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Abstract The coupling response between solar wind structures and the magnetosphere is highly complex, leading to different effects in the outer radiation belt electron fluxes. Most Coronal Mass Ejections cause strong geomagnetic storms with short recovery phases, often 1-2 days. By contrast, High-Speed Solar Wind Streams lead to moderate and weak storms often with much longer recovery phases, from several to ∼10 days. The magnetosphere receives energy for a long time under the influence of the HSSs, considerably changing its dynamics. This in turn has an effect on the charged particles trapped in the outer radiation belt. Although the high-energy electron flux enhancements have received considerable attention, the high-energy electron flux enhancement pattern (L > 4) has not. This paper identifies 37 events with this enhancement pattern in the high-energy electron flux during the Van Allen Probes era. We find the enhancements coincident with HSS occurrence. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) exhibits north/south Bz fluctuations of Alfvénic nature with moderate amplitudes. The high-energy electron flux enhancements also correspond to long periods of auroral activity indicating a relationship to magnetotail dynamics. However, the AE index only reaches moderate values. Ultra-Low Frequency waves were present in all of the events and whistler-mode chorus waves were present in 89.1\% of the events, providing a convenient scenario for wave-particle interactions. The radial gradient of the ULF wave power related to the L, under the influence of the HSSs, is necessary to trigger the physical processes responsible for this type of high-energy electron flux enhancement pattern. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Da Silva, L.; Shi, J.; Alves, L.; Sibeck, D.; Marchezi, J.; Medeiros, C.; Vieira, L.; Agapitov, O.; Cardoso, F.; Souza, V.; Dal Lago, A.; Jauer, P.; Wang, C.; Li, H.; Liu, Z.; Alves, M.; Rockenbach, M.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 07/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029363
Energy coupling between the solar wind and the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere can affect the electron population in the outer radiation belt. However, the precise role of different internal and external mechanisms that leads to changes of the relativistic electron population is not entirely known. This paper describes how Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) wave activity during the passage of Alfv\ enic solar wind streams contributes to the global recovery of the relativistic electron population in the outer radiation belt. To investigate the contribution of the ULF waves, we searched the Van Allen Probes data for a period in which we can clearly distinguish the enhancement of electron fluxes from the background. We found that the global recovery that started on September 22, 2014, which coincides with the corotating interaction region preceding a high-speed stream and the occurrence of persistent substorm activity, provides an excellent scenario to explore the contribution of ULF waves. To support our analyses, we employed ground and space-based observational data, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, and calculated the ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients employing an empirical model. Observations show a gradual increase of electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt and a concomitant enhancement of ULF activity that spreads from higher to lower L-shells. MHD simulation results agree with observed ULF wave activity in the magnetotail, which leads to both fast and Alfv\ en modes in the magnetospheric nightside sector. The observations agree with the empirical model and are confirmed by Phase Space Density (PhSD) calculations for this global recovery period.
Da Silva, L.; Sibeck, D.; Alves, L.; Souza, V.; Jauer, P.; Claudepierre, S.; Marchezi, J.; Agapitov, O.; Medeiros, C.; Vieira, L.; Wang, C.; Jiankui, S.; Liu, Z.; Gonzalez, W.; Dal Lago, A.; Rockenbach, M.; Padua, M.; Alves, M.; Barbosa, M.; Fok, M.-C.; Baker, D.; Kletzing, C.; Kanekal, S.; Georgiou, M.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026184
In this study we examine the recovery of relativistic radiation belt electrons on November 15-16, 2014, after a previous reduction in the electron flux resulting from the passage of a Corotating Interaction Region (CIR). Following the CIR, there was a period of high-speed streams characterized by large, nonlinear fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) components. However, the outer radiation belt electron flux remained at a low level for several days before it increased in two major steps. The first increase is associated with the IMF background field turning from slightly northward on average, to slightly southward on average. The second major increase is associated with an increase in the solar wind velocity during a period of southward average IMF background field. We present evidence that when the IMF Bz is negative on average, the whistler mode chorus wave power is enhanced in the outer radiation belt, and the amplification of magnetic integrated power spectral density in the ULF frequency range, in the nightside magnetosphere, is more efficient as compared to cases in which the mean IMF Bz is positive. Preliminary analysis of the time evolution of phase space density radial profiles did not provide conclusive evidence on which electron acceleration mechanism is the dominant. We argue that the acceleration of radiation belt electrons requires (i) a seed population of keV electrons injected into the inner magnetosphere by substorms, and both (ii) enhanced whistler mode chorus waves activity as well as (iii) large-amplitude MHD waves.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 08/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024187
Analysis of particle pitch angle distributions (PADs) has been used as a means to comprehend a multitude of different physical mechanisms that lead to flux variations in the Van Allen belts and also to particle precipitation into the upper atmosphere. In this work we developed a neural network-based data clustering methodology that automatically identifies distinct PAD types in an unsupervised way using particle flux data. One can promptly identify and locate three well-known PAD types in both time and radial distance, namely, 90\textdegree peaked, butterfly, and flattop distributions. In order to illustrate the applicability of our methodology, we used relativistic electron flux data from the whole month of November 2014, acquired from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope instrument on board the Van Allen Probes, but it is emphasized that our approach can also be used with multiplatform spacecraft data. Our PAD classification results are in reasonably good agreement with those obtained by standard statistical fitting algorithms. The proposed methodology has a potential use for Van Allen belt\textquoterights monitoring.
Souza, V.; Vieira, L.; Medeiros, C.; Da Silva, L.; Alves, L.; Koga, D.; Sibeck, D.; Walsh, B.; Kanekal, S.; Jauer, P.; Rockenbach, M.; Dal Lago, A.; Silveira, M.; Marchezi, J.; Mendes, O.; Gonzalez, W.; Baker, D.;
Published by: Space Weather Published on: 04/2016
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2015SW001349