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Found 5 entries in the Bibliography.

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Rapid injections of MeV electrons and extremely fast step-like outer radiation belt enhancements

Abstract Rapid injection of MeV electrons associated with strong substorm dipolarization has been suggested as a potential explanation for some radiation belt enhancement events. However, it has been difficult to quantify the contribution of MeV electron injections to radiation belt enhancements. This paper presents two isolated MeV electron injection events for which we quite precisely quantify how the entire outer-belt immediately changed with the injections. Tracking detailed outer-belt evolution observed by Van Allen Probes, for both events, we identify large step-like relativistic electron enhancements (roughly 1-order of magnitude increase for ∼2 MeV electron fluxes) for L ≳ 3.8 and L ≳ 4.6, respectively, that occurred on ∼30-min timescales nearly instantaneously with the injections. The enhancements occurred almost simultaneously for 10s keV to multi-MeV electrons, with the lowest-L of enhancement region located farther out for higher energy. The outer-belt stayed at these new levels for ≳ several hours without substantial subsequent enhancements.

Kim, H.-J.; Lee, D.-Y.; Wolf, R.; Bortnik, J.; Kim, K.-C.; Lyons, L.; Choe, W.; Noh, S.-J.; Choi, K.-E.; Yue, C.; Li, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 05/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Radiation belt enhancement; Relatvistic electrons; substorm injection; Step-like; Extremely fast; Van Allen Probes


Diffuse Auroral Electron and Ion Precipitation Effects on RCM-E Comparisons with Satellite Data During the March 17, 2013 Storm

Effects of scattering of electrons from whistler chorus waves and of ions due to field line curvature on diffuse precipitating particle fluxes and ionospheric conductance during the large 17 March 2013 storm are examined using the self-consistent Rice Convection Model Equilibrium (RCM-E) model. Electrons are found to dominate the diffuse precipitating particle integrated energy flux, with large fluxes from ~21:00 magnetic local time (MLT) eastward to ~11:00 MLT during the storm main phase. Simulated proton and oxygen ion precipitation due to field line curvature scattering is sporadic and localized, occurring where model magnetic field lines are significantly stretched on the night side at equatorial geocentric radial distances r0 ≳8 RE and/or at r0 ~5.5 to 6.5 RE from dusk to midnight where the partial ring current field has perturbed the magnetic field. The precipitating protons likewise contribute sporadically to the storm time Hall and Pedersen conductance in localized regions whereas the precipitating electrons are the dominate storm time contributor to enhanced Hall and Pedersen conductance at auroral magnetic latitudes on the night and morning side. The RCM-E model can reproduce general features of the Van Allen Probe/MagEIS observed trapped electron differential flux spectrograms over energies of ~37 to 150 keV. The simulations with a parameterized electron loss model also reproduce reasonably well the storm time Defense Meteorological Satellite Program integrated electron energy flux at 850 km at satellite crossings from predawn to midmorning. However, model-data agreement is not as good from dusk to premidnight where there are large uncertainties in the electron loss model.

Chen, Margaret; Lemon, Colby; Hecht, James; Sazykin, Stanislav; Wolf, Richard; Boyd, Alexander; Valek, Philip;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026545

diffuse aurora; electron and ion precipitation; field-line curvature scattering; inner magnetospheric electric field; ionospheric conductance; simulations and data comparisons; Van Allen Probes


Large-amplitude electric fields in the inner magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes observations of subauroral polarization streams

The subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) is an important magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) coupling phenomenon that impacts a range of particle populations in the inner magnetosphere. SAPS studies often emphasize ionospheric signatures of fast westward flows, but the equatorial magnetosphere is also affected through strong radial electric fields in the dusk sector. This study focuses on a period of steady southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) during the 29 June 2013 geomagnetic storm where the Van Allen Probes observe a region of intense electric fields near the plasmapause over multiple consecutive outbound duskside passes. We show that the large-amplitude electric fields near the equatorial plane are consistent with SAPS by investigating the relationship between plasma sheet ion and electron boundaries, associated field-aligned currents, and the spatial location of the electric fields. By incorporating high-inclination DMSP data we demonstrate the spatial and temporal variability of the SAPS region, and we suggest that discrete, earthward-propagating injections are driving the observed strong electric fields at low L shells in the equatorial magnetosphere. We also show the relationship between SAPS and plasmasphere erosion, as well as a possible correlation with flux enhancements for 100 s keV electrons.

Califf, S.; Li, X.; Wolf, R.; Zhao, H.; Jaynes, A.; Wilder, F.; Malaspina, D.; Redmon, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022252

electric field; injection; SAPS; subauroral; Van Allen Probes


\textquotedblleftTrunk-like\textquotedblright heavy ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

Dynamic ion spectral features in the inner magnetosphere are the observational signatures of ion acceleration, transport, and loss in the global magnetosphere. We report \textquotedbllefttrunk-like\textquotedblright ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes on 2 November 2012. This new type of ion structure looks like an elephant\textquoterights trunk on an energy-time spectrogram, with the energy of the peak flux decreasing Earthward. The trunks are present in He+ and O+ ions but not in H+. During the event, ion energies in the He+ trunk, located at L = 3.6\textendash2.6, MLT = 9.1\textendash10.5, and MLAT = -2.4\textendash0.09\textdegree, vary monotonically from 3.5 to 0.04 keV. The values at the two end points of the O+ trunk are: energy = 4.5\textendash0.7 keV, L = 3.6\textendash2.5, MLT = 9.1\textendash10.7, and MLAT = -2.4\textendash0.4\textdegree. Results from backward ion drift path tracings indicate that the trunks are likely due to 1) a gap in the nightside ion source or 2) greatly enhanced impulsive electric fields associated with elevated geomagnetic activity. Different ion loss lifetimes cause the trunks to differ among ion species.

Zhang, J.-C.; Kistler, L.; Spence, H.; Wolf, R.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Larsen, B.; Niehof, J.; MacDonald, E.; Friedel, R.; Ferradas, C.; Luo, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021822

inner magnetosphere; ion injection; Ion structure; magnetic cloud; magnetic storm; Van Allen Probes


THEMIS measurements of quasi-static electric fields in the inner magnetosphere

We use four years of THEMIS double-probe measurements to offer, for the first time, a complete picture of the dawn-dusk electric field covering all local times and radial distances in the inner magnetosphere based on in situ equatorial observations. This study is motivated by the results from the CRRES mission, which revealed a local maximum in the electric field developing near Earth during storm times, rather than the expected enhancement at higher L shells that is shielded near Earth as suggested by the Volland-Stern model. The CRRES observations were limited to the dusk side, while THEMIS provides complete local time coverage. We show strong agreement with the CRRES results on the dusk side, with a local maximum near L =4 for moderate levels of geomagnetic activity and evidence of strong electric fields inside L =3 during the most active times. The extensive dataset from THEMIS also confirms the day/night asymmetry on the dusk side, where the enhancement is closest to Earth in the dusk-midnight sector, and is farther away closer to noon. A similar, but smaller in magnitude, local maximum is observed on the dawn side near L =4. The noon sector shows the smallest average electric fields, and for more active times, the enhancement develops near L =7 rather than L =4. We also investigate the impact of the uncertain boom-shorting factor on the results, and show that while the absolute magnitude of the electric field may be underestimated, the trends with geomagnetic activity remain intact.

Califf, S.; Li, X.; Blum, L.; Jaynes, A.; Schiller, Q.; Zhao, H.; Malaspina, D.; Hartinger, M.; Wolf, R.; Rowland, D.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020360

convection; double probe; electric field; inner magnetosphere