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Found 8 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 8


A census of plasma waves and structures associated with an injection front in the inner magnetosphere

Now that observations have conclusively established that the inner magnetosphere is abundantly populated with kinetic electric field structures and nonlinear waves, attention has turned to quantifying the ability of these structures and waves to scatter and accelerate inner magnetospheric plasma populations. A necessary step in that quantification is determining the distribution of observed structure and wave properties (e.g. occurrence rates, amplitudes, spatial scales). Kinetic structures and nonlinear waves have broadband signatures in frequency space and consequently, high resolution time domain electric and magnetic field data is required to uniquely identify such structures and waves as well as determine their properties. However, most high resolution fields data is collected with a strong bias toward high amplitude signals in a pre-selected frequency range, strongly biasing observations of structure and wave properties. In this study, a \~45 minute unbroken interval of 16,384 samples/s fields burst data, encompassing an electron injection event, is examined. This data set enables an unbiased census of the kinetic structures and nonlinear waves driven by this electron injection, as well as determination of their \textquotelefttypical\textquoteright properties. It is found that the properties determined using this unbiased burst data are considerably different than those inferred from amplitude-biased burst data, with significant implications for wave-particle interactions due to kinetic structures and nonlinear waves in the inner magnetosphere.

Malaspina, David; Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr; Chu, Xiangning; Wygant, John;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA025005

Electron Injection; inner magnetosphere; Kinetic structures; Plasma Boundaries; plasma waves; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes


Statistical Properties of Low Frequency Plasmaspheric Hiss

Plasmaspheric hiss is an important wave mode for the dynamics of inner terrestrial magnetosphere plasma populations. It acts to scatter high energy electrons out of trapped orbits about Earth and into the atmosphere, defining the inner edge of the radiation belts over a range of energies. A low-frequency component of hiss was recently identified and is important for its ability to interact with higher energy electrons compared to typically considered hiss frequencies. This study compares the statistical properties of low and high frequency plasmaspheric hiss in the terrestrial magnetosphere, demonstrating that they are statistically distinct wave populations. Low frequency hiss shows different behavior in frequency space, different spatial localization (in magnetic local time and radial distance), and different amplitude distributions compared to high frequency hiss. The observed statistical properties of low frequency hiss are found to be consistent with recently developed theories for low frequency hiss generation. The results presented here suggest that careful consideration of low frequency hiss properties can be important for accurate inclusion of this wave population in predictive models of inner magnetosphere plasma dynamics.

Malaspina, David; Jaynes, Allison; Hospodarsky, George; Bortnik, Jacob; Ergun, Robert; Wygant, John;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024328

inner magnetosphere; plasma waves; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes; Wave Statistics


Hiss or Equatorial Noise? Ambiguities in Analyzing Suprathermal Ion Plasma Wave Resonance

Previous studies have shown that low energy ion heating occurs in the magnetosphere due to strong equatorial noise emission. Observations from the Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument recently determined there was a depletion in the 1-10 eV ion population in the post-midnight sector of Earth during quiet times at L < 3. The diurnal variation of equatorially mirroring 1-10 eV H+ ions between 2 < L < 3 is connected with similar diurnal variation in the electric field component of plasma waves ranging between 150 and 600 Hz. Measurements from the Van Allen Probes Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) data set are used to analyze waves of this frequency in near-Earth space. However, when we examine the polarization of the waves in the 150 to 600 Hz range in the equatorial plane, the majority are right-hand polarized plasmaspheric hiss waves. The 1-10 eV H+ equatorially mirroring population does not interact with right hand waves, despite a strong statistical relationship suggesting the two is linked. We present evidence supporting the relationship, both in our own work and the literature, but we ultimately conclude that the 1-10 eV H+ heating is not related to the strong enhancement of 150 to 600 Hz waves.

Sarno-Smith, Lois; Liemohn, Michael; Skoug, Ruth; ik, Ondrej; Morley, Steven; Breneman, Aaron; Larsen, Brian; Reeves, Geoff; Wygant, John; Hospodarsky, George; Kletzing, Craig; Moldwin, Mark; Katus, Roxanne; Zou, Shasha;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022975

equatorial noise; Low Energy Ions; plasma waves; plasmasphere; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes

The distribution of plasmaspheric hiss wave power with respect to plasmapause location

In this work, Van Allen Probes data are used to derive terrestrial plasmaspheric hiss wave power distributions organized by (1) distance away from the plasmapause and (2) plasmapause distance from Earth. This approach is in contrast to the traditional organization of hiss wave power by L parameter and geomagnetic activity. Plasmapause-sorting reveals previously unreported and highly repeatable features of the hiss wave power distribution, including a regular spatial distribution of hiss power with respect to the plasmapause, a standoff distance between peak hiss power and the plasmapause, and frequency-dependent spatial localization of hiss. Identification and quantification of these features can provide insight into hiss generation and propagation and will facilitate improved parameterization of hiss wave power in predictive simulations of inner magnetosphere dynamics.

Malaspina, David; Jaynes, Allison; e, Cory; Bortnik, Jacob; Thaller, Scott; Ergun, Robert; Kletzing, Craig; Wygant, John;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069982

hiss; plasma waves; plasmasphere; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes


Kinetic Alfv\ en Waves and Particle Response Associated with a Shock-Induced, Global ULF Perturbation of the Terrestrial Magnetosphere

On 2 October 2013, the arrival of an interplanetary shock compressed the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere and triggered a global ULF (ultra low frequency) oscillation. The Van Allen Probe B spacecraft observed this large-amplitude ULF wave in situ with both magnetic and electric field data. Broadband waves up to approximately 100 Hz were observed in conjunction with, and modulated by, this ULF wave. Detailed analysis of fields and particle data reveals that these broadband waves are Doppler-shifted kinetic Alfv\ en waves. This event suggests that magnetospheric compression by interplanetary shocks can induce abrupt generation of kinetic Alfv\ en waves over large portions of the inner magnetosphere, potentially driving previously unconsidered wave-particle interactions throughout the inner magnetosphere during the initial response of the magnetosphere to shock impacts.

Malaspina, David; Claudepierre, Seth; Takahashi, Kazue; Jaynes, Allison; Elkington, Scot; Ergun, Robert; Wygant, John; Reeves, Geoff; Kletzing, Craig;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 11/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065935

inner magnetosphere; interplanetary shock; Kinetic Alfven Waves; magnetosphere shock response; plasma waves; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Solar cycle dependence of ion cyclotron wave frequencies

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been studied for decades, though remain a fundamentally important topic in heliospheric physics. The connection of EMIC waves to the scattering of energetic particles from Earth\textquoterights radiation belts is one ofmany topics that motivate the need for a deeper understanding of characteristics and occurrence distributions of the waves. In this study, we show that EMIC wave frequencies, as observed at Halley Station in Antarctica from 2008 through 2012, increase by approximately 60\% from a minimum in 2009 to the end of 2012. Assuming that these waves are excited in the vicinity of the plasmapause, the change in Kp in going from solar minimum to near solar maximum would drive increased plasmapause erosion, potentially shifting the generation region of the EMIC to lower L and resulting in the higher frequencies. A numerical estimate of the change in plasmapause location, however, implies that it is not enough to account for the shift in EMIC frequencies that are observed at Halley Station. Another possible explanation for the frequency shift, however, is that the relative density of heavier ions in the magnetosphere (that would be associated with increased solar activity) could account for the change in frequencies. In terms of effects on radiation belt dynamics, the shift to higher frequencies tends to mean that these waves will interact with less energetic electrons, although the details involved in this process are complex and depend on the specific plasma and gyrofrequencies of all populations, including electrons. In addition, the change in location of the generation region to lower L shells means that the waves will have access to higher number fluxes of resonant electrons. Finally, we show a sunlit ionosphere can inhibit ground observations of EMIC waves with frequencies higher than ~0.5 Hz and note that the effect likely has resulted in an underestimate of the solar-cycle-driven frequency changes described here.

Lessard, Marc; Lindgren, Erik; Engebretson, Mark; Weaver, Carol;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020791

EMIC waves; Ion cyclotron; Magnetosphere; plasma waves; Radiation belts; solar cycles

One- and two-dimensional hybrid simulations of whistler mode waves in a dipole field

We simulate whistler mode waves using a hybrid code. There are four species in the simulations, hot electrons initialized with a bi-Maxwellian distribution with temperature in the direction perpendicular to background magnetic field greater than that in the parallel direction, warm isotropic electrons, cold inertialess fluid electrons, and protons as an immobile background. The density of the hot population is a small fraction of the total plasma density. Comparison between the dispersion relation of our model and other dispersion relations shows that our model is more accurate for lower frequency whistlers than for higher frequency whistlers. Simulations in 2-D Cartesian coordinates agree very well with those using a full dynamics code. In the 1-D simulations along the dipole magnetic field, the predicted frequency and wave number are observed. Rising tones are observed in the one-fourteenth scale simulations that have larger than realistic magnetic field spatial inhomogeneity. However, in the full-scale 1-D simulation in a dipole field, the waves are more broadband and do not exhibit rising tones. In the 2-D simulations in a meridional plane, the waves are generated with propagation approximately parallel to the background magnetic field. However, the wavefronts become oblique as they propagate to higher latitudes. Simulations with different plasma density profiles across L shell are performed to study the effect of the background density on whistler propagation.

Wu, S.; Denton, R.; Liu, K.; Hudson, M.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020736

hybrid simulation; particle-in-cell simulation; plasma waves; Whistler waves


Global distribution of EMIC waves derived from THEMIS observations

[1] Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in magnetospheric dynamics and their global distribution has been of great interest. This paper presents the distribution of EMIC waves over a broader range than ever before, as enabled by observations with the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft from 2007 to 2010. Our major findings are: (1) There are two major peaks in the EMIC wave occurrence probability. One is at dusk and 8\textendash12 RE where the helium band dominates the hydrogen band waves. The other is at dawn and 10\textendash12 RE where the hydrogen band dominates the helium band waves. (2) In terms of wave spectral power the dusk events are stronger (≈10 nT2/Hz) than the dawn events (≈3 nT2/Hz). (3) The dawn waves have large normal angles (>45) in the hydrogen band and even larger normal angles

Min, Kyungguk; Lee, Jeongwoo; Keika, Kunihiro; Li, W.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 05/2012

YEAR: 2012     DOI: 10.1029/2012JA017515

EMIC wave occurrence; EMIC waves; plasma waves; RBSP; Van Allen Probes