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Found 22 entries in the Bibliography.

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A statistical analysis of duration and frequency chirping rate of falling tone chorus

AbstractThe duration (τ) and chirping rate (Γ) of whistler mode chorus waves are two of the most important properties to understand chorus generation mechanism and to quantify effects of nonlinear wave particle interactions on radiation belt electron acceleration. In this study, we perform the first statistical analysis of the duration and chirping rate of falling tone chorus elements using Van Allen Probes data.We found that τ increases and Γ decreases with increasing L-shell, although the dependence is weak. The duration from dawnside and dayside have similar distributions, which is a bit longer than those from duskside and nightside. However, Γ has little dependence on MLT. The relation between τ and Γ shows that τ scales with Γ as , supporting one of the previous theoretical models of rising tone chorus in Teng et al.(2017). Our results should provide important insights to deepen our understanding of falling tone chorus excitation.

Xie, Yi; Teng, Shangchun; Wu, Yifan; Tao, Xin;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

chorus waves; falling tone; Frequency chirping; Van Allen Probes

Simultaneous observations and combined effects of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and magnetosonic waves

Abstract Magnetosonic (MS) waves and Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are important plasma waves in the magnetosphere. Using the Van Allen Probes observations from 2012 to 2017, we constructed the global distribution of simultaneous occurrence of MS and EMIC waves. We found a total of 214 events, and the waves distribute from the noon sector to the duskside. Furthermore, we quantitatively analyze the combined effects of both waves on protons and electrons by calculating of particle diffusion coefficients and 2-D Fokker-Planck diffusion simulations. The simulation results show the combined effects of MS and EMIC waves. High-frequency EMIC waves and intense MS waves at low proton harmonics are essential for the enhanced proton acceleration at several hundred eV and enhanced electron loss at several MeV. Our results provide new sights into understanding the distribution of MS and EMIC waves and evaluating their combined effects on the evolution of energetic particles.

Teng, S.; Ma, Q.; Tao, X.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

EMIC waves; MS waves; Wave-particle interaction; diffusion coefficients; Van Allen Probes

Characteristics of low-harmonic magnetosonic waves in the Earth’s inner magnetosphere

Abstract Magnetosonic (MS) waves are electromagnetic waves that play important roles in the acceleration and scattering of radiation belt electrons. However, previous statistical analyses of the global MS wave distribution were mainly restricted to magnetic field measurements. In this study, we first report a low-harmonic MS wave event observed only by the electric field instrument of Van Allen Probes. The MS wave frequencies follow the local proton gyrofrequency (fcp), which suggests the characteristics of nearly local generation. We further statistically investigate similar wave events using Van Allen Probes data. The identified MS wave power exhibits peaks between 4fcp and 10fcp, regardless of the L-shell, but it shows a magnetic local time (MLT) dependence. This work is supplemental to previous MS wave frequency spectra and provides new insights to better understand the source region of MS waves in the Earth’s magnetosphere.

Teng, S.; Liu, N.; Ma, Q.; Tao, X.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Low-frequency magnetosonic wave; wave generation; Magnetosonic wave spectra; Van Allen Probes


Characteristics and Generation of Low-Frequency Magnetosonic Waves Below the Proton Gyrofrequency

We report a Van Allen Probes observation of large-amplitude magnetosonic waves with the peak intensity below the proton gyrofrequency (fcp), which may potentially be misinterpreted as electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. The frequency spacing of the wave harmonic structure suggests that these magnetosonic waves are excited at a distant source region and propagate radially inward. We also conduct a statistical analysis of low-frequency magnetosonic waves below fcp based on the Van Allen Probes data from October 2012 to December 2018. The spatial distribution shows that these low-frequency magnetosonic emissions are dominantly observed inside the plasmasphere from the prenoon to the midnight sector within 5\textdegree of the geomagnetic equator and typically have modest-to-strong wave amplitudes ranging from tens of pT to hundreds of pT. Our study provides insight into understanding the generation and propagation of these low-frequency magnetosonic waves in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere.

Teng, Shangchun; Li, Wen; Tao, Xin; Ma, Qianli; Shen, Xiaochen;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 10/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL085372

Below the proton gyrofrequency; Low frequency magnetosonic wave; Van Allen Probes; wave generation; Wave propagation characteristics

Typical Characteristics of Whistler Mode Waves Categorized by Their Spectral Properties Using Van Allen Probes Observations

Properties of banded, no-gap, lower band only, and upper band only whistler mode waves (0.1\textendash0.8fce) outside the plasmasphere are investigated using Van Allen Probes data. Our analysis shows that no-gap whistler waves have higher occurrence rate at morning side and dayside, while banded and lower band only waves have higher occurrence rate between midnight and dawn. We also find that the occurrence rate of no-gap whistler waves peaks at magnetic latitude |MLAT|\~8\textendash10\textdegree, while banded waves have higher occurrence rate near the equator for urn:x-wiley:grl:media:grl58818:grl58818-math-0001\textdegree. The wave normal angle distributions of these four groups of waves are similar to previous results. The distinct local time and latitudinal distribution of no-gap and banded whistler mode waves is critical to further understand the formation mechanism of the power minimum at half electron gyrofrequency.

Teng, S.; Tao, X.; Li, W.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082161

banded whistler waves; chorus waves; no-gap whistler waves; Van Allen Probes


Observation of Oblique Lower Band Chorus Generated by Nonlinear Three-Wave Interaction

Oblique whistler mode waves have been suggested to play an important role in radiation belt electron dynamics. Recently, Fu et al. [2017] proposed that highly oblique lower band whistler waves could be generated by nonlinear three-wave resonance. Here we present the first observational evidence of such process, using Van Allen Probes data, where an oblique lower band chorus wave is generated by two quasi-parallel waves through nonlinear three-wave interaction. The wave resonance condition is satisfied even in the presence of frequency chirping of one of the pump waves. Different from the simulation results of Fu et al. [2017], simultaneous particle data do not show a plateau in the electron distribution, which could be due to the very weak intensity of the generated waves. These results should help to better understand the generation of oblique waves in the inner magnetosphere and their relative roles in energetic electron dynamics.

Teng, S.; Zhao, J.; Tao, X.; Wang, S.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078765

Oblique lower band chorus; radiation belt physics; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interaction; wave-wave interaction


Analysis of the Duration of Rising Tone Chorus Elements

The duration of chorus elements is an important parameter to understand chorus excitation and to quantify the effects of nonlinear wave-particle interactions on energetic electron dynamics. In this work, we analyze the duration of rising tone chorus elements statistically using Van Allen Probes data. We present the distribution of chorus element duration (τ) as a function of magnetic local time (MLT) and the geomagnetic activity level characterized by auroral electrojet (AE) index. We show that the typical value of τ for nightside and dawnside is about 0.12 s, smaller than that for dayside and duskside by about a factor of 2 to 4. Using a previously developed hybrid code, DAWN, we suggest that the background magnetic field inhomogeneity might be an important factor in controlling the chorus element duration. We also report that τ is larger during quiet times and shorter during moderate and active periods; this result is consistent with the MLT dependence of τ and the occurrence pattern of chorus waves at different levels of geomagnetic activity. We then investigate the correlation between τ and the frequency chirping rate (Γ). We show that, from observation, τ scales with Γ as math formula, suggesting that statistically the frequency range of chorus elements (τΓ) should be roughly the same for different elements. These findings should be useful to the further development of a theoretical model of chorus excitation and to the quantification of nonlinear wave-particle interactions on energetic electron dynamics.

Teng, S.; Tao, X.; Xie, Y.; Zonca, F.; Chen, L.; Fang, W.; Wang, S.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 12/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075824

chorus element duration; DAWN; frequency chirping rate; Van Allen Probes

Generation of extremely low frequency chorus in Van Allen radiation belts

Recent studies have shown that chorus can efficiently accelerate the outer radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Chorus, previously often observed above 0.1 equatorial electron gyrofrequency fce, was generated by energetic electrons originating from Earth\textquoterights plasma sheet. Chorus below 0.1 fce has seldom been reported until the recent data from Van Allen Probes, but its origin has not been revealed so far. Because electron resonant energy can approach the relativistic level at extremely low frequency, relativistic effects should be considered in the formula for whistler mode wave growth rate. Here we report high-resolution observations during the 14 October 2014 small storm and firstly demonstrate, using a fully relativistic simulation, that electrons with the high-energy tail population and relativistic pitch angle anisotropy can provide free energy sufficient for generating chorus below 0.1 fce. The simulated wave growth displays a very similar pattern to the observations. The current results can be applied to Jupiter, Saturn, and other magnetized planets.

Xiao, Fuliang; Liu, Si; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; Yang, Chang; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Gao, Zhonglei; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023561

ELF chorus waves; RBSP results; relativistic distribution; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Oxygen cyclotron harmonic waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

Fine structured multiple-harmonic electromagnetic emissions at frequencies around the equatorial oxygen cyclotron harmonics are observed by Van Allen Probe A outside the core plasmasphere (L~5) off the magnetic equator (MLAT~-7.5\textdegree) during a magnetic storm. We find that the multiple-harmonic emissions have their PSD peaks at 2~8 equatorial oxygen gyro-harmonics (f~nfO+, n=2~8) while the fundamental mode (n=1) is absent, implying that the harmonic waves are generated near the equator and propagate into the observation region. Additionally these electromagnetic emissions are linear polarized. Different from the equatorial noise emission propagating very obliquely, these emissions have moderate wave normal angles (about 40\textdegree~60\textdegree) which predominately become larger as the harmonic number increases. Considering their frequency and wave normal angle characteristics, it is suggested that these multiple-harmonic emissions might play an important role in the dynamic variation of radiation belt electrons.

Xiongdong, Yu; Zhigang, Yuan; Dedong, Wang; Shiyong, Huang; Haimeng, Li; Tao, Yu; Zheng, Qiao;

Published by: Science China: Earth Sciences      Published on: 03/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1007/s11430-016-9024-3

Oxygen Cyclotron Harmonic Waves; Radiation belt; Ring current ions; Van Allen Probes


A new method to study the time correlation between Van Allen Belt electrons and earthquakes

A new method to study a possible temporal correlation between hundreds of keV Van Allen Belt electrons and strong earthquakes is proposed. It consists in measuring the electrons pitch angle distribution (PAD), searching for PAD disturbances, and studying the time correlation between these PAD disturbances and strong earthquakes, occurring within a defined time window. The method was applied to measurements of energetic electrons, which were performed with the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT)-MagEIS detector on board the Van Allen Probes (VAPs) mission and strong continental earthquakes, with magnitude M 5.0 and hypocenter depth 100 km. We report the correlation studies for electrons with energies of about 350 keV, with which a 3.84 standard deviations correlation peak was found at hour time bin, and about 450 keV with which no correlation peaks above 2.0 standard deviations were found. Our work proves the feasibility of the proposed method and the obtained results add useful and additional information with respect to past studies.

Tao, Dan; Battiston, Roberto; Vitale, Vincenzo; Burger, William; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Cao, Jinbin; Shen, Xuhui;

Published by: International Journal of Remote Sensing      Published on: 10/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2016.1239284

Van Allen Probes

Fast modulations of pulsating proton aurora related to subpacket structures of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations at subauroral latitudes

To understand the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in determining the temporal features of pulsating proton aurora (PPA) via wave-particle interactions at subauroral latitudes, high-time-resolution (1/8 s) images of proton-induced N2+ emissions were recorded using a new electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera, along with related Pc1 pulsations on the ground. The observed Pc1 pulsations consisted of successive rising-tone elements with a spacing for each element of 100 s and subpacket structures, which manifest as amplitude modulations with a period of a few tens of seconds. In accordance with the temporal features of the Pc1 pulsations, the auroral intensity showed a similar repetition period of 100 s and an unpredicted fast modulation of a few tens of seconds. These results indicate that PPA is generated by pitch angle scattering, nonlinearly interacting with Pc1/EMIC waves at the magnetic equator.

Ozaki, M.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Yagitani, S.; Inoue, T.; Ebihara, Y.; Jun, C.-W; Nomura, R.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Shoji, M.; Schofield, I.; Connors, M.; Jordanova, V.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070008

fast modulation; Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations; pulsating proton aurora; subpacket structure; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions


Local time distributions of repetition periods for rising tone lower band chorus waves in the magnetosphere

Whistler mode chorus waves generally occur outside the plasmapause in the magnetosphere. The most striking feature of the waves is their occurrence in discrete elements. One of the parameters that describe the discrete elements is the repetition period (Trp), the time between consecutive elements. The Trp has not been studied statistically before. We use high-resolution waveform data to derive distributions of Trp for different local times. We find that the average Trp for the nightside (0.56 s) and dawnside (0.53 s) are smaller than those for the dayside (0.81 s) and duskside (0.97 s). Through a comparison with the background plasma and magnetic fields, we also find that the total magnetic field and temperature are the main controlling factors that affect the variability of Trp. These results are important for understanding the generation mechanism of chorus and choosing parameters in simulations that model the acceleration and loss of electrons by wave-particle interactions.

Shue, Jih-Hong; Hsieh, Yi-Kai; W. Y. Tam, Sunny; Wang, Kaiti; Fu, Hui; Bortnik, Jacob; Tao, Xin; Hsieh, Wen-Chieh; Pi, Gilbert;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 10/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066107

Chorus; local time distribution; repetition period

Near-Earth Injection of MeV Electrons associated with Intense Dipolarization Electric Fields: Van Allen Probes observations

Substorms generally inject 10s-100s keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the pre-midnight sector at L\~5.5, Van Allen Probes (RBSP)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50mV/m) over \~40s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to \~3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front. Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by one order of magnitude in less than 3 hours in the outer radiation belt (L>4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.

Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John; Cattell, Cynthia; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel; Li, Xinlin; Malaspina, David; Blake, Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Turner, Drew; Reeves, Geoffrey; Funsten, Herbert; Spence, Harlan; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Fruehauff, Dennis; Chen, Lunjin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064955

electric fields; radiation belt electrons; substorm dipolarization; substorm injection; Van Allen Probes

Pileup accident hypothesis of magnetic storm on 17 March 2015

We propose a \textquotedblleftpileup accident\textquotedblright hypothesis, based on the solar wind data analysis and magnetohydrodynamics modeling, to explain unexpectedly geoeffective solar wind structure which caused the largest magnetic storm so far during the solar cycle 24 on 17 March 2015: First, a fast coronal mass ejection with strong southward magnetic fields both in the sheath and in the ejecta was followed by a high-speed stream from a nearby coronal hole. This combination resulted in less adiabatic expansion than usual to keep the high speed, strong magnetic field, and high density within the coronal mass ejection. Second, preceding slow and high-density solar wind was piled up ahead of the coronal mass ejection just before the arrival at the Earth to further enhance its magnetic field and density. Finally, the enhanced solar wind speed, magnetic field, and density worked all together to drive the major magnetic storm.

Kataoka, Ryuho; Shiota, Daikou; Kilpua, Emilia; Keika, Kunihiro;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064816

coronal hole; coronal mass ejection; corotating interaction region; magnetic storm

Storm-time occurrence and Spatial distribution of Pc4 poloidal ULF waves in the inner magnetosphere: A Van Allen Probes Statistical study

Poloidal ULF waves are capable of efficiently interacting with energetic particles in the ring current and the radiation belt. Using Van Allen Probes (RBSP) data from October 2012 to July 2014, we investigate the spatial distribution and storm-time occurrence of Pc4 (7-25 mHz) poloidal waves in the inner magnetosphere. Pc4 poloidal waves are sorted into two categories: waves with and without significant magnetic compressional components. Two types of poloidal waves have comparable occurrence rates, both of which are much higher during geomagnetic storms. The non-compressional poloidal waves mostly occur in the late recovery phase associated with an increase of Dst toward 0, suggesting that the decay of the ring current provides their free energy source. The occurrence of dayside compressional Pc4 poloidal waves is found correlated with the variation of the solar wind dynamic pressure, indicating their origin in the solar wind. Both compressional and non-compressional waves preferentially occur on the dayside near noon at L~5-6. In addition, compressional poloidal waves are observed at MLT 18-24 on the nightside. The location of the Pc4 poloidal waves relative to the plasmapause is investigated. The RBSP statistical results may shed light on the in-depth investigations of the generation and propagation of Pc4 poloidal waves.

Dai, Lei; Takahashi, Kazue; Lysak, Robert; Wang, Chi; Wygant, John; Kletzing, Craig; Bonnell, John; Cattell, Cynthia; Smith, Charles; MacDowall, Robert; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei; Tao, Xin; Chen, Lunjin;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021134

Geomagnetic storm; Pc4 ULF waves; poloidal waves; ring current; solar wind dynamic pressure; Van Allen Probes

Energetic electron precipitation associated with pulsating aurora: EISCAT and Van Allen Probe observations

Pulsating auroras show quasi-periodic intensity modulations caused by the precipitation of energetic electrons of the order of tens of keV. It is expected theoretically that not only these electrons but also sub-relativistic/relativistic electrons precipitate simultaneously into the ionosphere owing to whistler-mode wave\textendashparticle interactions. The height-resolved electron density profile was observed with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Troms\o VHF radar on 17 November 2012. Electron density enhancements were clearly identified at altitudes >68 km in association with the pulsating aurora, suggesting precipitation of electrons with a broadband energy range from ~10 keV up to at least 200 keV. The riometer and network of subionospheric radio wave observations also showed the energetic electron precipitations during this period. During this period, the footprint of the Van Allen Probe-A satellite was very close to Troms\o and the satellite observed rising tone emissions of the lower-band chorus (LBC) waves near the equatorial plane. Considering the observed LBC waves and electrons, we conducted a computer simulation of the wave\textendashparticle interactions. This showed simultaneous precipitation of electrons at both tens of keV and a few hundred keV, which is consistent with the energy spectrum estimated by the inversion method using the EISCAT observations. This result revealed that electrons with a wide energy range simultaneously precipitate into the ionosphere in association with the pulsating aurora, providing the evidence that pulsating auroras are caused by whistler chorus waves. We suggest that scattering by propagating whistler simultaneously causes both the precipitations of sub-relativistic electrons and the pulsating aurora.

Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S.; Saito, S.; Kurita, S.; Fujiwara, H.; Kataoka, R.; Ebihara, Y.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Santolik, O.; Clilverd, M.; Rodger, C.; Turunen, E.; Tsuchiya, F.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020690

EISCAT; pitch angle scattering; pulsating aurora; Van Allen Probes


Statistical results describing the bandwidth and coherence coefficient of whistler mode waves using THEMIS waveform data

The bandwidths and coherence coefficients of lower band whistler mode waves are analyzed using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) waveform data for rising tones, falling tones, and hiss-like emissions separately. We also evaluate their dependences on the spatial location, electron density, the ratio of plasma frequency to local electron gyrofrequency (fpe/fce), and the wave amplitude. Our results show that the bandwidth normalized by the local electron gyrofrequency (fce) of rising and falling tones is very narrow (~0.01 fce), smaller than that of the hiss-like emissions (~0.025 fce). Meanwhile, the normalized bandwidth of discrete emissions gradually decreases with increasing wave amplitude, whereas that of hiss-like emissions increases slowly. The coherence coefficient of rising and falling tones is extremely large (~1), while the coherence coefficient of hiss-like emissions is smaller but is still larger than 0.5. For all categories of whistler mode waves, the normalized bandwidth increases at larger L shells. Furthermore, the normalized bandwidth is positively correlated with local fpe/fce but is inversely correlated with the electron density. Interactions between radiation belt electrons and whistler mode waves have been widely described by quasi-linear diffusion theory. Our results suggest that although quasi-linear theory is not entirely applicable for modeling electron interactions with rising and falling tones due to their narrow bandwidth and high coherence coefficient, it is suitable to treat wave-particle interactions between electrons and low-amplitude hiss-like emissions. Moreover, the correlations between the normalized bandwidth of chorus waves (especially the discrete emissions) and other parameters may provide insights for the generation mechanism of chorus waves.

Gao, X.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lu, Q.; Tao, X.; Wang, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020158

bandwidth; coherence coefficient; nonlinear; quasi-linear; THEMIS; whistler mode waves

Ground-based ELF/VLF chorus observations at subauroral latitudes-VLF-CHAIN Campaign

We report observations of very low frequency (VLF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) chorus waves taken during the ELF/VLF Campaign observation with High-resolution Aurora Imaging Network (VLF-CHAIN) of 17\textendash25 February 2012 at subauroral latitudes at Athabasca (L=4.3), Canada. ELF/VLF waves were measured continuously with a sampling rate of 100 kHz to monitor daily variations in ELF/VLF emissions and derive their detailed structures. We found quasiperiodic (QP) emissions whose repetition period changes rapidly within a period of 1 h without corresponding magnetic pulsations. QP emissions showed positive correlation between amplitude and frequency sweep rate, similarly to rising-tone elements. We found an event of nearly simultaneous enhancements of QP emissions and Pc1/electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave intensities, suggesting that the temperature anisotropy of electrons and ions developed simultaneously at the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere. We also found QP emissions whose intensity suddenly increased in association with storm sudden commencement without changing their frequency. Falling-tone ELF/VLF emissions were observed with their rate of frequency change varying from 0.7 to 0.05 kHz/s over 10 min. Bursty-patch emissions in the lower and upper frequency bands are often observed during magnetically disturbed periods. Clear systematic correlation between these various ELF/VLF emissions and cosmic noise absorption was not obtained throughout the campaign period. These observations indicate several previously unknown features of ELF/VLF emissions in subauroral latitudes and demonstrate the importance of continuous measurements for monitoring temporal variations in these emissions.

Shiokawa, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Yu; Ieda, Akimasa; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Nomura, Reiko; Lee, Sungeun; Sunagawa, Naoki; Miyashita, Yukinaga; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Ishizaka, Kazumasa; Yagitani, Satoshi; Kataoka, Ryuho; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Schofield, Ian; Connors, Martin;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.910.1002/2014JA020161

Chorus; ELF/VLF; Radiation belts; subauroral latitudes; wave-particle interactions

A numerical study of chorus generation and the related variation of wave intensity using the DAWN code

Chorus waves play an important role in energetic electron dynamics in the inner magnetosphere. In this work, we present a new hybrid code, DAWN, to simulate the generation of chorus waves. The DAWN code is unique in that it models cold electrons using linearized fluid equations and hot electrons using particle-in-cell techniques. The simplified fluid equations can be solved with robust and simple algorithms. We demonstrate that discrete chorus elements can be generated using the code. Waveforms of the generated element show amplitude modulation or \textquotedblleftsubpackets,\textquotedblright and the frequency sweep rate of the generated element is found to be consistent with that of observed chorus waves. Using the DAWN code, we then investigate the variation of wave intensity (inline image) with respect to linear growth rates on the equatorial plane. Previous observations showed that the change in linear growth rates of whistler waves modulated by external processes such as density modulations is usually small (inline image), while the variation of the wave intensity is large (inline image). Using a chosen set of background plasma parameters, we demonstrate that a small change (inline image) in linear growth rates can lead to significant variation (inline image) of wave intensity only in the transition from the broadband whistler wave generation regime to the chorus wave generation regime. Our results demonstrate the importance of including nonlinear dynamics of chorus generation in understanding the whistler wave intensity modulation process in the inner magnetosphere.

Tao, X.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA019820

chorus excitation; plasma simulation; whistler intensity modulation

Evidence for injection of relativistic electrons into the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt via intense substorm electric fields

Observation and model results accumulated in the last decade indicate that substorms can promptly inject relativistic \textquoteleftkiller\textquoteright electrons (>=MeV) in addition to 10\textendash100 keV subrelativistic populations. Using measurements from Cluster, Polar, LANL, and GOES satellites near the midnight sector, we show in two events that intense electric fields, as large as 20 mV/m, associated with substorm dipolarization are associated with injections of relativistic electrons into the outer radiation belt. Enhancements of hundreds of keV electrons at dipolarization in the magnetotail can account for the injected MeV electrons through earthward transport. These observations provide evidence that substorm electric fields inject relativistic electrons by transporting magnetotail electrons into the outer radiation belt. In these two events, injected relativistic electrons dominated the substorm timescale enhancement of MeV electrons as observed at geosynchronous orbit.

Dai, Lei; Wygant, John; Cattell, Cynthia; Thaller, Scott; Kersten, Kris; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei; Friedel, Reiner; Claudepierre, Seth; Tao, Xin;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059228

radiation belt relativistic electrons; substorm dipolarization; substorm electric fields; substorm injection

Storm time observations of plasmasphere erosion flux in the magnetosphere and ionosphere

Plasmasphere erosion carries cold dense plasma of ionospheric origin in a storm-enhanced density plume extending from dusk toward and through the noontime cusp and dayside magnetopause and back across polar latitudes in a polar tongue of ionization. We examine dusk sector (20 MLT) plasmasphere erosion during the 17 March 2013 storm (Dst ~ -130 nT) using simultaneous, magnetically aligned direct sunward ion flux observations at high altitude by Van Allen Probes RBSP-A (at ~3.0 Re) and at ionospheric heights (~840 km) by DMSP F-18. Plasma erosion occurs at both high and low altitudes where the subauroral polarization stream flow overlaps the outer plasmasphere. At ~20 UT, RBSP-A observed ~1.2E12 m-2 s-1 erosion flux, while DMSP F-18 observed ~2E13 m-2 s-1 sunward flux. We find close similarities at high and low altitudes between the erosion plume in both invariant latitude spatial extent and plasma characteristics.

Foster, J.; Erickson, P.; Coster, A.; Thaller, S.; Tao, J.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059124

Van Allen Probes


The Electric Field and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

The Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the two Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) spacecraft (recently renamed the Van Allen Probes) are designed to measure three dimensional quasi-static and low frequency electric fields and waves associated with the major mechanisms responsible for the acceleration of energetic charged particles in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth. For this measurement, the instrument uses two pairs of spherical double probe sensors at the ends of orthogonal centripetally deployed booms in the spin plane with tip-to-tip separations of 100 meters. The third component of the electric field is measured by two spherical sensors separated by \~15 m, deployed at the ends of two stacer booms oppositely directed along the spin axis of the spacecraft. The instrument provides a continuous stream of measurements over the entire orbit of the low frequency electric field vector at 32 samples/s in a survey mode. This survey mode also includes measurements of spacecraft potential to provide information on thermal electron plasma variations and structure. Survey mode spectral information allows the continuous evaluation of the peak value and spectral power in electric, magnetic and density fluctuations from several Hz to 6.5 kHz. On-board cross-spectral data allows the calculation of field-aligned wave Poynting flux along the magnetic field. For higher frequency waveform information, two different programmable burst memories are used with nominal sampling rates of 512 samples/s and 16 k samples/s. The EFW burst modes provide targeted measurements over brief time intervals of 3-d electric fields, 3-d wave magnetic fields (from the EMFISIS magnetic search coil sensors), and spacecraft potential. In the burst modes all six sensor-spacecraft potential measurements are telemetered enabling interferometric timing of small-scale plasma structures. In the first burst mode, the instrument stores all or a substantial fraction of the high frequency measurements in a 32 gigabyte burst memory. The sub-intervals to be downloaded are uplinked by ground command after inspection of instrument survey data and other information available on the ground. The second burst mode involves autonomous storing and playback of data controlled by flight software algorithms, which assess the \textquotedbllefthighest quality\textquotedblright events on the basis of instrument measurements and information from other instruments available on orbit. The EFW instrument provides 3-d wave electric field signals with a frequency response up to 400 kHz to the EMFISIS instrument for analysis and telemetry (Kletzing et al. Space Sci. Rev. 2013).

Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J; Goetz, K.; Ergun, R.E.; Mozer, F.; Bale, S.D.; Ludlam, M.; Turin, P.; Harvey, P.R.; Hochmann, R.; Harps, K.; Dalton, G.; McCauley, J.; Rachelson, W.; Gordon, D.; Donakowski, B.; Shultz, C.; Smith, C.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Fischer, J.; Heavner, S.; Berg, P.; Malaspina, D.; Bolton, M.; Hudson, M.; Strangeway, R.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Albert, J.; Foster, J.C.; Chaston, C.C.; Mann, I.; Donovan, E.; Cully, C.M.; Cattell, C.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Kersten, K.; Brenneman, A; Tao, J.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-0013-7

RBSP; Van Allen Probes