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2018 
Whistler mode chorus waves are particularly important in outer radiation belt dynamics due to their key role in controlling the acceleration and scattering of electrons over a very wide energy range. The efficiency of waveparticle resonant interactions is defined by whistler wave properties which have been described by the approximation of plane linear waves propagating through the cold plasma of the inner magnetosphere. However, recent observations of extremely highamplitude whistlers suggest the importance of nonlinear waveparticle interactions for the dynamics of the outer radiation belt. Oblique chorus waves observed in the inner magnetosphere often exhibit drastically nonsinusoidal (with significant power in the higher harmonics) waveforms of the parallel electric field, presumably due to the feedback from hot resonant electrons. We have considered the nature and properties of such nonlinear whistler waves observed by the Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions define during Substorms in the inner magnetosphere, and we show that the significant enhancement of the wave electrostatic component can result from whistler wave coupling with the beamdriven electrostatic mode through the resonant interaction with hot electron beams. Being modulated by a whistler wave, the electron beam generates a driven electrostatic mode significantly enhancing the parallel electric field of the initial whistler wave. We confirm this mechanism using a selfconsistent particleincell simulation. The nonlinear electrostatic component manifests properties of the beamdriven electron acoustic mode and can be responsible for effective electron acceleration in the inhomogeneous magnetic field. Agapitov, O.; Drake, J.; Vasko, I.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Wygant, J.; Reeves, G.; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 03/2018 YEAR: 2018 DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076957 Electron acceleration; electron acoustic waves; induced scattering; nonlinear waveparticle interactions; Van Allen Probes; wave steepening; Whistler waves 
2017 
Synthetic empirical chorus wave model from combined Van Allen Probes and Cluster statistics Chorus waves are among the most important natural electromagnetic emissions in the magnetosphere as regards their potential effects on electron dynamics. They can efficiently accelerate or precipitate electrons trapped in the outer radiation belt, producing either fast increases of relativistic particle fluxes, or auroras at high latitudes. Accurately modeling their effects, however, requires detailed models of their wave power and obliquity distribution as a function of geomagnetic activity in a particularly wide spatial domain, rarely available based solely on the statistics obtained from only one satellite mission. Here, we seize the opportunity of synthesizing data from the Van Allen Probes and Cluster spacecraft to provide a new comprehensive chorus wave model in the outer radiation belt. The respective spatial coverages of these two missions are shown to be especially complementary and further allow a good crosscalibration in the overlap domain. We used 4 years (20122016) of Van Allen Probes VLF data in the chorus frequency range up to 12 kHz at latitudes lower than 20 degrees, combined with 10 years of Cluster VLF measurements up to 4 kHz in order to provide a full coverage of geomagnetic latitudes up to 45 degrees in the chorus frequency range 0.1fce0.8fce. The resulting synthetic statistical model of chorus wave amplitude, obliquity, and frequency is presented in the form of analytical functions of latitude and Kp in three different MLT sectors and for two ranges of Lshells outside the plasmasphere. Such a synthetic and reliable chorus model is crucially important for accurately modeling global acceleration and loss of electrons over the long run in the outer radiation belt, allowing a comprehensive description of electron flux variations over a very wide energy range. Agapitov, O.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Mozer, F.; Hospodarsky, G.; Bonnell, J.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 12/2017 YEAR: 2017 DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024843 
Electronacoustic solitons and double layers in the inner magnetosphere The Van Allen Probes observe generally two types of electrostatic solitary waves (ESW) contributing to the broadband electrostatic wave activity in the nightside inner magnetosphere. ESW with symmetric bipolar parallel electric field are electron phase space holes. The nature of ESW with asymmetric bipolar (and almost unipolar) parallel electric field has remained puzzling. To address their nature, we consider a particular event observed by Van Allen Probes to argue that during the broadband wave activity electrons with energy above 200 eV provide the dominant contribution to the total electron density, while the density of cold electrons (below a few eV) is less than a few tenths of the total electron density. We show that velocities of the asymmetric ESW are close to velocity of electronacoustic waves (existing due to the presence of cold and hot electrons) and follow the Kortewegde Vries (KdV) dispersion relation derived for the observed plasma conditions (electron energy spectrum is a power law between about 100 eV and 10 keV and Maxwellian above 10 keV). The ESW spatial scales are in general agreement with the KdV theory. We interpret the asymmetric ESW in terms of electronacoustic solitons and double layers (shocks waves). Vasko, I; Agapitov, O.; Mozer, F.; Bonnell, J.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Reeves, G.; Hospodarsky, G.; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 05/2017 YEAR: 2017 DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074026 double layers; electronacoustic waves; inner magnetosphere; solitons; Van Allen Probes 
Diffusive scattering of electrons by electron holes around injection fronts Van Allen Probes have detected nonlinear electrostatic spikes around injection fronts in the outer radiation belt. These spikes include electron holes (EH), double layers, and more complicated solitary waves. We show that EHs can efficiently scatter electrons due to their substantial transverse electric fields. Although the electron scattering driven by EHs is diffusive, it cannot be evaluated via the standard quasilinear theory. We derive analytical formulas describing local electron scattering by a single EH and verify them via test particle simulations. We show that the most efficiently scattered are gyroresonant electrons (crossing EH on a time scale comparable to the local electron gyroperiod). We compute bounceaveraged diffusion coefficients and demonstrate their dependence on the EH spatial distribution (latitudinal extent and spatial filling factor) and individual EH parameters (amplitude of electrostatic potential, velocity, and spatial scales). We show that EHs can drive pitch angle scattering of math formula5 keV electrons at rates 102104 s1 and, hence, can contribute to electron losses and conjugated diffuse aurora brightenings. The momentum and pitch angle scattering rates can be comparable, so that EHs can also provide efficient electron heating. The scattering rates driven by EHs at L shells L \~ 5\textendash8 are comparable to those due to chorus waves and may exceed those due to electron cyclotron harmonics. Vasko, I; Agapitov, O.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Bonnell, J.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 03/2017 YEAR: 2017 DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023337 electron holes; electron losses; injection; Radiation belt; solitary waves; Van Allen Probes 
2016 
In this paper we review recent spacecraft observations of oblique whistlermode waves in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere as well as the various consequences of the presence of such waves for electron scattering and acceleration. In particular, we survey the statistics of occurrences and intensity of oblique chorus waves in the region of the outer radiation belt, comprised between the plasmapause and geostationary orbit, and discuss how their actual distribution may be explained by a combination of linear and nonlinear generation, propagation, and damping processes. We further examine how such oblique wave populations can be included into both quasilinear diffusion models and fully nonlinear models of waveparticle interaction. On this basis, we demonstrate that varying amounts of oblique waves can significantly change the rates of particle scattering, acceleration, and precipitation into the atmosphere during quiet times as well as in the course of a storm. Finally, we discuss possible generation mechanisms for such oblique waves in the radiation belts. We demonstrate that oblique whistlermode chorus waves can be considered as an important ingredient of the radiation belt system and can play a key role in many aspects of waveparticle resonant interactions. Artemyev, Anton; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mourenas, Didier; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Shastun, Vitalii; Mozer, Forrest; Published by: Space Science Reviews Published on: 04/2016 YEAR: 2016 DOI: 10.1007/s1121401602525 Earth radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; Waveparticle interaction; Whistler waves 
2015 
Simultaneous observations of electron velocity distributions and chorus waves by the Van Allen Probe B are analyzed to identify longlasting (more than 6 h) signatures of electron Landau resonant interactions with oblique chorus waves in the outer radiation belt. Such Landau resonant interactions result in the trapping of \~1\textendash10 keV electrons and their acceleration up to 100\textendash300 keV. This kind of process becomes important for oblique whistler mode waves having a significant electric field component along the background magnetic field. In the inhomogeneous geomagnetic field, such resonant interactions then lead to the formation of a plateau in the parallel (with respect to the geomagnetic field) velocity distribution due to trapping of electrons into the wave effective potential. We demonstrate that the electron energy corresponding to the observed plateau remains in very good agreement with the energy required for Landau resonant interaction with the simultaneously measured oblique chorus waves over 6 h and a wide range of L shells (from 4 to 6) in the outer belt. The efficient parallel acceleration modifies electron pitch angle distributions at energies \~50\textendash200 keV, allowing us to distinguish the energized population. The observed energy range and the density of accelerated electrons are in reasonable agreement with test particle numerical simulations. Agapitov, O.; Artemyev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Mozer, F.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 12/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066887 Landau resonance; nonlinear acceleration of electrons; oblique whistlers; Radiation belts; seed population; Van Allen Probes 
Waveparticle interactions in the outer radiation belts Data from the Van Allen Probes have provided the first extensive evidence of nonlinear (as opposed to quasilinear) waveparticle interactions in space, with the associated rapid (fraction of a bounce period) electron acceleration, to hundreds of keV by Landau resonance, in the parallel electric fields of time domain structures (TDS) and very oblique chorus waves. The experimental evidence, simulations, and theories of these processes are discussed. Agapitov, O.~V.; Mozer, F.~S.; Artemyev, A.~V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.~V.; Published by: Advances in Astronomy and Space Physics Published on: 12/2015 plasma waves and instabilities; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; Waveparticle interaction 
Empirical model of lower band chorus wave distribution in the outer radiation belt Accurate modeling of waveparticle interactions in the radiation belts requires detailed information on wave amplitudes and wavenormal angular distributions over L shells, magnetic latitudes, magnetic local times, and for various geomagnetic activity conditions. In this work, we develop a new and comprehensive parametric model of VLF chorus waves amplitudes and obliqueness in the outer radiation belt using statistics of VLF measurements performed in the chorus frequency range during 10 years (2001\textendash2010) aboard the Cluster spacecraft. We used data from the SpatioTemporal Analysis of Field FluctuationsSpectrum Analyzer experiment, which spans a total frequency range from 8 Hz to 4 kHz. The statistical model is presented in the form of an analytical function of latitude and Kp (or Dst) index for day and night sectors of the magnetosphere and for two ranges of L shells above the plasmapause, from L = 4 to 5 and from L = 5 to 7. This model can be directly applied for numerical calculations of charged particle pitch angle and energy diffusion coefficients in the outer radiation belt, allowing to study with unprecedented detail their statistical properties as well as their important spatiotemporal variations with geomagnetic activity. Agapitov, O.; Artemyev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Mozer, F.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 12/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021829 
In the present paper, we investigate the trapping of relativistic electrons by intense whistlermode waves or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. We consider the nonresonant impact of additional, lower amplitude magnetic field fluctuations on the stability of electron trapping. We show that such additional nonresonant fluctuations can break the adiabatic invariant corresponding to trapped electron oscillations in the effective wave potential. This destruction results in a diffusive escape of electrons from the trapped regime of motion and thus can lead to a significant reduction of the efficiency of electron acceleration. We demonstrate that when energetic electrons are trapped by intense parallel or very oblique whistlermode waves, nonresonant magnetic field fluctuations in the whistlermode frequency range with moderate amplitudes around 315 pT (much less intense than the primary waves) can totally disrupt the trapped motion. However, the trapping of relativistic electrons by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves is noticeably more stable. We also discuss how the proposed approach can be used to estimate the effects of wave amplitude modulations on the motion of trapped particles. Artemyev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O.; Vainchtein, D.; Mozer, F.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Published by: Physics of Plasmas Published on: 08/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1063/1.4927774 Cyclotron resonances; magnetic fields; Particle fluctuations; Plasma electromagnetic waves; Whistler waves 
In this paper, we study relativistic electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We compare results of test particle simulations and the quasilinear theory for different spectra of waves to investigate how a fine structure of the wave emission can influence electron resonant scattering. We show that for a realistically wide distribution of wave normal angles theta (i.e., when the dispersion delta theta >= 0.5 degrees), relativistic electron scattering is similar for a wide wave spectrum and for a spectrum consisting in wellseparated ion cyclotron harmonics. Comparisons of test particle simulations with quasilinear theory show that for delta theta > 0.5 degrees, the quasilinear approximation describes resonant scattering correctly for a large enough plasma frequency. For a very narrow h distribution (when delta theta >= 0.05 degrees), however, the effect of a fine structure in the wave spectrum becomes important. In this case, quasilinear theory clearly fails in describing accurately electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We also study the effect of high wave amplitudes on relativistic electron scattering. For typical conditions in the earth\textquoterights radiation belts, the quasilinear approximation cannot accurately describe electron scattering for waves with averaged amplitudes > 300 pT. We discuss various applications of the obtained results for modeling electron dynamics in the radiation belts and in the Earth\textquoterights magnetotail. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Artemyev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Published by: Physics of Plasmas Published on: 06/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1063/1.4922061 chorus waves; CLUSTER SPACECRAFT; equatorial noise; MAGNETICFIELD; PLASMA; Quasilinear diffusion; radiation belt electrons; RESONANT SCATTERING; Van Allen Probes; WHISTLERMODE WAVES 
Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, nonlinear whistlers, etc. referred to as Time Domain Structures  TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on the Van Allen Probes. Some of them are associated with whistler waves. Such TDS often emerge on the forward edges of the whistler wave packets and form chains. The parametric decay of a whistler wave into a whistler wave propagating in the opposite direction and an electron acoustic wave is studied experimentally as well as analytically, using Van Allen Probes data. The resulting electron acoustic wave is considered to be the source of electron scale TDS. The measured parameters of the three waves (two whistlers and the electron acoustic wave) are in a good agreement with an assumption of their parametric interaction: ω0 = ω1 + ω2 and inline image. The bicoherence analysis shows the nonlinear nature of the observed electronacoustic waves as well as the whistler wave and electron acoustic wave phase relation. The estimated decay instability growth rate shows that the process of three wave interaction can develop in a characteristic time smaller than one second, thus the process is rapid enough to explain the observations. This induced parametric interaction can be one of the mechanisms for quasiperiodic TDS generation in the outer Van Allen radiation belt. Agapitov, O.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.; Volokitin, A.; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 05/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064145 electron acoustic waves; nonlinear structure formation; parametric decay of whistlers; Van Allen Probes 
Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts uncovers a missing energy Whistlermode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upperatmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80\% of the wave energy involved in wave\textendashparticle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/overvalued in past studies considering only conventional quasiparallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.; Published by: Nature Communications Published on: 05/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8143 Astronomy; Fluids and plasma physics; Physical sciences; Planetary sciences 
Time Domain Structures: what and where they are, what they do, and how they are made Time Domain Structures (TDS) (electrostatic or electromagnetic electron holes, solitary waves, double layers, etc.) are >=1 msec pulses having significant parallel (to the background magnetic field) electric fields. They are abundant through space and occur in packets of hundreds in the outer Van Allen radiation belts where they produce magneticfieldaligned electron pitch angle distributions at energies up to a hundred keV. TDS can provide the seed electrons that are later accelerated to relativistic energies by whistlers and they also produce fieldaligned electrons that may be responsible for some types of auroras. These fieldaligned electron distributions result from at least three processes. The first process is parallel acceleration by Landau trapping in the TDS parallel electric field. The second process is Fermi acceleration due to reflection of electrons by the TDS. The third process is an effective and rapid pitch angle scattering resulting from electron interactions with the perpendicular and parallel electric and magnetic fields of many TDS. TDS are created by currentdriven and beamrelated instabilities and by whistlerrelated processes such as parametric decay of whistlers and nonlinear evolution from oblique whistlers. New results on the temporal relationship of TDS and particle injections, types of fieldaligned electron pitch angle distributions produced by TDS, the mechanisms for generation of fieldaligned distributions by TDS, the maximum energies of fieldaligned electrons created by TDS in the absence of whistler mode waves, TDS generation by oblique whistlers and threewaveparametric decay, and the correlation between TDS and auroral particle precipitation, are presented. Mozer, F.S.; Agapitov, O.V.; Artemyev, A.; Drake, J.F.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Lejosne, S.; Vasko, I.; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 04/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063946 
Very Oblique Whistler Generation By Low Energy Electron Streams Whistlermode chorus waves are present throughout the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt as well as at larger distances from our planet. While the generation mechanisms of parallel lowerband chorus waves and oblique upperband chorus waves have been identified and checked in various instances, the statistically significant presence in recent satellite observations of very oblique lowerband chorus waves near the resonance cone angle remains to be explained. Here we discuss two possible generation mechanisms for such waves. The first one is based on Landau resonance with sporadic very low energy (<4 keV) electron beams either injected from the plasmasheet or produced in situ. The second one relies on cyclotron resonance with low energy electron streams, such that their velocity distribution possesses both a significant temperature anisotropy above 34 keV and a plateau or heavy tail in parallel velocities at lower energies encompassing simultaneous Landau resonance with the same waves. The corresponding frequency and wave normal angle distributions of the generated very oblique lowerband chorus waves, as well as their frequency sweep rate, are evaluated analytically and compared with satellite observations, showing a reasonable agreement. Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Agapitov, O.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Mozer, F.S.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021135 Chorus wave; Cyclotron resonance; Landau resonance; oblique whistler; wave generation 
Fieldaligned chorus wave spectral power in Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt Chorustype whistler waves are one of the most intense electromagnetic waves generated naturally in the magnetosphere. These waves have a substantial impact on the radiation belt dynamics as they are thought to contribute to electron acceleration and losses into the ionosphere through resonant wave\textendashparticle interaction. Our study is devoted to the determination of chorus wave power distribution on frequency in a wide range of magnetic latitudes, from 0 to 40\textdegree. We use 10 years of magnetic and electric field wave power measured by STAFFSA onboard Cluster spacecraft to model the initial (equatorial) chorus wave spectral power, as well as PEACE and RAPID measurements to model the properties of energetic electrons (~ 0.1\textendash100 keV) in the outer radiation belt. The dependence of this distribution upon latitude obtained from Cluster STAFFSA is then consistently reproduced along a certain Lshell range (4 <= L <= 6.5), employing WHAMPbased ray tracing simulations in hot plasma within a realistic inner magnetospheric model. We show here that, as latitude increases, the chorus peak frequency is globally shifted towards lower frequencies. Making use of our simulations, the peak frequency variations can be explained mostly in terms of wave damping and amplification, but also crossL propagation. These results are in good agreement with previous studies of chorus wave spectral extent using data from different spacecraft (Cluster, POLAR and THEMIS). The chorus peak frequency variations are then employed to calculate the pitch angle and energy diffusion rates, resulting in more effective pitch angle electron scattering (electron lifetime is halved) but less effective acceleration. These peak frequency parameters can thus be used to improve the accuracy of diffusion coefficient calculations. Breuillard, H.; Agapitov, O.; Artemyev, A.; Kronberg, E.; Haaland, S.; Daly, P.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Boscher, D.; Bourdarie, S.; Zaliznyak, Y.; Rolland, G.; Published by: Annales Geophysicae Published on: 01/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.5194/angeo335832015 
2014 
The distribution of trapped energetic electrons inside the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts is the focus of intense studies aiming at better describing the evolution of the space environment in the presence of various disturbances induced by the solar wind or by an enhanced lightning activity. Such studies are usually performed by means of comparisons with full numerical simulations solving the FokkerPlanck quasilinear diffusion equation for the particle distribution function. Here, we present for the first time approximate but realistic analytical solutions for the electron distribution, which are shown to be in good agreement with exact numerical solutions in situations where resonant scattering of energetic electrons by whistlermode hiss, lightninggenerated or chorus waves, is the dominant process. Quiettime distributions are wellrecovered, as well as the evolution of energized relativistic electron distributions during disturbed geomagnetic conditions. It is further shown that careful comparisons between the analytical solutions and measured distributions may allow to infer important bounce and drift averaged wave characteristics (such as wave amplitude). It could also help to improve the global understanding of underlying physical phenomena. Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Agapitov, O.V.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Li, W.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 11/2014 YEAR: 2014 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020443 electron distribution; pitchangle distribution; Radiation belt 
Fast transport of resonant electrons in phase space due to nonlinear trapping by whistler waves We present an analytical, simplified formulation accounting for the fast transport of relativistic electrons in phase space due to waveparticle resonant interactions in the inhomogeneous magnetic field of Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. We show that the usual description of the evolution of the particle velocity distribution based on the FokkerPlanck equation can be modified to incorporate nonlinear processes of waveparticle interaction, including particle trapping. Such a modification consists in one additional operator describing fast particle jumps in phase space. The proposed, general approach is used to describe the acceleration of relativistic electrons by oblique whistler waves in the radiation belts. We demonstrate that for a wave power distribution with a hard enough power law tail inline image such that η < 5/2, the efficiency of nonlinear acceleration could be more effective than the conventional quasilinear acceleration for 100 keV electrons. Artemyev, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Boscher, D.; Rolland, G.; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 08/2014 YEAR: 2014 DOI: 10.1002/grl.v41.1610.1002/2014GL061380 particle trapping; Radiation belts; Waveparticle interaction 
Thermal electron acceleration by localized bursts of electric field in the radiation belts In this paper we investigate the resonant interaction of thermal ~10100 eV electrons with a burst of electrostatic field that results in electron acceleration to kilovolt energies. This single burst contains a large parallel electric field of one sign and a much smaller, longer lasting parallel field of the opposite sign. The Van Allen Probe spacecraft often observes clusters of spatially localized bursts in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belts. These structures propagate mostly away from thegeomagnetic equator and share properties of solitonlike nonlinear electronacoustic waves: a velocity of propagation is about the thermal velocity of cold electrons (~300010000 km/s), and a spatial scale of electric field localization alongthe field lines is about the Debye radius of hot electrons (~530 km). We model the nonlinear resonant interaction of these electric field structures and cold background electrons. Artemyev, A.; Agapitov, O.; Mozer, F.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 08/2014 YEAR: 2014 DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061248 Radiation belts; thermal electrons; Van Allen Probes; Waveparticle interaction 
The mechanisms for accelerating electrons from thermal to relativistic energies in the terrestrial magnetosphere, on the sun, and in many astrophysical environments have never been verified. We present the first direct observation of two processes that, in a chain, cause this acceleration in Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt. The two processes are parallel acceleration from electronvolt to kilovolt energies by parallel electric fields in timedomain structures (TDS), after which the parallel electron velocity becomes sufficiently large for Dopplershifted upper band whistler frequencies to be in resonance with the electron gyration frequency, even though the electron energies are kilovolts and not hundreds of kilovolts. The electrons are then accelerated by the whistler perpendicular electric field to relativistic energies in several resonant interactions. TDS are packets of electric field spikes, each spike having duration of a few hundred microseconds and containing a local parallel electric field. The TDS of interest resulted from nonlinearity of the parallel electric field component in oblique whistlers and consisted of \~0.1 msec pulses superposed on the whistler waveform with each such spike containing a net parallel potential the order of 50 V. Local magnetic field compression from remote activity provided the free energy to drive the two processes. The expected temporal correlations between the compressed magnetic field, the nonlinear whistlers with their parallel electric field spikes, the electron flux and the electron pitch angle distributions were all observed. Mozer, S.; Agapitov, O.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Lejosne, S.; Reeves, D.; Roth, I.; Published by: Physical Review Letters Published on: 07/2014 YEAR: 2014 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.035001 
The mechanisms for accelerating electrons from thermal to relativistic energies in the terrestrial magnetosphere, on the sun, and in many astrophysical environments have never been verified. We present the first direct observation of two processes that, in a chain, cause this acceleration in Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt. The two processes are parallel acceleration from electronvolt to kilovolt energies by parallel electric fields in timedomain structures (TDS), after which the parallel electron velocity becomes sufficiently large for Dopplershifted upper band whistler frequencies to be in resonance with the electron gyration frequency, even though the electron energies are kilovolts and not hundreds of kilovolts. The electrons are then accelerated by the whistler perpendicular electric field to relativistic energies in several resonant interactions. TDS are packets of electric field spikes, each spike having duration of a few hundred microseconds and containing a local parallel electric field. The TDS of interest resulted from nonlinearity of the parallel electric field component in oblique whistlers and consisted of \~0.1 msec pulses superposed on the whistler waveform with each such spike containing a net parallel potential the order of 50 V. Local magnetic field compression from remote activity provided the free energy to drive the two processes. The expected temporal correlations between the compressed magnetic field, the nonlinear whistlers with their parallel electric field spikes, the electron flux and the electron pitch angle distributions were all observed. Mozer, F.; Agapitov, O.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Lejosne, S.; Reeves, G.; Roth, I.; Published by: Phys. Rev. Lett. Published on: 07/2014 YEAR: 2014 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.035001 
Global statistics of the amplitude distributions of hiss, lightninggenerated, and other whistler mode waves from terrestrial VLF transmitters have been obtained from the EXOSD (Akebono) satellite in the Earth\textquoterights plasmasphere and fitted as functions of L and latitude for two geomagnetic activity ranges (Kp<3 and Kp>3). In particular, the present study focuses on the inner zone L∈[1.4,2] where reliable in situ measurements were lacking. Such statistics are critically needed for an accurate assessment of the role and relative dominance of each type of wave in the dynamics of the inner radiation belt. While VLF waves seem to propagate mainly in a ducted mode at L\~1.5\textendash3 for Kp<3, they appear to be substantially unducted during more disturbed periods (Kp>3). Hiss waves are generally the most intense in the inner belt, and lightninggenerated and hiss wave intensities increase with geomagnetic activity. Lightninggenerated wave amplitudes generally peak within 10\textdegree of the equator in the region L<2 where magnetosonic wave amplitudes are weak for Kp<3. Based on this statistics, simplified models of each wave type are presented. Quasilinear pitch angle and energy diffusion rates of electrons by the full wave model are then calculated. Corresponding electron lifetimes compare well with decay rates of trapped energetic electrons obtained from Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer and other satellites at L∈[1.4,2]. Agapitov, O.; Artemyev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Kasahara, Y.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2014 YEAR: 2014 DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.410.1002/2014JA019886 Inner radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; Waveparticle interaction 
2013 
The Electric Field and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission The Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the two Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) spacecraft (recently renamed the Van Allen Probes) are designed to measure three dimensional quasistatic and low frequency electric fields and waves associated with the major mechanisms responsible for the acceleration of energetic charged particles in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth. For this measurement, the instrument uses two pairs of spherical double probe sensors at the ends of orthogonal centripetally deployed booms in the spin plane with tiptotip separations of 100 meters. The third component of the electric field is measured by two spherical sensors separated by \~15 m, deployed at the ends of two stacer booms oppositely directed along the spin axis of the spacecraft. The instrument provides a continuous stream of measurements over the entire orbit of the low frequency electric field vector at 32 samples/s in a survey mode. This survey mode also includes measurements of spacecraft potential to provide information on thermal electron plasma variations and structure. Survey mode spectral information allows the continuous evaluation of the peak value and spectral power in electric, magnetic and density fluctuations from several Hz to 6.5 kHz. Onboard crossspectral data allows the calculation of fieldaligned wave Poynting flux along the magnetic field. For higher frequency waveform information, two different programmable burst memories are used with nominal sampling rates of 512 samples/s and 16 k samples/s. The EFW burst modes provide targeted measurements over brief time intervals of 3d electric fields, 3d wave magnetic fields (from the EMFISIS magnetic search coil sensors), and spacecraft potential. In the burst modes all six sensorspacecraft potential measurements are telemetered enabling interferometric timing of smallscale plasma structures. In the first burst mode, the instrument stores all or a substantial fraction of the high frequency measurements in a 32 gigabyte burst memory. The subintervals to be downloaded are uplinked by ground command after inspection of instrument survey data and other information available on the ground. The second burst mode involves autonomous storing and playback of data controlled by flight software algorithms, which assess the \textquotedbllefthighest quality\textquotedblright events on the basis of instrument measurements and information from other instruments available on orbit. The EFW instrument provides 3d wave electric field signals with a frequency response up to 400 kHz to the EMFISIS instrument for analysis and telemetry (Kletzing et al. Space Sci. Rev. 2013). Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J; Goetz, K.; Ergun, R.E.; Mozer, F.; Bale, S.D.; Ludlam, M.; Turin, P.; Harvey, P.R.; Hochmann, R.; Harps, K.; Dalton, G.; McCauley, J.; Rachelson, W.; Gordon, D.; Donakowski, B.; Shultz, C.; Smith, C.; DiazAguado, M.; Fischer, J.; Heavner, S.; Berg, P.; Malaspina, D.; Bolton, M.; Hudson, M.; Strangeway, R.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Albert, J.; Foster, J.C.; Chaston, C.C.; Mann, I.; Donovan, E.; Cully, C.M.; Cattell, C.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Kersten, K.; Brenneman, A; Tao, J.; Published by: Space Science Reviews Published on: 11/2013 YEAR: 2013 DOI: 10.1007/s1121401300137 
Storminduced energization of radiation belt electrons: Effect of wave obliquity New Cluster statistics allow us to determine for the first time the variations of both the obliquity and intensity of lowerband chorus waves as functions of latitude and geomagnetic activity near L\~5. The portion of wave power in very oblique waves decreases during highly disturbed periods, consistent with increased Landau damping by inwardpenetrating suprathermal electrons. Simple analytical considerations as well as full numerical calculations of quasilinear diffusion rates demonstrate that earlytime electron acceleration occurs in a regime of losslimited energization. In this regime, the average wave obliquity plays a critical role in mitigating lifetime reduction as wave intensity increases with geomagnetic activity, suggesting that much larger energization levels should be reached during the early recovery phase of storms than during quiet time or moderate disturbances, the latter corresponding to stronger losses. These new effects should be included in realistic radiation belt simulations. Artemyev, A.; Agapitov, O.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Zelenyi, L.; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 08/2013 YEAR: 2013 DOI: 10.1002/grl.50837 
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