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Found 4 entries in the Bibliography.

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Long-Term Dropout of Relativistic Electrons in the Outer Radiation Belt During Two Sequential Geomagnetic Storms

On 31 January 2016, the flux of >2 MeV electrons observed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 dropped to the background level during a minor storm main phase (−48 nT). Then, a second storm (−53 nT) occurred on 2 February; during the 3 days after its main phase, the flux remained at background level. Using data from various instruments on the GOES, Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), Meteor-M2, and Fengyun-series spacecraft, we study this long-term dropout of MeV electrons during two sequential storms of similar magnitude under lightly disturbed solar wind conditions. Observations from low-altitude satellites show that the fluxes decreased first at higher L-shells and then gradually propagated inward. Moreover, the fluxes were almost completely lost and dropped to the background level at L > 5, while the fluxes at 4 < L < 5 were partly lost, as observed by RBSP and low-altitude satellites. Finally, observations show that on 5 February, only the fluxes at L > 5.5 recovered, while the fluxes at 4 < L < 5 did not return to the prestorm levels. These observations indicate that the loss and recovery processes developed first at higher L-shells. Phase space density (PSD) analysis shows that radial outward diffusion was the main reason for the dropout at higher L-shells. Regarding electron enhancement, stronger inward diffusion was accompanied by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) wave activities at higher L-shells, and chorus waves observed at outer L-shells provided conditions for relativistic electron flux recovery to the prestorm levels.

Wu, H.; Chen, T.; Kalegaev, V.; Panasyuk, M.; Vlasova, N.; Duan, S.; Zhang, X.; He, Z.; Luo, J.; Wang, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

Radiation belt; relativistic electron dropout; Geomagnetic storm; Van Allen Probes


Effects of Solar Wind Plasma Flow and Interplanetary Magnetic Field on the Spatial Structure of Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts

Based on the statistical data measured by Van Allen Probes from 2012 to 2016, we analyzed the effects of solar wind plasma flow and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the spatial distribution of Earth\textquoterights radiation belt electrons (>100 keV). The statistical results indicate that the increases in solar wind plasma density and flow speed can exert different effects on the spatial structure of the radiation belts. The high solar wind plasma density (>6 cm-3)/flow pressure (>2.5 nPa) and a large southward IMF (Bz < -6 nT) usually appear in the front of high-speed solar wind streams (> 450 km/s), and they tend to narrow the outer radiation belt but broaden the slot region. In contrast, the increase in solar wind flow speed can broaden the outer radiation belt but narrows the slot region. When the solar wind speed exceeds 500 km/s, the outer radiation belt electrons can penetrate into the slot region (L < 3) and even enter the inner radiation belt (L < 2). The lower-energy electrons penetrate into the deeper (smaller-L) region than the higher-energy electrons.

Li, L.Y.; Yang, S.S.; Cao, J.B.; Yu, J.; Luo, X.Y.; Blake, J.B.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027284

Changes in The Spatial Structure of Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts; Increase in Solar Wind Plasma Density; Increase in Solar Wind Plasma Flow Speed; Northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field; Southward interplanetary magnetic field; Van Allen Probes


\textquotedblleftTrunk-like\textquotedblright heavy ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

Dynamic ion spectral features in the inner magnetosphere are the observational signatures of ion acceleration, transport, and loss in the global magnetosphere. We report \textquotedbllefttrunk-like\textquotedblright ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes on 2 November 2012. This new type of ion structure looks like an elephant\textquoterights trunk on an energy-time spectrogram, with the energy of the peak flux decreasing Earthward. The trunks are present in He+ and O+ ions but not in H+. During the event, ion energies in the He+ trunk, located at L = 3.6\textendash2.6, MLT = 9.1\textendash10.5, and MLAT = -2.4\textendash0.09\textdegree, vary monotonically from 3.5 to 0.04 keV. The values at the two end points of the O+ trunk are: energy = 4.5\textendash0.7 keV, L = 3.6\textendash2.5, MLT = 9.1\textendash10.7, and MLAT = -2.4\textendash0.4\textdegree. Results from backward ion drift path tracings indicate that the trunks are likely due to 1) a gap in the nightside ion source or 2) greatly enhanced impulsive electric fields associated with elevated geomagnetic activity. Different ion loss lifetimes cause the trunks to differ among ion species.

Zhang, J.-C.; Kistler, L.; Spence, H.; Wolf, R.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Larsen, B.; Niehof, J.; MacDonald, E.; Friedel, R.; Ferradas, C.; Luo, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021822

inner magnetosphere; ion injection; Ion structure; magnetic cloud; magnetic storm; Van Allen Probes

Ecohydrologic role of solar radiation on landscape evolution

Solar radiation has a clear signature on the spatial organization of ecohydrologic fluxes, vegetation patterns and dynamics, and landscape morphology in semiarid ecosystems. Existing landscape evolution models (LEMs) do not explicitly consider spatially explicit solar radiation as model forcing. Here, we improve an existing LEM to represent coupled processes of energy, water, and sediment balance for semiarid fluvial catchments. To ground model predictions, a study site is selected in central New Mexico where hillslope aspect has a marked influence on vegetation patterns and landscape morphology. Model predictions are corroborated using limited field observations in central NM and other locations with similar conditions. We design a set of comparative LEM simulations to investigate the role of spatially explicit solar radiation on landscape ecohydro-geomorphic development under different uplift scenarios. Aspect-control and network-control are identified as the two main drivers of soil moisture and vegetation organization on the landscape. Landscape-scale and long-term implications of these short-term ecohdrologic patterns emerged in modeled landscapes. As north facing slopes (NFS) get steeper by continuing uplift they support erosion-resistant denser vegetation cover which leads to further slope steepening until erosion and uplift attains a dynamic equilibrium. Conversely, on south facing slopes (SFS), as slopes grow with uplift, increased solar radiation exposure with slope supports sparser biomass and shallower slopes. At the landscape scale, these differential erosion processes lead to asymmetric development of catchment forms, consistent with regional observations. Understanding of ecohydrogeomorphic evolution will improve to assess the impacts of past and future climates on landscape response and morphology.

Yetemen, Omer; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Flores-Cervantes, Homero; Vivoni, Enrique; Bras, Rafael;

Published by: Water Resources Research      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.v51.210.1002/2014WR016169

catchment evolution; ecohydrology; geomorphology; landscape evolution; solar radiation; vegetation dynamics