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Found 3 entries in the Bibliography.

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Generation of Highly Oblique Lower-band Chorus via Nonlinear Three-wave Resonance

Chorus in the inner magnetosphere has been observed frequently at geomagnetically active times, typically exhibiting a two-band structure with a quasi-parallel lower-band and an upper-band with a broad range of wave normal angles. But recent observations by Van Allen Probes confirm another type of lower-band chorus, which has a large wave normal angle close to the resonance cone angle. It has been proposed that these waves could be generated by a low-energy beam-like electron component or by temperature anisotropy of keV electrons in the presence of a low-energy plateau-like electron component. This paper, however, presents an alternative mechanism for generation of this highly oblique lower-band chorus. Through a nonlinear three-wave resonance, a quasi-parallel lower-band chorus wave can interact with a mildly oblique upper-band chorus wave, producing a highly oblique quasi-electrostatic lower-band chorus wave. This theoretical analysis is confirmed by 2D electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations. Furthermore, as the newly generated waves propagate away from the equator, their wave normal angle can further increase and they are able to scatter low-energy electrons to form a plateau-like structure in the parallel velocity distribution. The three-wave resonance mechanism may also explain the generation of quasi-parallel upper-band chorus which has also been observed in the magnetosphere.

Fu, Xiangrong; Gary, Peter; Reeves, Geoffrey; Winske, Dan; Woodroffe, Jesse;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074411

oblique whistler; PIC simulation; Ray Tracing; three-wave resonance; Van Allen Probes


Very Oblique Whistler Generation By Low Energy Electron Streams

Whistler-mode chorus waves are present throughout the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt as well as at larger distances from our planet. While the generation mechanisms of parallel lower-band chorus waves and oblique upper-band chorus waves have been identified and checked in various instances, the statistically significant presence in recent satellite observations of very oblique lower-band chorus waves near the resonance cone angle remains to be explained. Here we discuss two possible generation mechanisms for such waves. The first one is based on Landau resonance with sporadic very low energy (<4 keV) electron beams either injected from the plasmasheet or produced in situ. The second one relies on cyclotron resonance with low energy electron streams, such that their velocity distribution possesses both a significant temperature anisotropy above 3-4 keV and a plateau or heavy tail in parallel velocities at lower energies encompassing simultaneous Landau resonance with the same waves. The corresponding frequency and wave normal angle distributions of the generated very oblique lower-band chorus waves, as well as their frequency sweep rate, are evaluated analytically and compared with satellite observations, showing a reasonable agreement.

Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Agapitov, O.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Mozer, F.S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021135

Chorus wave; Cyclotron resonance; Landau resonance; oblique whistler; wave generation


Evidence of stronger pitch angle scattering loss caused by oblique whistler-mode waves as compared with quasi-parallel waves

Wave normal distributions of lower-band whistler-mode waves observed outside the plasmapause exhibit two peaks; one near the parallel direction and the other at very oblique angles. We analyze a number of conjunction events between the Van Allen Probes near the equatorial plane and POES satellites at conjugate low altitudes, where lower-band whistler-mode wave amplitudes were inferred from the two-directional POES electron measurements over 30\textendash100 keV, assuming that these waves were quasi-parallel. For conjunction events, the wave amplitudes inferred from the POES electron measurements were found to be overestimated as compared with the Van Allen Probes measurements primarily for oblique waves and quasi-parallel waves with small wave amplitudes (< ~20 pT) measured at low latitudes. This provides plausible experimental evidence of stronger pitch-angle scattering loss caused by oblique waves than by quasi-parallel waves with the same magnetic wave amplitudes, as predicted by numerical calculations.

Li, W.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Agapitov, O.; Bortnik, J.; Albert, J.; Thorne, R.; Ni, B.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061260

chorus waves; electron precipitation; oblique whistler; pitch angle scattering