to the ionospheric altitude for solving the ionospheric electrodynamics. In particular, we use the BATS-R-US (Block Adaptive Tree Scheme-Roe type-Upstream) MHD model coupled with the kinetic ring current model RAM-SCB (Ring current-Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistent Magnetic field (B)) that solves pitch angle-dependent electron distribution functions, to study the global circulation dynamics during the 25\textendash26 January 2013 storm event. Since the electron precipitation loss is mostly governed by wave-particle resonant scattering in the magnetosphere, we further investigate two loss methods of specifying electron precipitation loss associated with wave-particle interactions: (1) using pitch angle diffusion coefficients Dαα(E,α) determined from the quasi-linear theory, with wave spectral and plasma density obtained from statistical observations (named as \textquotedblleftdiffusion coefficient method\textquotedblright) and (2) using electron lifetimes τ(E) independent on pitch angles inferred from the above diffusion coefficients (named as \textquotedblleftlifetime method\textquotedblright). We found that both loss methods demonstrate similar temporal evolution of the trapped ring current electrons, indicating that the impact of using different kinds of loss rates is small on the trapped electron population. However, for the precipitated electrons, the lifetime method hardly captures any precipitation in the large L shell (i.e., 4 < L < 6.5) region, while the diffusion coefficient method produces much better agreement with NOAA/POES measurements, including the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of electron precipitation in the region from the premidnight through the dawn to the dayside. Further comparisons of the precipitation energy flux to DMSP observations indicates that the new physics-based precipitation approach using diffusion coefficients for the ring current electron loss can explain the diffuse electron precipitation in the dawn sector, such as the enhanced precipitation flux at auroral latitudes and flux drop near the subauroral latitudes, but the traditional MHD approach largely overestimates the precipitation flux at lower latitudes.

Yu, Yiqun; Jordanova, Vania; Ridley, Aaron; Albert, Jay; Horne, Richard; Jeffery, Christopher;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022585

Diffusion Coefficient; electron lifetime; electron precipitation; ionospheric conductivity; MI coupling; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

RAM-SCB simulations of electron transport and plasma wave scattering during the October 2012 \textquotedblleftdouble-dip\textquotedblright storm

Mechanisms for electron injection, trapping, and loss in the near-Earth space environment are investigated during the October 2012 \textquotedblleftdouble-dip\textquotedblright storm using our ring current-atmosphere interactions model with self-consistent magnetic field (RAM-SCB). Pitch angle and energy scattering are included for the first time in RAM-SCB using L and magnetic local time (MLT)-dependent event-specific chorus wave models inferred from NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and Van Allen Probes Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science observations. The dynamics of the source (approximately tens of keV) and seed (approximately hundreds of keV) populations of the radiation belts simulated with RAM-SCB is compared with Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer observations in the morning sector and with measurements from NOAA 15 satellite in the predawn and afternoon MLT sectors. We find that although the low-energy (E< 100 keV) electron fluxes are in good agreement with observations, increasing significantly by magnetospheric convection during both SYM-H dips while decreasing during the intermediate recovery phase, the injection of high-energy electrons is underestimated by this mechanism throughout the storm. Local acceleration by chorus waves intensifies the electron fluxes at E>=50 keV considerably, and RAM-SCB simulations overestimate the observed trapped fluxes by more than an order of magnitude; the precipitating fluxes simulated with RAM-SCB are weaker, and their temporal and spatial evolutions agree well with POES/Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detectors data.

Jordanova, V.; Tu, W.; Chen, Y.; Morley, S.; Panaitescu, A.-D.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022470

Geomagnetic storms; inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

Fast modulations of pulsating proton aurora related to subpacket structures of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations at subauroral latitudes

To understand the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in determining the temporal features of pulsating proton aurora (PPA) via wave-particle interactions at subauroral latitudes, high-time-resolution (1/8 s) images of proton-induced N2+ emissions were recorded using a new electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera, along with related Pc1 pulsations on the ground. The observed Pc1 pulsations consisted of successive rising-tone elements with a spacing for each element of 100 s and subpacket structures, which manifest as amplitude modulations with a period of a few tens of seconds. In accordance with the temporal features of the Pc1 pulsations, the auroral intensity showed a similar repetition period of 100 s and an unpredicted fast modulation of a few tens of seconds. These results indicate that PPA is generated by pitch angle scattering, nonlinearly interacting with Pc1/EMIC waves at the magnetic equator.

Ozaki, M.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Yagitani, S.; Inoue, T.; Ebihara, Y.; Jun, C.-W; Nomura, R.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Shoji, M.; Schofield, I.; Connors, M.; Jordanova, V.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070008

fast modulation; Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations; pulsating proton aurora; subpacket structure; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions


The occurrence and wave properties of H + -, He + -, and O + -band EMIC waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

We perform a statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves detected by the Van Allen Probes mission to investigate the spatial distribution of their occurrence, wave power, ellipticity, and normal angle. The Van Allen Probes have been used which allow us to explore the inner magnetosphere (1.1 to 5.8 Re). Magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science onboard the Van Allen Probes are used to identify EMIC wave events for the first 22 months of the mission operation (8 September 2012 \textendash 30 June 2014). EMIC waves are examined in H+-, He+-, and O+-bands. Over 700 EMIC wave events have been identified over the three different wave bands (265 H+-band events, 438 He+-band events, and 68 O+-band events). EMIC wave events are observed between L = 2 \textendash 8, with over 140 EMIC wave events observed below L = 4. Results show that H+-band EMIC waves have two peak MLT occurrence regions: pre-noon (0900 < MLT <= 1200) and afternoon (1500 < MLT <= 1700) sectors. He+-band EMIC waves feature an overall stronger dayside occurrence. O+-band EMIC waves have one peak region located in the morning sector at lower L-shells (L < 4). He+-band EMIC waves average the highest wave power overall (>0.1 nT2/Hz), especially in the afternoon sector. Ellipticity observations reveal that linearly polarized EMIC wave dominate in lower L-shells.

Saikin, A.; Zhang, J.-C.; Allen, R.C.; Smith, C.; Kistler, L.; Spence, H.; Torbert, R.; Kletzing, C.; Jordanova, V.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021358

EMIC waves; Fast Fourier Transform; spatial distribution; Van Allen Probes

A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster: 1. Wave properties

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important mechanism for particle energization and losses inside the magnetosphere. In order to better understand the effects of these waves on particle dynamics, detailed information about the occurrence rate, wave power, ellipticity, normal angle, energy propagation angle distributions, as well as local plasma parameters are required. Previous statistical studies have used in situ observations to investigate the distribution of these parameters in the MLT-L frame within a limited MLAT range. In this study, we present a statistical analysis of EMIC wave properties using ten years (2001\textendash2010) of data from Cluster, totaling 25,431 minutes of wave activity. Due to the polar orbit of Cluster, we are able to investigate EMIC waves at all MLATs and MLTs. This allows us to further investigate the MLAT dependence of various wave properties inside different MLT sectors and further explore the effects of Shabansky orbits on EMIC wave generation and propagation. The statistical analysis is presented in two papers. This paper focuses on the wave occurrence distribution as well as the distribution of wave properties. The companion paper focuses on local plasma parameters during wave observations as well as wave generation proxies.

Allen, R.; Zhang, J.; Kistler, L.; Spence, H.; Lin, R.; Klecker, B.; Dunlop, M.; e, Andr\; Jordanova, V.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021333

Cluster; EMIC waves; Magnetosphere; Shabansky orbits

Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the 17 March 2013 storm

Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyroresonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the 17 March 2013 storm. We consider the Earth\textquoterights magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against nondipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field (RAM-SCB), a code that models the Earth\textquoterights ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth\textquoterights magnetic field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and Magnetic Local Time (MLT)-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed-term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (\~1 MeV) and ring current (\~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyroresonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L=4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the 17 March 2013 storm and for L≲4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth\textquoterights magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.

Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian; Jordanova, Vania;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020858

diffusion coefficients; Radiation belt; ring current

An empirical model of electron and ion fluxes derived from observations at geosynchronous orbit

Knowledge of the plasma fluxes at geosynchronous orbit is important to both scientific and operational investigations. We present a new empirical model of the ion flux and the electron flux at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) in the energy range ~1 eV to ~40 keV. The model is based on a total of 82 satellite years of observations from the magnetospheric plasma analyzer instruments on Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites at GEO. These data are assigned to a fixed grid of 24 local times and 40 energies, at all possible values of Kp. Bilinear interpolation is used between grid points to provide the ion flux and the electron flux values at any energy and local time, and for given values of geomagnetic activity (proxied by the 3 h Kp index), and also for given values of solar activity (proxied by the daily F10.7 index). Initial comparison of the electron flux from the model with data from a Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor II, also located at geosynchronous orbit, indicates a good match during both quiet and disturbed periods. The model is available for distribution as a FORTRAN code that can be modified to suit user requirements.

Denton, M.; Thomsen, M.; Jordanova, V.; Henderson, M.; Borovsky, J.; Denton, J.; Pitchford, D.; Hartley, D.;

Published by: Space Weather      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015SW001168


Modeling sub-auroral polarization streams (SAPS) during the March 17, 2013 storm

The sub-auroral polarization streams (SAPS) are one of the most important features in representing magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art modeling framework that couples an inner magnetospheric ring current model RAM-SCB with a global MHD model BATS-R-US and an ionospheric potential solver to study the SAPS that occurred during the March 17, 2013 storm event as well as to assess the modeling capability. Both ionospheric and magnetospheric signatures associated with SAPS are analyzed to understand the spatial and temporal evolution of the electrodynamics in the mid-latitude regions. Results show that the model captures the SAPS at sub-auroral latitudes, where Region-2 field-aligned currents (FACs) flow down to the ionosphere and the conductance is lower than in the higher-latitude auroral zone. Comparisons to observations such as FACs observed by AMPERE, cross-track ion drift from DMSP, and in-situ electric field observations from the Van Allen Probes indicate that the model generally reproduces the global dynamics of the Region-2 FACs, the position of SAPS along the DMSP, and the location of the SAPS electric field around L of 3.0 in the inner magnetosphere near the equator. While the model demonstrates double westward flow channels in the dusk sector (the higher-latitude auroral convection and the sub-auroral SAPS) and captures the mechanism of the SAPS, the comparison with ion drifts along DMSP trajectories shows an underestimate of the magnitude of the SAPS and the sensitivity to the specific location and time. The comparison of the SAPS electric field with that measured from the Van Allen Probes shows that the simulated SAPS electric field penetrates deeper than in reality, implying that the shielding from the Region-2 FACs in the model is not well represented. Possible solutions in future studies to improve the modeling capability include implementing a self-consistent ionospheric conductivity module from particle precipitation, coupling with the thermosphere-ionosphere chemical processes, and connecting the ionosphere with the inner magnetosphere by the stronger Region-2 FACs calculated in the inner magnetosphere model.

Yu, Yiqun; Jordanova, Vania; Zou, Shasha; Heelis, Roderick; Ruohoniemi, Mike; Wygant, John;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020371

sub-auroral polarization streams; Van Allen Probes


Excitation of EMIC waves detected by the Van Allen Probes on 28 April 2013

We report the wave observations, associated plasma measurements, and linear theory testing of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave events observed by the Van Allen Probes on 28 April 2013. The wave events are detected in their generation regions as three individual events in two consecutive orbits of Van Allen Probe-A, while the other spacecraft, B, does not detect any significant EMIC wave activity during this period. Three overlapping H+ populations are observed around the plasmapause when the waves are excited. The difference between the observational EMIC wave growth parameter (Σh) and the theoretical EMIC instability parameter (Sh) is significantly raised, on average, to 0.10 \textpm 0.01, 0.15 \textpm 0.02, and 0.07 \textpm 0.02 during the three wave events, respectively. On Van Allen Probe-B, this difference never exceeds 0. Compared to linear theory (Σh > Sh), the waves are only excited for elevated thresholds.

Zhang, J.-C.; Saikin, A.; Kistler, L.; Smith, C.; Spence, H.; Mouikis, C.; Torbert, R.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Allen, R.; Jordanova, V.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060621

Van Allen Probes

Simulations of inner magnetosphere dynamics with an expanded RAM-SCB model and comparisons with Van Allen Probes observations

Simulations from our newly expanded ring current-atmosphere interactions model with self-consistent magnetic field (RAM-SCB), now valid out to 9 RE, are compared for the first time with Van Allen Probes observations. The expanded model reproduces the storm time ring current buildup due to the increased convection and inflow of plasma from the magnetotail. It matches Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) observations of the trapped high-energy (>50 keV) ion flux; however, it underestimates the low-energy (<10 keV) Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) observations. The dispersed injections of ring current ions observed with the Energetic particle, Composition, and Thermal plasma (ECT) suite at high (>20 keV) energy are better reproduced using a high-resolution convection model. In agreement with Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) observations, RAM-SCB indicates that the large-scale magnetic field is depressed as close as \~4.5 RE during even a moderate storm. Regions of electromagnetic ion cyclotron instability are predicted on the duskside from \~6 to \~9 RE, indicating that previous studies confined to geosynchronous orbit may have underestimated their scattering effect on the energetic particles.

Jordanova, V.; Yu, Y.; Niehof, J.; Skoug, R.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Fennell, J.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059533

Van Allen Probes

Application and testing of the L * neural network with the self-consistent magnetic field model of RAM-SCB

We expanded our previous work on L* neural networks that used empirical magnetic field models as the underlying models by applying and extending our technique to drift shells calculated from a physics-based magnetic field model. While empirical magnetic field models represent an average, statistical magnetospheric state, the RAM-SCB model, a first-principles magnetically self-consistent code, computes magnetic fields based on fundamental equations of plasma physics. Unlike the previous L* neural networks that include McIlwain L and mirror point magnetic field as part of the inputs, the new L* neural network only requires solar wind conditions and the Dst index, allowing for an easier preparation of input parameters. This new neural network is compared against those previously trained networks and validated by the tracing method in the International Radiation Belt Environment Modeling (IRBEM) library. The accuracy of all L* neural networks with different underlying magnetic field models is evaluated by applying the electron phase space density (PSD)-matching technique derived from the Liouville\textquoterights theorem to the Van Allen Probes observations. Results indicate that the uncertainty in the predicted L* is statistically (75\%) below 0.7 with a median value mostly below 0.2 and the median absolute deviation around 0.15, regardless of the underlying magnetic field model. We found that such an uncertainty in the calculated L* value can shift the peak location of electron phase space density (PSD) profile by 0.2 RE radially but with its shape nearly preserved.

Yu, Yiqun; Koller, Josef; Jordanova, Vania; Zaharia, Sorin; Friedel, Reinhard; Morley, Steven; Chen, Yue; Baker, Daniel; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.310.1002/2013JA019350

Van Allen Probes

The role of ring current particle injections: Global simulations and Van Allen Probes observations during 17 March 2013 storm

We simulate substorm injections observed by the Van Allen Probes during the 17 March 2013 storm using a self-consistent coupling between the ring current model RAM-SCB and the global MHD model BATS-R-US. This is a significant advancement compared to previous studies that used artificially imposed electromagnetic field pulses to mimic substorm dipolarization and associated inductive electric field. Several substorm dipolarizations and injections are reproduced in the MHD model, in agreement with the timing of shape changes in the AE/AL index. The associated inductive electric field transports plasma sheet plasma to geostationary altitudes, providing the boundary plasma source to the ring current model. It is found that impulsive plasma sheet injections, together with a large-scale convection electric field, are necessary to develop a strong ring current. Comparisons with Van Allen Probes observations show that our model reasonably well captures dispersed electron injections and the global Dst index.

Yu, Yiqun; Jordanova, Vania; Welling, Dan; Larsen, Brian; Claudepierre, Seth; Kletzing, Craig;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059322

ring current dynamics; self-consistent treatment of fields and plasma; Substorm Injections; Van Allen Probes


The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on RBSP

The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) investigation on the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (now named the Van Allen Probes) mission provides key wave and very low frequency magnetic field measurements to understand radiation belt acceleration, loss, and transport. The key science objectives and the contribution that EMFISIS makes to providing measurements as well as theory and modeling are described. The key components of the instruments suite, both electronics and sensors, including key functional parameters, calibration, and performance, demonstrate that EMFISIS provides the needed measurements for the science of the RBSP mission. The EMFISIS operational modes and data products, along with online availability and data tools provide the radiation belt science community with one the most complete sets of data ever collected.

Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Acuna, M.; MacDowall, R.; Torbert, R.; Averkamp, T.; Bodet, D.; Bounds, S.; Chutter, M.; Connerney, J.; Crawford, D.; Dolan, J.; Dvorsky, R.; Hospodarsky, G.; Howard, J.; Jordanova, V.; Johnson, R.; Kirchner, D.; Mokrzycki, B.; Needell, G.; Odom, J.; Mark, D.; Pfaff, R.; Phillips, J.; Piker, C.; Remington, S.; Rowland, D.; Santolik, O.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, C.; Thorne, R.; Tyler, J.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9993-6

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Science Goals and Overview of the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) Suite on NASA\textquoterights Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Mission

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)-Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite contains an innovative complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements ever made in the inner magnetosphere and radiation belts. The coordinated RBSP-ECT particle measurements, analyzed in combination with fields and waves observations and state-of-the-art theory and modeling, are necessary for understanding the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions, key science objectives of NASA\textquoterights Living With a Star program and the Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT suite consists of three highly-coordinated instruments: the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) sensor, and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT). Collectively they cover, continuously, the full electron and ion spectra from one eV to 10\textquoterights of MeV with sufficient energy resolution, pitch angle coverage and resolution, and with composition measurements in the critical energy range up to 50 keV and also from a few to 50 MeV/nucleon. All three instruments are based on measurement techniques proven in the radiation belts. The instruments use those proven techniques along with innovative new designs, optimized for operation in the most extreme conditions in order to provide unambiguous separation of ions and electrons and clean energy responses even in the presence of extreme penetrating background environments. The design, fabrication and operation of ECT spaceflight instrumentation in the harsh radiation belt environment ensure that particle measurements have the fidelity needed for closure in answering key mission science questions. ECT instrument details are provided in companion papers in this same issue. In this paper, we describe the science objectives of the RBSP-ECT instrument suite on the Van Allen Probe spacecraft within the context of the overall mission objectives, indicate how the characteristics of the instruments satisfy the requirements to achieve these objectives, provide information about science data collection and dissemination, and conclude with a description of some early mission results.

Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Bolton, M.; Bourdarie, S.; Chan, A.; Claudpierre, S.; Clemmons, J.; Cravens, J.; Elkington, S.; Fennell, J.; Friedel, R.; Funsten, H.; Goldstein, J.; Green, J.; Guthrie, A.; Henderson, M.; Horne, R.; Hudson, M.; Jahn, J.-M.; Jordanova, V.; Kanekal, S.; Klatt, B.; Larsen, B.; Li, X.; MacDonald, E.; Mann, I.R.; Niehof, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Onsager, T.; Salvaggio, D.; Skoug, R.; Smith, S.; Suther, L.; Thomsen, M.; Thorne, R.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-0007-5

RBSP; Van Allen Probes


Modeling ring current ion and electron dynamics and plasma instabilities during a high-speed stream driven storm

1] The temporal and spatial development of the ring current is evaluated during the 23\textendash26 October 2002 high-speed stream (HSS) storm, using a kinetic ring current-atmosphere interactions model with self-consistent magnetic field (RAM-SCB). The effects of nondipolar magnetic field configuration are investigated on both ring current ion and electron dynamics. As the self-consistent magnetic field is depressed at large (>4RE) radial distances on the nightside during the storm main phase, the particles\textquoteright drift velocities increase, the ion and electron fluxes are reduced and the ring current is confined closer to Earth. In contrast to ions, the electron fluxes increase closer to Earth and the fractional electron energy reaches \~20\% near storm peak due to better electron trapping in a nondipolar magnetic field. The ring current contribution to Dst calculated using Biot-Savart integration differs little from the DPS relation except during quiet time. RAM-SCB simulations underestimate |SYM-H| minimum by \~25\% but reproduce very well the storm recovery phase. Increased anisotropies develop in the ion and electron velocity distributions in a self-consistent magnetic field due to energy dependent drifts, losses, and dispersed injections. There is sufficient free energy to excite whistler mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC), and magnetosonic waves in the equatorial magnetosphere. The linear growth rate of whistler mode chorus intensifies in the postmidnight to noon sector, EMIC waves are predominantly excited in the afternoon to midnight sector, and magnetosonic waves are excited over a broad MLT range both inside and outside the plasmasphere. The wave growth rates in a dipolar magnetic field have significantly smaller magnitude and spatial extent.

Jordanova, V.; Welling, D.; Zaharia, S.; Chen, L.; Thorne, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 09/2012

YEAR: 2012     DOI: 10.1029/2011JA017433


Relativistic electron precipitation by EMIC waves from self-consistent global simulations

[1] We study the effect of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave scattering on radiation belt electrons during the large geomagnetic storm of 21 October 2001 with minimum Dst = -187 nT. We use our global physics-based model, which solves the kinetic equation for relativistic electrons and H+, O+, and He+ ions as a function of radial distance in the equatorial plane, magnetic local time, energy, and pitch angle. The model includes time-dependent convective transport and radial diffusion and all major loss processes and is coupled with a dynamic plasmasphere model. We calculate the excitation of EMIC waves self-consistently with the evolving plasma populations. Particle interactions with these waves are evaluated according to quasi-linear theory, using diffusion coefficients for a multicomponent plasma and including not only field-aligned but also oblique EMIC wave propagation. The pitch angle diffusion coefficients increase from 0\textdegree to \~60\textdegree during specific storm conditions. Pitch angle scattering by EMIC waves causes significant loss of radiation belt electrons at E >= 1 MeV and precipitation into the atmosphere. However, the relativistic electron flux dropout during the main phase at large L >= 5 is due mostly to outward radial diffusion, driven by the flux decrease at geosynchronous orbit. We show first results from global simulations indicating significant relativistic electron precipitation within regions of enhanced EMIC instability, whose location varies with time but is predominantly in the afternoon-dusk sector. The precipitating electron fluxes are usually collocated with precipitating ion fluxes but occur at variable energy range and magnitude. The minimum resonant energy increases at low L and relativistic electrons at E <= 1 MeV do not precipitate at L < 3 during this storm.

Jordanova, V.; Albert, J.; Miyoshi, Y.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 03/2008

YEAR: 2008     DOI: 10.1029/2008JA013239