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Found 5 entries in the Bibliography.

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A statistical analysis of duration and frequency chirping rate of falling tone chorus

AbstractThe duration (τ) and chirping rate (Γ) of whistler mode chorus waves are two of the most important properties to understand chorus generation mechanism and to quantify effects of nonlinear wave particle interactions on radiation belt electron acceleration. In this study, we perform the first statistical analysis of the duration and chirping rate of falling tone chorus elements using Van Allen Probes data.We found that τ increases and Γ decreases with increasing L-shell, although the dependence is weak. The duration from dawnside and dayside have similar distributions, which is a bit longer than those from duskside and nightside. However, Γ has little dependence on MLT. The relation between τ and Γ shows that τ scales with Γ as , supporting one of the previous theoretical models of rising tone chorus in Teng et al.(2017). Our results should provide important insights to deepen our understanding of falling tone chorus excitation.

Xie, Yi; Teng, Shangchun; Wu, Yifan; Tao, Xin;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

chorus waves; falling tone; Frequency chirping; Van Allen Probes

Trapping and amplification of unguided mode EMIC waves in the radiation belt

AbstractElectromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can cause the scattering loss of the relativistic electrons in the radiation belt. They can be classified into the guided mode and the unguided mode, according to waves propagation behavior. The guided mode waves have been widely investigated in the radiation belt, but the observation of the unguided mode waves have not been expected. Based on the observations of Van Allen Probes, we demonstrate for the first time the existence of the intense unguided L-mode EMIC waves in the radiation belt according to the polarization characteristics. Growth rate analyses indicate that the hot protons with energies of a few hundred keV may provide the free energy for wave growth. The reflection interface formed by the spatial locations of local helium cutoff frequencies can be nearly parallel to the equatorial plane when the proton abundance ratio decreases sharply with -shell. This structure combined with hot protons may lead to the trapping and significant amplification of the unguided mode waves. These results may help to understand the nature of EMIC waves and their dynamics in the radiation belt.

Wang, Geng; Gao, Zhonglei; Wu, MingYu; Wang, GuoQiang; Xiao, SuDong; Chen, YuanQiang; Zou, Zhengyang; Zhang, TieLong;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

EMIC waves; unguided mode; Radiation belt; ion abundance ratios; Wave trapping; growth rate; Van Allen Probes


Long-Term Dropout of Relativistic Electrons in the Outer Radiation Belt During Two Sequential Geomagnetic Storms

On 31 January 2016, the flux of >2 MeV electrons observed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 dropped to the background level during a minor storm main phase (−48 nT). Then, a second storm (−53 nT) occurred on 2 February; during the 3 days after its main phase, the flux remained at background level. Using data from various instruments on the GOES, Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), Meteor-M2, and Fengyun-series spacecraft, we study this long-term dropout of MeV electrons during two sequential storms of similar magnitude under lightly disturbed solar wind conditions. Observations from low-altitude satellites show that the fluxes decreased first at higher L-shells and then gradually propagated inward. Moreover, the fluxes were almost completely lost and dropped to the background level at L > 5, while the fluxes at 4 < L < 5 were partly lost, as observed by RBSP and low-altitude satellites. Finally, observations show that on 5 February, only the fluxes at L > 5.5 recovered, while the fluxes at 4 < L < 5 did not return to the prestorm levels. These observations indicate that the loss and recovery processes developed first at higher L-shells. Phase space density (PSD) analysis shows that radial outward diffusion was the main reason for the dropout at higher L-shells. Regarding electron enhancement, stronger inward diffusion was accompanied by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) wave activities at higher L-shells, and chorus waves observed at outer L-shells provided conditions for relativistic electron flux recovery to the prestorm levels.

Wu, H.; Chen, T.; Kalegaev, V.; Panasyuk, M.; Vlasova, N.; Duan, S.; Zhang, X.; He, Z.; Luo, J.; Wang, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

Radiation belt; relativistic electron dropout; Geomagnetic storm; Van Allen Probes


Propagation of EMIC Waves Inside the Plasmasphere: A Two-Event Study

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are important for the loss of high-energy electrons in the radiation belt. Based on the measurements of Van Allen Probes, two events during the same storm period are presented to study the propagation of EMIC waves. In the first event, left-handed polarized EMIC waves were observed near the plasmapause, while right-handed waves were observed in the inner plasmasphere. The Poynting flux of the right-hand waves was mainly directed inward and equatorward, and no positive growth rates were obtained in the region of these right-hand waves, indicating the inward propagation of the waves from a higher L-shell. In the second event, the wave vectors were quasi-perpendicular to the background magnetic field inside the plasmaspheric plume but became quasi-parallel outside. This phenomenon can be explained by the refraction of the large density gradient, which qualitatively satisfies Snell\textquoterights law. These observations provide indirect evidence of the inward propagation of the EMIC waves and give a new insight on how density gradients may modify wave properties

Wang, G.; Zhang, T.; Gao, Z.; Wu, M; Wang, G.; Schmid, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027055

density gradient; EMIC wave; inward propagation; refraction; right hand polarization; Snell\textquoterights law; Van Allen Probes


One- and two-dimensional hybrid simulations of whistler mode waves in a dipole field

We simulate whistler mode waves using a hybrid code. There are four species in the simulations, hot electrons initialized with a bi-Maxwellian distribution with temperature in the direction perpendicular to background magnetic field greater than that in the parallel direction, warm isotropic electrons, cold inertialess fluid electrons, and protons as an immobile background. The density of the hot population is a small fraction of the total plasma density. Comparison between the dispersion relation of our model and other dispersion relations shows that our model is more accurate for lower frequency whistlers than for higher frequency whistlers. Simulations in 2-D Cartesian coordinates agree very well with those using a full dynamics code. In the 1-D simulations along the dipole magnetic field, the predicted frequency and wave number are observed. Rising tones are observed in the one-fourteenth scale simulations that have larger than realistic magnetic field spatial inhomogeneity. However, in the full-scale 1-D simulation in a dipole field, the waves are more broadband and do not exhibit rising tones. In the 2-D simulations in a meridional plane, the waves are generated with propagation approximately parallel to the background magnetic field. However, the wavefronts become oblique as they propagate to higher latitudes. Simulations with different plasma density profiles across L shell are performed to study the effect of the background density on whistler propagation.

Wu, S.; Denton, R.; Liu, K.; Hudson, M.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020736

hybrid simulation; particle-in-cell simulation; plasma waves; Whistler waves