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Found 56 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 50


Preliminary Statistical Comparisons of Spin-Averaged Electron Data from Arase and Van Allen Probes Instruments

Abstract Following the end of the Van Allen Probes mission, the Arase satellite offers a unique opportunity to continue in-situ radiation belt and ring current particle measurements into the next solar cycle. In this study we compare spin-averaged flux measurements from the MEPe, HEP-L, HEP-H, and XEP-SSD instruments on Arase with those from the MagEIS and REPT instruments on the Van Allen Probes, calculating Pearson correlation coefficient and the mean ratio of fluxes at L* conjunctions between the spacecraft. Arase and Van Allen Probes measurements show a close agreement over a wide range of energies, observing a similar general evolution of electron flux, as well as average, peak, and minimum values. Measurements from the two missions agree especially well in the 3.6 ≤ L* ≤ 4.4 range where Arase samples similar magnetic latitudes to Van Allen Probes. Arase tends to record higher flux for energies < 670 keV with longer decay times after flux enhancements, particularly for L* < 3.6 . Conversely, for energies > 1.4 MeV, Arase flux measurements are generally lower than those of Van Allen Probes, especially for L* > 4.4 . The correlation coefficient values show that the > 1.4 MeV flux from both missions are well correlated, indicating a similar general evolution, although flux magnitudes differ. We perform a preliminary intercalibration between the two missions using the mean ratio of the fluxes as an energy- and L*- dependent intercalibration factor. The intercalibration factor improves agreement between the fluxes in the 0.58-1 MeV range. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Szabó-Roberts, Mátyás; Shprits, Yuri; Allison, Hayley; Vasile, Ruggero; Smirnov, Artem; Aseev, Nikita; Drozdov, Alexander; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Claudepierre, Seth; Kasahara, Satoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Mitani, Takefumi; Takashima, Takeshi; Higashio, Nana; Hori, Tomo; Keika, Kunihiro; Imajo, Shun; Shinohara, Iku;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Arase/ERG; RBSP; intercalibration; Van Allen Probes

Whistler on a Shelf

Abstract This paper presents results from a numerical study of the guiding of VLF whistler-mode waves along the ambient magnetic field by the shelf-like density structures observed by the NASA Van Allen Probes satellites in the equatorial plasmasphere. The shelf-duct consists of a homogeneous central part “sandwiched” between two density gradients pointing in the same direction. To the best of our knowledge, this type of whistler ducting has never been identified in observations before. Our investigation is based on simulations of the electron-MHD model, and our goal is to explain the mechanism of providing wave trapping and to reproduce the structure of the observed waves. The main result from this study is that the shelf-like, field-aligned density irregularities can indeed guide whistler-mode waves along the ambient magnetic field with little attenuation, and the parameters of the guided waves are defined by the parameters of the duct. The simulations reproduce the structure of the observed waves reasonably well. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Streltsov, Anatoly;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Whistler waves; density duct; plasmasphere; RBSP; simulations; Van Allen Probes

Multi-event Analysis of Plasma and Field Variations in Source of Stable Auroral Red (SAR) Arcs in Inner Magnetosphere during Non-storm-time Substorms

Abstract Stable auroral red (SAR) arcs are optical events with dominant 630.0-nm emission caused by low-energy electron heat flux into the topside ionosphere from the inner magnetosphere. SAR arcs are observed at subauroral latitudes and often occur during the recovery phase of magnetic storms and substorms. Past studies concluded that these low-energy electrons were generated in the spatial overlap region between the outer plasmasphere and ring-current ions and suggested that Coulomb collisions between plasmaspheric electrons and ring-current ions are more feasible for the SAR-arc generation mechanism rather than Landau damping by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves or kinetic Alfvén waves. This paper studies three separate SAR-arc events with conjunctions, using all-sky imagers and inner magnetospheric satellites (Arase and RBSP) during non-storm-time substorms on 19 December 2012 (event 1), 17 January 2015 (event 2), and 4 November 2019 (event 3). We evaluated for the first time the heat flux via Coulomb collision using full-energy-range ion data obtained by the satellites. The electron heat fluxes due to Coulomb collisions reached ∼109 eV/cm2/s for events 1 and 2, indicating that Coulomb collisions could have caused the SAR arcs. RBSP-A also observed local enhancements of 7–20-mHz electromagnetic wave power above the SAR arc in event 2. The heat flux for the freshly-detached SAR arc in event 3 reached ∼108 eV/cm2/s, which is insufficient to have caused the SAR arc. In event 3, local flux enhancement of electrons (<200 eV) and various electromagnetic waves were observed, these are likely to have caused the freshly-detached SAR arc.

Inaba, Yudai; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Oyama, Shin-Ichiro; Otsuka, Yuichi; Connors, Martin; Schofield, Ian; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Imajo, Shun; Shinbori, Atsuki; Gololobov, Artem; Kazama, Yoichi; Wang, Shiang-Yu; W. Y. Tam, Sunny; Chang, Tzu-Fang; Wang, Bo-Jhou; Asamura, Kazushi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Kasahara, Satoshi; Keika, Kunihiro; Hori, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Ayako; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Matsuda, Shoya; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Shoji, Masafumi; Kitahara, Masahiro; Nakamura, Satoko; Shinohara, Iku; Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoff; MacDowall, Robert; Smith, Charles; Wygant, John; Bonnell, John;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

SAR arc; Arase; RBSP; ring current; Non-storm-time substorm; Plasmapause; Van Allen Probes


Spatial Extent of Quasiperiodic Emissions Simultaneously Observed by Arase and Van Allen Probes on 29 November 2018

Recent availability of a considerable amount of satellite and ground-based data has allowed us to analyze rare conjugated events where extremely low and very low frequency waves from the same source region are observed in different locations. Here, we report a quasiperiodic (QP) emission, showing one-to-one correspondence, observed by three satellites in space (Arase and the Van Allen Probes) and a ground station. The main event was on 29 November 2018 from 12:06 to 13:08 UT during geomagnetically quiet times. Using the position of the satellites we estimated the spatial extent of the area where the one-to-one correspondence is observed. We found this to be up to 1.21 Earth s radii by 2.26 hr MLT, in radial and longitudinal directions, respectively. Using simple ray tracing calculations, we discuss the probable source location of these waves. At ∼12:20 UT, changes in the frequency sweep rate of the QP elements are observed at all locations associated with magnetic disturbances. We also discuss temporal changes of the spectral shape of QP observed simultaneously in space and on the ground, suggesting the changes are related to properties of the source mechanisms of the waves. This could be linked to two separate sources or a larger source region with different source intensities (i.e., electron flux). At frequencies below the low hybrid resonance, waves can experience attenuation and/or reflection in the magnetosphere. This could explain the sudden end of the observations at the spacecraft, which are moving away from the area where waves can propagate.

Martinez-Calderon, C.; Němec, F.; Katoh, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Kletzing, C.; Hospodarsky, G.; Santolik, O.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Kumamoto, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Matsuoka, A.; Shoji, M.; Teramoto, M.; Kurita, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ozaki, M.; Nishitani, N.; Oinats, A.; Kurkin, V.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

VLF/ELF; spatial extent; conjugated events; ERG; RBSP; quasiperiodic emissions; Van Allen Probes

Whistler Mode Quasiperiodic Emissions: Contrasting Van Allen Probes and DEMETER Occurrence Rates

Abstract Quasiperiodic emissions are magnetospheric whistler mode waves at frequencies between about 0.5 and 4 kHz which exhibit a nearly periodic time modulation of the wave intensity. We use large data sets of events observed by the Van Allen Probes in the equatorial region at larger radial distances and by the low-altitude DEMETER spacecraft. While Van Allen Probes observe the events at all local times and longitudes, DEMETER observations are limited nearly exclusively to the daytime and significantly less frequent at the longitudes of the South Atlantic Anomaly. Further, while the events observed by Van Allen Probes are smoothly distributed over seasons with only mild maxima in spring/autumn, DEMETER occurrence rate has a single pronounced minimum in July. The apparent inconsistency is explained by considering a nondipolar Earth s magnetic field and significant background wave intensities which in these cases prevent the quasiperiodic events from being identified in DEMETER data.

Němec, F.; Santolik, O.; Hospodarsky, G.; Hajoš, M.; Demekhov, A.; Kurth, W.; Parrot, M.; Hartley, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2020JA027918

quasiperiodic emissions; QP emissions; DEMETER; RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Whistler Mode Quasiperiodic Emissions: Contrasting Van Allen Probes and DEMETER Occurrence Rates

Quasiperiodic emissions are magnetospheric whistler mode waves at frequencies between about 0.5 and 4 kHz which exhibit a nearly periodic time modulation of the wave intensity. We use large data sets of events observed by the Van Allen Probes in the equatorial region at larger radial distances and by the low-altitude DEMETER spacecraft. While Van Allen Probes observe the events at all local times and longitudes, DEMETER observations are limited nearly exclusively to the daytime and significantly less frequent at the longitudes of the South Atlantic Anomaly. Further, while the events observed by Van Allen Probes are smoothly distributed over seasons with only mild maxima in spring/autumn, DEMETER occurrence rate has a single pronounced minimum in July. The apparent inconsistency is explained by considering a nondipolar Earth s magnetic field and significant background wave intensities which in these cases prevent the quasiperiodic events from being identified in DEMETER data.

Němec, F.; Santolik, O.; Hospodarsky, G.; Hajoš, M.; Demekhov, A.; Kurth, W.; Parrot, M.; Hartley, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

quasiperiodic emissions; QP emissions; DEMETER; RBSP; Van Allen Probes


Simulations of Van Allen Probes Plasmaspheric Electron Density Observations

We simulate equatorial plasmaspheric electron densities using a physics-based model (Cold PLasma, CPL; used in the ring current-atmosphere interactions model) of the source and loss processes of refilling and erosion driven by empirical inputs. The performance of CPL is evaluated against in situ measurements by the Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) for two events: the 31 May to 5 June and 15 to 20 January 2013 geomagnetic storms observed in the premidnight and postmidnight magnetic local time (MLT) sectors, respectively. Overall, CPL reproduces the radial extent of the plasmasphere to within a mean absolute difference of urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra54637:jgra54637-math-0001 L. The model electric field responsible for E \texttimes B convection and the parameterization of geomagnetic conditions (under the Kp-index and solar wind properties) implemented by CPL did not account for localized enhancements in the duskward electric field during increased activity. Rather, it was found to be largely dependent on the measure of the quiet time background. This property indicates that the agreement between these simulations and observations does not account for the complete set of physical processes during extreme (strong or weak) geomagnetic conditions impacting the plasmasphere. Nevertheless, at the presented resolution of the model CPL does provide good agreement in reproducing Radiation Belt Storm Probes observations of plasmaspheric density and plasmapause location.

De Pascuale, S.; Jordanova, V.; Goldstein, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Thaller, S.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025776

convection; observations; plasmasphere; RBSP; simulation; Van Allen Probes

Test of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Instability Using Proton Distributions Obtained From Van Allen Probe-A Observations

Anisotropic velocity distributions of protons have long been considered as free energy sources for exciting electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. Here we rigorously calculated the proton anisotropy parameter using proton data obtained from Van Allen Probe-A observations. The calculations are performed for times during EMIC wave events (distinguishing the times immediately after and before EMIC wave onsets) and for times exhibiting no EMIC waves. We find that the anisotropy values are often larger immediately after EMIC wave onsets than the times just before EMIC wave onsets and the non-EMIC wave times. The increase in anisotropy immediately after the EMIC wave onsets is rather small but discernible, such that the average increase is by ~15\% relative to the anisotropy values during the non-EMIC wave times and ~8\% compared to those just before the EMIC wave onsets. Based on the calculated anisotropy values, we test the criterion for ion cyclotron instability suggested by Kennel and Petschek (1966, by applying it to the EMIC wave events. We find that despite the weak increase in anisotropy, the majority of the EMIC wave events satisfy the instability criterion. We suggest that the proton distributions often remain close to the marginal state to ion cyclotron instability, and consequently, the proton anisotropy values should often be observed near threshold values for ion cyclotron instability. Additionally, we demonstrate the usefulness and limitation of the instability criteria expressed in the form of an inverse relation between the anisotropy and plasma beta.

Noh, Sung-Jun; Lee, Dae-Young; Choi, Cheong-Rim; Kim, Hyomin; Skoug, Ruth;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025385

EMIC waves; Ion cyclotron instability; RBSP; temperature anisotropy; Van Allen Probes

Equatorial noise with quasiperiodic modulation: Multipoint observations by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft

Electromagnetic wave measurements performed by the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft are used to analyze equatorial noise emissions with a quasiperiodic modulation of the wave intensity. These waves are confined to the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator, and they occur primarily on the dayside. In situ plasma number density measurements are used to evaluate density variations related to the wave occurrence. It is shown that the events are sometimes effectively confined to low density regions, being observed at successive satellite passes over a time duration as long as one hour. The events typically occur outside the plasmasphere, and they are often cease to exist just at the plasmapause. The analysis of the spatial separations of the spacecraft at the times when the events were observed simultaneously by both of them allows us to estimate the event spatial dimensions. It is found that the event spatial extent is typically lower than about 0.25RE in radial distance and within about one hour in magnetic local time. Modulation periods of the events decrease with increasing plasma number density up to about 100cm-3. Principally no dependence is observed at larger densities, possibly indicating a propagation from other locations.

emec, F.; ik, O.; Boardsen, S.; Hospodarsky, G.; Kurth, W.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025482

equatorial noise; quasiperiodic modulation; RBSP; Van Allen Probes

An energetic electron flux dropout due to magnetopause shadowing on 1 June 2013

We examine the mechanisms responsible for the dropout of energetic electron flux during 31 May \textendash 1 June 2013, using Van Allen Probe (RBSP) electron flux data and simulations with the Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model. During storm main phase, L-shells at RBSP locations are greater than ~ 8, which are connected to open drift shells. Consequently, diminished electron fluxes were observed over a wide range of energies. The combination of drift shell splitting, magnetopause shadowing and drift loss all result in butterfly electron pitch-angle distributions (PADs) at the nightside. During storm sudden commencement, RBSP observations display electron butterfly PADs over a wide range of energies. However, it is difficult to determine whether there are butterfly PADs during storm main phase since the maximum observable equatorial pitch-angle from RBSP is not larger than ~ 40\textdegree during this period. To investigate the causes of the dropout, the CIMI model is used as a global 4-D kinetic inner magnetosphere model. The CIMI model reproduces the dropout with very similar timing and flux levels and PADs along the RBSP trajectory for 593 keV. Furthermore, the CIMI simulation shows butterfly PADs for 593 keV during storm main phase. Based on comparison of observations and simulations, we suggest that the dropout during this event mainly results from magnetopause shadowing.

Bin Kang, Suk-; Fok, Mei-Ching; Komar, Colin; Glocer, Alex; Li, Wen; Buzulukova, Natalia;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024879

CIMI model; drift loss; dropout; magnetopause shadowing; pitch-angle distribution (PAD); RBSP; Van Allen Probes


Electric and Magnetic Radial Diffusion Coefficients Using the Van Allen Probes Data

ULF waves are a common occurrence in the inner magnetosphere and they contribute to particle motion, significantly, at times. We used the magnetic and the electric field data from the EMFISIS and the EFW instruments on board the Van Allen Probes to estimate the ULF wave power in the compressional component of the magnetic field and the azimuthal component of the electric field, respectively. Using L*, Kp, and MLT as parameters, we conclude that the noon sector contains higher ULF Pc-5 wave power compared with the other MLT sectors. The dawn, dusk, and midnight sectors have no statistically significant difference between them. The drift-averaged power spectral densities are used to derive the magnetic and the electric component of the radial diffusion coefficient. Both components exhibit little to no energy dependence, resulting in simple analytic models for both components. More importantly, the electric component is larger than the magnetic component by one to two orders of magnitude for almost all L* and Kp; thus, the electric field perturbations are more effective in driving radial diffusion of charged particles in the inner magnetosphere. We also present a comparison of the Van Allen Probes radial diffusion coefficients, including the error estimates, with some of the previous published results. This allows us to gauge the large amount of uncertainty present in such estimates.

Ali, Ashar; Malaspina, David; Elkington, Scot; Jaynes, Allison; Chan, Anthony; Wygant, John; Kletzing, Craig;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023002

Electric and Magnetic Components; radial diffusion; RBSP; Van Allen Probes

The Van Allen Probes Engineering Radiation Monitor: Mission Radiation Environment and Effects

The engineering radiation monitor (ERM) measures dose, dose rate, and charging currents on the Van Allen Probes mission to study the dynamics of Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts. Measurements from this monitor show a variation in dose rates with time, a correlation between the dosimeter and charging current data, a map of charging current versus orbit altitude, and a comparison of measured cumulative dose to prelaunch and postlaunch modeling. The measurement results and surveys of the radiation hardness for the spacecraft and science instrument electronics enable the team to predict the length of possible mission extensions. The ERM data have proved useful in investigations of two spacecraft anomalies.

Maurer, R.; Goldsten, J.;

Published by: Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest      Published on: 07/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI:

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

A Statistical Study of Whistler Waves Observed by Van Allen Probes (RBSP) and Lightning Detected by WWLLN

Lightning-generated whistler waves are electromagnetic plasma waves in the very low frequency (VLF) band, which play an important role in the dynamics of radiation belt particles. In this paper, we statistically analyze simultaneous waveform data from the Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes, RBSP) and global lightning data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). Data were obtained between July to September 2013 and between March and April 2014. For each day during these periods, we predicted the most probable 10 min for which each of the two RBSP satellites would be magnetically conjugate to lightning producing regions. The prediction method uses integrated WWLLN stroke data for that day obtained during the three previous years. Using these predicted times for magnetic conjugacy to lightning activity regions, we recorded high time resolution, burst mode waveform data. Here we show that whistlers are observed by the satellites in more than 80\% of downloaded waveform data. About 22.9\% of the whistlers observed by RBSP are one-to-one coincident with source lightning strokes detected by WWLLN. About 40.1\% more of whistlers are found to be one-to-one coincident with lightning if source regions are extended out 2000 km from the satellites footpoints. Lightning strokes with far-field radiated VLF energy larger than about 100 J are able to generate a detectable whistler wave in the inner magnetosphere. One-to-one coincidences between whistlers observed by RBSP and lightning strokes detected by WWLLN are clearly shown in the L shell range of L = 1\textendash3. Nose whistlers observed in July 2014 show that it may be possible to extend this coincidence to the region of L>=4.

Zheng, Hao; Holzworth, Robert; Brundell, James; Jacobson, Abram; Wygant, John; Hospodarsky, George; Mozer, Forrest; Bonnell, John;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022010

lightnting; RBSP; Van Allen Probes; VLF; whistler wave


Investigation of EMIC wave scattering as the cause for the BARREL January 17, 2013 relativistic electron precipitation event: a quantitative comparison of simulation with observations

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were observed at multiple observatory locations for several hours on 17 January 2013. During the wave activity period, a duskside relativistic electron precipitation (REP) event was observed by one of the BARREL balloons, and was magnetically mapped close to GOES-13. We simulate the relativistic electron pitch-angle diffusion caused by gyroresonant interactions with EMIC waves using wave and particle data measured by multiple instruments on board GOES-13 and the Van Allen Probes. We show that the count rate, the energy distribution and the time variation of the simulated precipitation all agree very well with the balloon observations, suggesting that EMIC wave scattering was likely the cause for the precipitation event. The event reported here is the first balloon REP event with closely conjugate EMIC wave observations, and our study employs the most detailed quantitative analysis on the link of EMIC waves with observed REP to date.

Li, Zan; Millan, Robyn; Hudson, Mary; Woodger, Leslie; Smith, David; Chen, Yue; Friedel, Reiner; Rodriguez, Juan; Engebretson, Mark; Goldstein, Jerry; Fennell, Joseph; Spence, Harlan;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 12/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062273

BARREL; EMIC waves; GOES; pitch angle diffusion; RBSP; relativistic electron precipitation; Van Allen Probes

REPAD: An Empirical Model of Pitch-angle Distributions for Energetic Electrons in the Earth\textquoterights Outer Radiation Belt

We have recently conducted a statistical survey on pitch angle distributions of energetic electrons trapped in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt, and a new empirical model was developed based upon survey results. This model\textemdashrelativistic electron pitch angle distribution (REPAD)\textemdashaims to present statistical pictures of electron equatorial pitch angle distributions, instead of the absolute flux levels, as a function of energy, L shell, magnetic local time, and magnetic activity. To quantify and facilitate this statistical survey, we use Legendre polynomials to fit long-term in situ directional fluxes observed near the magnetic equator from three missions: CRRES, Polar, and LANL-97A. As the first of this kind of model, REPAD covers the whole outer belt region, providing not only the mean and median pitch angle distributions in the area but also error estimates of the average distributions. Preliminary verification and validation results demonstrate the reliable performance of this model. Usage of REPAD is mainly to predict the full pitch angle distribution of fluxes along a given magnetic field line, or even on a given drift shell, based upon one single unidirectional or omnidirectional flux measurement anywhere on that field line. This can be particularly useful for data assimilation, which usually has large tolerance on data errors. In addition, relatively small variations in pitch angle distributions measured at L shell between ~ 4 and 5 justify the assumption of fixed pitch angle distributions at GPS equatorial crossings (L ~ 4.2) used in our previous studies.

Chen, Y.; Friedel, R.; Henderson, M.; Claudepierre, S.; Morley, S.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 03/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019431

RBSP; Van Allen Probes


James Van Allen and His Namesake NASA Mission

In many ways, James A. Van Allen defined and \textquotedblleftinvented\textquotedblright modern space research. His example showed the way for government-university partners to pursue basic research that also served important national and international goals. He was a tireless advocate for space exploration and for the role of space science in the spectrum of national priorities.

Baker, D.; Hoxie, V.; Jaynes, A.; Kale, A.; Kanekal, S.; Li, X.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union      Published on: 12/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/eost.v94.4910.1002/2013EO490001

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Rapid local acceleration of relativistic radiation-belt electrons by magnetospheric chorus

Recent analysis of satellite data obtained during the 9 October 2012 geomagnetic storm identified the development of peaks in electron phase space density1, which are compelling evidence for local electron acceleration in the heart of the outer radiation belt2, 3, but are inconsistent with acceleration by inward radial diffusive transport4, 5. However, the precise physical mechanism responsible for the acceleration on 9 October was not identified. Previous modelling has indicated that a magnetospheric electromagnetic emission known as chorus could be a potential candidate for local electron acceleration6, 7, 8, 9, 10, but a definitive resolution of the importance of chorus for radiation-belt acceleration was not possible because of limitations in the energy range and resolution of previous electron observations and the lack of a dynamic global wave model. Here we report high-resolution electron observations11 obtained during the 9 October storm and demonstrate, using a two-dimensional simulation performed with a recently developed time-varying data-driven model12, that chorus scattering explains the temporal evolution of both the energy and angular distribution of the observed relativistic electron flux increase. Our detailed modelling demonstrates the remarkable efficiency of wave acceleration in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt, and the results presented have potential application to Jupiter, Saturn and other magnetized astrophysical objects.

Thorne, R.; Li, W.; Ni, B.; Ma, Q.; Bortnik, J.; Chen, L.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Henderson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Kanekal, S.;

Published by: Nature      Published on: 12/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1038/nature12889

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

AE9, AP9 and SPM: New Models for Specifying the Trapped Energetic Particle and Space Plasma Environment

The radiation belts and plasma in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere pose hazards to satellite systems which restrict design and orbit options with a resultant impact on mission performance and cost. For decades the standard space environment specification used for spacecraft design has been provided by the NASA AE8 and AP8 trapped radiation belt models. There are well-known limitations on their performance, however, and the need for a new trapped radiation and plasma model has been recognized by the engineering community for some time. To address this challenge a new set of models, denoted AE9/AP9/SPM, for energetic electrons, energetic protons and space plasma has been developed. The new models offer significant improvements including more detailed spatial resolution and the quantification of uncertainty due to both space weather and instrument errors. Fundamental to the model design, construction and operation are a number of new data sets and a novel statistical approach which captures first order temporal and spatial correlations allowing for the Monte-Carlo estimation of flux thresholds for user-specified percentile levels (e.g., 50th and 95th) over the course of the mission. An overview of the model architecture, data reduction methods, statistics algorithms, user application and initial validation is presented in this paper.

Ginet, G.; textquoterightBrien, T.; Huston, S.; Johnston, W.; Guild, T.; Friedel, R.; Lindstrom, C.; Roth, C.; Whelan, P.; Quinn, R.; Madden, D.; Morley, S.; Su, Yi-Jiun;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9964-y

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

The Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL)

BARREL is a multiple-balloon investigation designed to study electron losses from Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts. Selected as a NASA Living with a Star Mission of Opportunity, BARREL augments the Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission by providing measurements of relativistic electron precipitation with a pair of Antarctic balloon campaigns that will be conducted during the Austral summers (January-February) of 2013 and 2014. During each campaign, a total of 20 small (\~20 kg) stratospheric balloons will be successively launched to maintain an array of \~5 payloads spread across \~6 hours of magnetic local time in the region that magnetically maps to the radiation belts. Each balloon carries an X-ray spectrometer to measure the bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by precipitating relativistic electrons as they collide with neutrals in the atmosphere, and a DC magnetometer to measure ULF-timescale variations of the magnetic field. BARREL will provide the first balloon measurements of relativistic electron precipitation while comprehensive in situ measurements of both plasma waves and energetic particles are available, and will characterize the spatial scale of precipitation at relativistic energies. All data and analysis software will be made freely available to the scientific community.

Millan, R.; McCarthy, M.; Sample, J.; Smith, D.; Thompson, L.; McGaw, D.; Woodger, L.; Hewitt, J.; Comess, M.; Yando, K.; Liang, A.; Anderson, B.; Knezek, N.; Rexroad, W.; Scheiman, J.; Bowers, G.; Halford, A.; Collier, A.; Clilverd, M.; Lin, R.; Hudson, M.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9971-z

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Dynamics of Radiation Belt Particles

This paper reviews basic concepts of particle dynamics underlying theoretical aspect of radiation belt modeling and data analysis. We outline the theory of adiabatic invariants of quasiperiodic Hamiltonian systems and derive the invariants of particle motion trapped in the radiation belts. We discuss how the nonlinearity of resonant interaction of particles with small-amplitude plasma waves, ubiquitous across the inner magnetosphere, can make particle motion stochastic. Long-term evolution of a stochastic system can be described by the Fokker-Plank (diffusion) equation. We derive the kinetic equation of particle diffusion in the invariant space and discuss its limitations and associated challenges which need to be addressed in forthcoming radiation belt models and data analysis.

Ukhorskiy, A; Sitnov, M.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-012-9938-5

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Early Results from the Engineering Radiation Monitor (ERM) and Solar Cell Monitor on the Van Allen Probes Mission

The Engineering Radiation Monitor (ERM) measures dose, dose rate and charging currents on the Van Allen Probes mission to study the dynamics of earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts. Early results from this monitor show a variation in dose rates with time, a correlation between the dosimeter and charging current data, a map of charging current versus orbit altitude and a comparison of cumulative dose to pre-launch modeling after 260 days. Solar cell degradation monitor patches track the decrease in solar array output as displacement damage accumulates.

Maurer, Richard; Goldsten, J.; Peplowski, P.; Holmes-Siedle, A.; Butler, Michael; Herrmann, C.; Mauk, B.;

Published by:       Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2013.2281937

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on RBSP

The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) investigation on the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (now named the Van Allen Probes) mission provides key wave and very low frequency magnetic field measurements to understand radiation belt acceleration, loss, and transport. The key science objectives and the contribution that EMFISIS makes to providing measurements as well as theory and modeling are described. The key components of the instruments suite, both electronics and sensors, including key functional parameters, calibration, and performance, demonstrate that EMFISIS provides the needed measurements for the science of the RBSP mission. The EMFISIS operational modes and data products, along with online availability and data tools provide the radiation belt science community with one the most complete sets of data ever collected.

Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Acuna, M.; MacDowall, R.; Torbert, R.; Averkamp, T.; Bodet, D.; Bounds, S.; Chutter, M.; Connerney, J.; Crawford, D.; Dolan, J.; Dvorsky, R.; Hospodarsky, G.; Howard, J.; Jordanova, V.; Johnson, R.; Kirchner, D.; Mokrzycki, B.; Needell, G.; Odom, J.; Mark, D.; Pfaff, R.; Phillips, J.; Piker, C.; Remington, S.; Rowland, D.; Santolik, O.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, C.; Thorne, R.; Tyler, J.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9993-6

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

The Electric Field and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

The Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the two Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) spacecraft (recently renamed the Van Allen Probes) are designed to measure three dimensional quasi-static and low frequency electric fields and waves associated with the major mechanisms responsible for the acceleration of energetic charged particles in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth. For this measurement, the instrument uses two pairs of spherical double probe sensors at the ends of orthogonal centripetally deployed booms in the spin plane with tip-to-tip separations of 100 meters. The third component of the electric field is measured by two spherical sensors separated by \~15 m, deployed at the ends of two stacer booms oppositely directed along the spin axis of the spacecraft. The instrument provides a continuous stream of measurements over the entire orbit of the low frequency electric field vector at 32 samples/s in a survey mode. This survey mode also includes measurements of spacecraft potential to provide information on thermal electron plasma variations and structure. Survey mode spectral information allows the continuous evaluation of the peak value and spectral power in electric, magnetic and density fluctuations from several Hz to 6.5 kHz. On-board cross-spectral data allows the calculation of field-aligned wave Poynting flux along the magnetic field. For higher frequency waveform information, two different programmable burst memories are used with nominal sampling rates of 512 samples/s and 16 k samples/s. The EFW burst modes provide targeted measurements over brief time intervals of 3-d electric fields, 3-d wave magnetic fields (from the EMFISIS magnetic search coil sensors), and spacecraft potential. In the burst modes all six sensor-spacecraft potential measurements are telemetered enabling interferometric timing of small-scale plasma structures. In the first burst mode, the instrument stores all or a substantial fraction of the high frequency measurements in a 32 gigabyte burst memory. The sub-intervals to be downloaded are uplinked by ground command after inspection of instrument survey data and other information available on the ground. The second burst mode involves autonomous storing and playback of data controlled by flight software algorithms, which assess the \textquotedbllefthighest quality\textquotedblright events on the basis of instrument measurements and information from other instruments available on orbit. The EFW instrument provides 3-d wave electric field signals with a frequency response up to 400 kHz to the EMFISIS instrument for analysis and telemetry (Kletzing et al. Space Sci. Rev. 2013).

Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J; Goetz, K.; Ergun, R.E.; Mozer, F.; Bale, S.D.; Ludlam, M.; Turin, P.; Harvey, P.R.; Hochmann, R.; Harps, K.; Dalton, G.; McCauley, J.; Rachelson, W.; Gordon, D.; Donakowski, B.; Shultz, C.; Smith, C.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Fischer, J.; Heavner, S.; Berg, P.; Malaspina, D.; Bolton, M.; Hudson, M.; Strangeway, R.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Albert, J.; Foster, J.C.; Chaston, C.C.; Mann, I.; Donovan, E.; Cully, C.M.; Cattell, C.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Kersten, K.; Brenneman, A; Tao, J.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-0013-7

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

The Engineering Radiation Monitor for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

An Engineering Radiation Monitor (ERM) has been developed as a supplementary spacecraft subsystem for NASA\textquoterights Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission. The ERM will monitor total dose and deep dielectric charging at each RBSP spacecraft in real time. Configured to take the place of spacecraft balance mass, the ERM contains an array of eight dosimeters and two buried conductive plates. The dosimeters are mounted under covers of varying shielding thickness to obtain a dose-depth curve and characterize the electron and proton contributions to total dose. A 3-min readout cadence coupled with an initial sensitivity of \~0.01 krad should enable dynamic measurements of dose rate throughout the 9-hr RBSP orbit. The dosimeters are Radiation-sensing Field Effect Transistors (RadFETs) and operate at zero bias to preserve their response even when powered off. The range of the RadFETs extends above 1000 krad to avoid saturation over the expected duration of the mission. Two large-area (\~10 cm2) charge monitor plates set behind different thickness covers will measure the dynamic currents of weakly-penetrating electrons that can be potentially hazardous to sensitive electronic components within the spacecraft. The charge monitors can handle large events without saturating (\~3000 fA/cm2) and provide sufficient sensitivity (\~0.1 fA/cm2) to gauge quiescent conditions. High time-resolution (5 s) monitoring allows detection of rapid changes in flux and enables correlation of spacecraft anomalies with local space weather conditions. Although primarily intended as an engineering subsystem to monitor spacecraft radiation levels, real-time data from the ERM may also prove useful or interesting to a larger community.

Goldsten, J.; Maurer, R.; Peplowski, P.; Holmes-Siedle, A.; Herrmann, C.; Mauk, B.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-012-9917-x

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

The Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) Instruments Aboard the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Spacecraft

This paper describes the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the RBSP spacecraft from an instrumentation and engineering point of view. There are four magnetic spectrometers aboard each of the two spacecraft, one low-energy unit (20\textendash240 keV), two medium-energy units (80\textendash1200 keV), and a high-energy unit (800\textendash4800 keV). The high unit also contains a proton telescope (55 keV\textendash20 MeV). The magnetic spectrometers focus electrons within a selected energy pass band upon a focal plane of several silicon detectors where pulse-height analysis is used to determine if the energy of the incident electron is appropriate for the electron momentum selected by the magnet. Thus each event is a two-parameter analysis, an approach leading to a greatly reduced background. The physics of these instruments are described in detail followed by the engineering implementation. The data outputs are described, and examples of the calibration results and early flight data presented.

Blake, J.; Carranza, P.; Claudepierre, S.; Clemmons, J.; Crain, W.; Dotan, Y.; Fennell, J.; Fuentes, F.; Galvan, R.; George, J.; Henderson, M.; Lalic, M.; Lin, A; Looper, M.; Mabry, D.; Mazur, J.; McCarthy, B.; Nguyen, C.; textquoterightBrien, T.; Perez, M.; Redding, M.; Roeder, J.; Salvaggio, D.; Sorensen, G.; Spence, H.; Yi, S.; Zakrzewski, M.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9991-8

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

A Particle Accelerator in the Radiation Belts

Satellites in the radiation belts reveal plasma structures that can jumpstart the acceleration of electrons to very high energies.

Zimbardo, Gaetano;

Published by: Physics      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1103/Physics.6.131

RBSP; Van Allen Probes


The discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts in 1958, starting with data from the United States\textquoteright first two successful orbiting spacecraft, Explorer\textquoterights I and III, was an astounding surprise and represented the founding of what we now call magnetospheric physics. Since that time many spacecraft have traversed the radiation belts en route to other more distant parts of Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere and other worlds beyond Earth\textquoterights orbit. After initial climatological models of the radiation belts were obtained in the 1960\textquoterights and early 1970\textquoterights, the main concern about them was the ability of spacecraft and astronauts to survive their intense radiation. And yet there were true scientific mysteries to be solved, glimpses of which came in the 1990\textquoterights from spacecraft like CRRES and SAMPEX. CRRES observed the unexpected creation of a brand new radiation belt and also a variety of unanticipated features including peculiar distributions of strong electric fields deep within the belts during geomagnetic storms

Fox, N.; Burch, J.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9997-2

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE)

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) on the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft is the magnetosphere ring current instrument that will provide data for answering the three over-arching questions for the Van Allen Probes Program: RBSPICE will determine \textquotedbllefthow space weather creates the storm-time ring current around Earth, how that ring current supplies and supports the creation of the radiation belt populations,\textquotedblright and how the ring current is involved in radiation belt losses. RBSPICE is a time-of-flight versus total energy instrument that measures ions over the energy range from \~20 keV to \~1 MeV. RBSPICE will also measure electrons over the energy range \~25 keV to \~1 MeV in order to provide instrument background information in the radiation belts. A description of the instrument and its data products are provided in this chapter.

Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L.; Kim, C.; Stokes, M.; Ho, G.; Cooper, S.; UKHORSKIY, A; Manweiler, J.; Jaskulek, S.; Haggerty, D.; Brandt, P.; SITNOV, M; Keika, K.; Hayes, J.; Brown, L.; Gurnee, R.; Hutcheson, J.; Nelson, K.; Paschalidis, N.; Rossano, E.; Kerem, S.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9965-x

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) and Space Weather

Following the launch and commissioning of NASA\textquoterights Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) in 2012, space weather data will be generated and broadcast from the spacecraft in near real-time. The RBSP mission targets one part of the space weather chain: the very high energy electrons and ions magnetically trapped within Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. The understanding gained by RBSP will enable us to better predict the response of the radiation belts to solar storms in the future, and thereby protect space assets in the near-Earth environment. This chapter details the presently planned RBSP capabilities for generating and broadcasting near real-time space weather data, discusses the data products, the ground stations collecting the data, and the users/models that will incorporate the data into test-beds for radiation belt nowcasting and forecasting.

Kessel, R.; Fox, N.; Weiss, M.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-012-9953-6

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Education and Public Outreach Program

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program serves as a pipeline of activities to inspire and educate a broad audience about Heliophysics and the Sun-Earth system, specifically the Van Allen Radiation Belts. The program is comprised of a variety of formal, informal and public outreach activities that all align with the NASA Education Portfolio Strategic Framework outcomes. These include lesson plans and curriculum for use in the classroom, teacher workshops, internship opportunities, activities that target underserved populations, collaboration with science centers and NASA visitors\textquoteright centers and partnerships with experts in the Heliophysics and education disciplines. This paper will detail the activities that make up the RBSP E/PO program, their intended audiences, and an explanation as to how they align with the NASA education outcomes. Additionally, discussions on why these activities are necessary as part of a NASA mission are included. Finally, examples of how the RBSP E/PO team has carried out some of these activities will be discussed throughout.

Turney, D.; Novak, Matiella; Beisser, K.; Fox, N.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-012-9945-6

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Radiation Belt Storm Probes\textemdashObservatory and Environments

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration\textquoterights (NASA\textquoterights) Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) is an Earth-orbiting mission that launched August 30, 2012, and is the latest science mission in NASA\textquoterights Living with a Star Program. The RBSP mission will investigate, characterize and understand the physical dynamics of the radiation belts, as well as the influence of the Sun on the Earth\textquoterights environment, by measuring particles, electric and magnetic fields and waves that comprise geospace. The mission is composed of two identically instrumented spinning observatories in an elliptical orbit around earth with 600 km perigee, 30,000 km apogee and 10o inclination to provide full sampling of the Van Allen radiation belts. The twin RBSP observatories (recently renamed the Van Allen Probes) will follow slightly different orbits and will lap each other four times per year, offering simultaneous measurements over a range of observatory separation distances. A description of the observatory environment is provided along with protection for sensitive electronics to support operations in the harsh radiation belt environment. Spacecraft and subsystem key characteristics and instrument accommodations are included that allow the RBSP science objectives to be met.

Kirby, Karen; Artis, David; Bushman, Stewart; Butler, Michael; Conde, Rich; Cooper, Stan; Fretz, Kristen; Herrmann, Carl; Hill, Adrian; Kelley, Jeff; Maurer, Richard; Nichols, Richard; Ottman, Geffrey; Reid, Mark; Rogers, Gabe; Srinivasan, Dipak; Troll, John; Williams, Bruce;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-012-9949-2

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

The Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) Instrument on Board the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Spacecraft: Characterization of Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belt High-Energy Particle Populations

Particle acceleration and loss in the million electron Volt (MeV) energy range (and above) is the least understood aspect of radiation belt science. In order to measure cleanly and separately both the energetic electron and energetic proton components, there is a need for a carefully designed detector system. The Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) on board the Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) pair of spacecraft consists of a stack of high-performance silicon solid-state detectors in a telescope configuration, a collimation aperture, and a thick case surrounding the detector stack to shield the sensors from penetrating radiation and bremsstrahlung. The instrument points perpendicular to the spin axis of the spacecraft and measures high-energy electrons (up to \~20 MeV) with excellent sensitivity and also measures magnetospheric and solar protons to energies well above E=100 MeV. The instrument has a large geometric factor (g=0.2 cm2 sr) to get reasonable count rates (above background) at the higher energies and yet will not saturate at the lower energy ranges. There must be fast enough electronics to avert undue dead-time limitations and chance coincidence effects. The key goal for the REPT design is to measure the directional electron intensities (in the range 10-2\textendash106 particles/cm2 s sr MeV) and energy spectra (ΔE/E\~25 \%) throughout the slot and outer radiation belt region. Present simulations and detailed laboratory calibrations show that an excellent design has been attained for the RBSP needs. We describe the engineering design, operational approaches, science objectives, and planned data products for REPT.

Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Hoxie, V.; Batiste, S.; Bolton, M.; Li, X.; Elkington, S.; Monk, S.; Reukauf, R.; Steg, S.; Westfall, J.; Belting, C.; Bolton, B.; Braun, D.; Cervelli, B.; Hubbell, K.; Kien, M.; Knappmiller, S.; Wade, S.; Lamprecht, B.; Stevens, K.; Wallace, J.; Yehle, A.; Spence, H.; Friedel, R.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-012-9950-9

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

The Relativistic Proton Spectrometer (RPS) for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

The Relativistic Proton Spectrometer (RPS) on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes spacecraft is a particle spectrometer designed to measure the flux, angular distribution, and energy spectrum of protons from \~60 MeV to \~2000 MeV. RPS will investigate decades-old questions about the inner Van Allen belt proton environment: a nearby region of space that is relatively unexplored because of the hazards of spacecraft operation there and the difficulties in obtaining accurate proton measurements in an intense penetrating background. RPS is designed to provide the accuracy needed to answer questions about the sources and losses of the inner belt protons and to obtain the measurements required for the next-generation models of trapped protons in the magnetosphere. In addition to detailed information for individual protons, RPS features count rates at a 1-second timescale, internal radiation dosimetry, and information about electrostatic discharge events on the RBSP spacecraft that together will provide new information about space environmental hazards in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere.

Mazur, J.; Friesen, L.; Lin, A.; Mabry, D.; Katz, N.; Dotan, Y.; George, J.; Blake, J.; LOOPER, M; Redding, M.; textquoterightBrien, T.; Cha, J.; Birkitt, A.; Carranza, P.; Lalic, M.; Fuentes, F.; Galvan, R.; McNab, M.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-012-9926-9

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Science Goals and Overview of the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) Suite on NASA\textquoterights Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Mission

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)-Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite contains an innovative complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements ever made in the inner magnetosphere and radiation belts. The coordinated RBSP-ECT particle measurements, analyzed in combination with fields and waves observations and state-of-the-art theory and modeling, are necessary for understanding the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions, key science objectives of NASA\textquoterights Living With a Star program and the Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT suite consists of three highly-coordinated instruments: the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) sensor, and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT). Collectively they cover, continuously, the full electron and ion spectra from one eV to 10\textquoterights of MeV with sufficient energy resolution, pitch angle coverage and resolution, and with composition measurements in the critical energy range up to 50 keV and also from a few to 50 MeV/nucleon. All three instruments are based on measurement techniques proven in the radiation belts. The instruments use those proven techniques along with innovative new designs, optimized for operation in the most extreme conditions in order to provide unambiguous separation of ions and electrons and clean energy responses even in the presence of extreme penetrating background environments. The design, fabrication and operation of ECT spaceflight instrumentation in the harsh radiation belt environment ensure that particle measurements have the fidelity needed for closure in answering key mission science questions. ECT instrument details are provided in companion papers in this same issue. In this paper, we describe the science objectives of the RBSP-ECT instrument suite on the Van Allen Probe spacecraft within the context of the overall mission objectives, indicate how the characteristics of the instruments satisfy the requirements to achieve these objectives, provide information about science data collection and dissemination, and conclude with a description of some early mission results.

Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Bolton, M.; Bourdarie, S.; Chan, A.; Claudpierre, S.; Clemmons, J.; Cravens, J.; Elkington, S.; Fennell, J.; Friedel, R.; Funsten, H.; Goldstein, J.; Green, J.; Guthrie, A.; Henderson, M.; Horne, R.; Hudson, M.; Jahn, J.-M.; Jordanova, V.; Kanekal, S.; Klatt, B.; Larsen, B.; Li, X.; MacDonald, E.; Mann, I.R.; Niehof, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Onsager, T.; Salvaggio, D.; Skoug, R.; Smith, S.; Suther, L.; Thomsen, M.; Thorne, R.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-0007-5

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Science Objectives and Rationale for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

The NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission addresses how populations of high energy charged particles are created, vary, and evolve in space environments, and specifically within Earth\textquoterights magnetically trapped radiation belts. RBSP, with a nominal launch date of August 2012, comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for at least 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1\texttimes5.8 RE, 10o). The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every 2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal effects over spatial scales ranging from \~0.1 to 5 RE. The uniquely comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the two spacecraft, measures all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fields (E and B), and wave distributions (d E and d B) that are needed to resolve the most critical science questions. Here we summarize the high level science objectives for the RBSP mission, provide historical background on studies of Earth and planetary radiation belts, present examples of the most compelling scientific mysteries of the radiation belts, present the mission design of the RBSP mission that targets these mysteries and objectives, present the observation and measurement requirements for the mission, and introduce the instrumentation that will deliver these measurements. This paper references and is followed by a number of companion papers that describe the details of the RBSP mission, spacecraft, and instruments.

Mauk, B.; Fox, N.; Kanekal, S.; Kessel, R.; Sibeck, D.; UKHORSKIY, A;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-012-9908-y

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Unusual stable trapping of the ultrarelativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts

Radiation in space was the first discovery of the space age. Earth\textquoterights radiation belts consist of energetic particles that are trapped by the geomagnetic field and encircle the planet1. The electron radiation belts usually form a two-zone structure with a stable inner zone and a highly variable outer zone, which forms and disappears owing to wave\textendashparticle interactions on the timescale of a day, and is strongly influenced by the very-low-frequency plasma waves. Recent observations revealed a third radiation zone at ultrarelativistic energies2, with the additional medium narrow belt (long-lived ring) persisting for approximately 4 weeks. This new ring resulted from a combination of electron losses to the interplanetary medium and scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves to the Earth\textquoterights atmosphere. Here we show that ultrarelativistic electrons can stay trapped in the outer zone and remain unaffected by the very-low-frequency plasma waves for a very long time owing to a lack of scattering into the atmosphere. The absence of scattering is explained as a result of ultrarelativistic particles being too energetic to resonantly interact with waves at low latitudes. This study shows that a different set of physical processes determines the evolution of ultrarelativistic electrons.

Shprits, Yuri; Subbotin, Dmitriy; Drozdov, Alexander; Usanova, Maria; Kellerman, Adam; Orlova, Ksenia; Baker, Daniel; Turner, Drew; Kim, Kyung-Chan;

Published by: Nature Physics      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1038/nphys2760

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

First Results from CSSWE CubeSat: Characteristics of Relativistic Electrons in the Near-Earth Environment During the October 2012 Magnetic Storms

Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile) on board the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat mission, which was launched into a highly inclined (65\textdegree) low Earth orbit, are analyzed along with measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) and the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes, which are in a low inclination (10\textdegree) geo-transfer-like orbit. Both REPT and MagEIS measure the full distribution of energetic electrons as they traverse the heart of the outer radiation belt. However, due to the small equatorial loss cone (only a few degrees), it is difficult for REPT and MagEIS to directly determine which electrons will precipitate into the atmosphere, a major radiation belt loss process. REPTile, a miniaturized version of REPT, measures the fraction of the total electron population that has small enough equatorial pitch angles to reach the altitude of CSSWE, 480 km \texttimes 780 km, thus measuring the precipitating population as well as the trapped and quasi-trapped populations. These newly available measurements provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the source, loss, and energization processes that are responsible for the dynamic behavior of outer radiation belt electrons. The focus of this paper will be on the characteristics of relativistic electrons measured by REPTile during the October 2012 storms; also included are long-term measurements from the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer to put this study into context.

Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Blum, L.; Califf, S.; Zhao, H.; Tu, W.; Turner, D.; Gerhardt, D.; Palo, S.; Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Looper, M.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019342

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Phase Space Density matching of relativistic electrons using the Van Allen Probes: REPT results

1] Phase Space Density (PSD) matching can be used to identify the presence of nonadiabatic processes, evaluate accuracy of magnetic field models, or to cross-calibrate instruments. Calculating PSD in adiabatic invariant coordinates requires a global specification of the magnetic field. For a well specified global magnetic field, nonadiabatic processes or inadequate cross calibration will give a poor PSD match. We have calculated PSD(μ, K) for both Van Allen Probes using a range of models and compare these PSDs at conjunctions in L* (for given μ, K). We quantitatively assess the relative goodness of each model for radiation belt applications. We also quantify the uncertainty in the model magnetic field magnitude and the related uncertainties in PSD, which has applications for modeling and particle data without concurrent magnetic field measurements. Using this technique, we show the error in PSD for an energy spectrum observed by the relativistic electron-proton telescope (REPT) is a factor of \~1.2 using the TS04 model.

Morley, S.; Henderson, M.; Reeves, G.; Friedel, R.; Baker, D.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50909

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observation of localized drift-resonance between poloidal mode ultra-low frequency waves and 60 keV electrons

[1] We present NASA Van Allen Probes observations of wave-particle interactions between magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves and energetic electrons (20\textendash500 keV) on 31 October 2012. The ULF waves are identified as the fundamental poloidal mode oscillation and are excited following an interplanetary shock impact on the magnetosphere. Large amplitude modulations in energetic electron flux are observed at the same period (≈ 3 min) as the ULF waves and are consistent with a drift-resonant interaction. The azimuthal mode number of the interacting wave is estimated from the electron measurements to be ~40, based on an assumed symmetric drift resonance. The drift-resonant interaction is observed to be localized and occur over 5\textendash6 wave cycles, demonstrating peak electron flux modulations at energies ~60 keV. Our observation clearly shows electron drift resonance with the fundamental poloidal mode, the energy dependence of the amplitude and phase of the electron flux modulations providing strong evidence for such an interaction. Significantly, the observation highlights the importance of localized wave-particle interactions for understanding energetic particle dynamics in the inner magnetosphere, through the intermediary of ULF waves.

Claudepierre, S.; Mann, I.R.; Takahashi, K; Fennell, J.; Hudson, M.; Blake, J.; Roeder, J.; Clemmons, J.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Funsten, H.; Friedel, R.; Henderson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50901

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Excitation of Poloidal standing Alfven waves through the drift resonance wave-particle interaction

Drift-resonance wave-particle interaction is a fundamental collisionless plasma process studied extensively in theory. Using cross-spectral analysis of electric field, magnetic field, and ion flux data from the Van Allen Probe (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) spacecraft, we present direct evidence identifying the generation of a fundamental mode standing poloidal wave through drift-resonance interactions in the inner magnetosphere. Intense azimuthal electric field (Eφ) oscillations as large as 10mV/m are observed, associated with radial magnetic field (Br) oscillations in the dawn-noon sector near but south of the magnetic equator at L\~5. The observed wave period, Eφ/Br ratio and the 90\textdegree phase lag between Br and Eφ are all consistent with fundamental mode standing Poloidal waves. Phase shifts between particle fluxes and wave electric fields clearly demonstrate a drift resonance with \~90 keV ring current ions. The estimated earthward gradient of ion phase space density provides a free energy source for wave generation through the drift-resonance instability. A similar drift-resonance process should occur ubiquitously in collisionless plasma systems. One specific example is the \textquotedblleftfishbone\textquotedblright instability in fusion plasma devices. In addition, our observations have important implications for the long-standing mysterious origin of Giant Pulsations.

Dai, L.; Takahashi, K; Wygant, J.; Chen, L.; Bonnell, J; Cattell, C.; Thaller, S.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, R.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50800

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) Mass Spectrometer for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

The HOPE mass spectrometer of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission (renamed the Van Allen Probes) is designed to measure the in situ plasma ion and electron fluxes over 4π sr at each RBSP spacecraft within the terrestrial radiation belts. The scientific goal is to understand the underlying physical processes that govern the radiation belt structure and dynamics. Spectral measurements for both ions and electrons are acquired over 1 eV to 50 keV in 36 log-spaced steps at an energy resolution ΔE FWHM/E≈15 \%. The dominant ion species (H+, He+, and O+) of the magnetosphere are identified using foil-based time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry with channel electron multiplier (CEM) detectors. Angular measurements are derived using five polar pixels coplanar with the spacecraft spin axis, and up to 16 azimuthal bins are acquired for each polar pixel over time as the spacecraft spins. Ion and electron measurements are acquired on alternate spacecraft spins. HOPE incorporates several new methods to minimize and monitor the background induced by penetrating particles in the harsh environment of the radiation belts. The absolute efficiencies of detection are continuously monitored, enabling precise, quantitative measurements of electron and ion fluxes and ion species abundances throughout the mission. We describe the engineering approaches for plasma measurements in the radiation belts and present summaries of HOPE measurement strategy and performance.

Funsten, H.; Skoug, R.; Guthrie, A.; MacDonald, E.; Baldonado, J.; Harper, R.; Henderson, K.; Kihara, K.; Lake, J.; Larsen, B.; Puckett, A.; Vigil, V.; Friedel, R.; Henderson, M.; Niehof, J.; Reeves, G.; Thomsen, M.; Hanley, J.; George, D.; Jahn, J.-M.; Cortinas, S.; Santos, Los; Dunn, G.; Edlund, E.; Ferris, M.; Freeman, M.; Maple, M.; Nunez, C.; Taylor, T.; Toczynski, W.; Urdiales, C.; Spence, H.; Cravens, J.; Suther, L.; Chen, J.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 08/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9968-7

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Evolution and slow decay of an unusual narrow ring of relativistic electrons near L ~ 3.2 following the September 2012 magnetic storm

A quantitative analysis is performed on the decay of an unusual ring of relativistic electrons between 3 and 3.5 RE, which was observed by the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope instrument on the Van Allen probes. The ring formed on 3 September 2012 during the main phase of a magnetic storm due to the partial depletion of the outer radiation belt for L > 3.5, and this remnant belt of relativistic electrons persisted at energies above 2 MeV, exhibiting only slow decay, until it was finally destroyed during another magnetic storm on 1 October. This long-term stability of the relativistic electron ring was associated with the rapid outward migration and maintenance of the plasmapause to distances greater than L = 4. The remnant ring was thus immune from the dynamic process, which caused rapid rebuilding of the outer radiation belt at L > 4, and was only subject to slow decay due to pitch angle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss on timescales exceeding 10\textendash20 days for electron energies above 3 MeV. At lower energies, the decay is much more rapid, consistent with the absence of a long-duration electron ring at energies below 2 MeV.

Thorne, R.; Li, W.; Ni, B.; Ma, Q.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Henderson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Turner, D.; Angelopoulos, V.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50627

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

A novel technique for rapid L* calculation: algorithm and implementation

Computing the magnetic drift invariant, L*, rapidly and accurately has always been a challenge to magnetospheric modelers, especially given the im- portance of this quantity in the radiation belt community. Min et al. (2013) proposed a new method of calculating L* using the principle of energy con- servation. Continuing with the approach outlined therein, the present pa- per focuses on the technical details of the algorithm to outline the implemen- tation, systematic analysis of accuracy, and verification of the speed of the new method. We also show new improvements which enable near real-time computation of L*. The relative error is on the order of 10-3 when \~ 0.1 RE grid resolution is used and the calculation speed is about two seconds per particle in the popular Tsyganenko and Sitnov 05 model (TS05). Based on the application examples, we suggest that this method could be an added resource for the radiation belt community.

Min, Kyungguk; Bortnik, J.; Lee, Jeongwoo;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 05/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50250

calculating L*; rapid L* calculation; RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Characteristic dimension of electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave activity in the magnetosphere

[1] In this paper, we estimate the size of coherent activity of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves using the multi-spacecraft observations made during the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission. We calculate the cross-correlations between EMIC wave powers measured by different THEMIS spacecraft, plot them over the separation distances between pairs of observing spacecraft, and determine the 1/e folding distance of the correlations as the characteristic dimension of the coherent wave activity. The characteristic radius in the direction transverse to the local magnetic field is found to lie in rather a wide range of 1500\textendash8600 km varying from the AM to PM sectors and also from hydrogen to helium bands. However, the characteristic dimensions normalized by either gyroradius or wavelength fall into narrower ranges almost independent of the emission band and event location. Specifically, the coherent dimension is found to be 10\textendash16 times gyroradius of 100 keV protons and 2\textendash3 times local wavelength. The former may give a useful scale for the source dimension, and the latter suggests that the EMIC wave activity maintains coherency only up to a couple of wavelengths.

Lee, Jeongwoo; Min, Kyungguk; Kim, Kap-Sung;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50242

EMIC wave powers; RBSP; THEMIS; Van Allen Probes

A Long-Lived Relativistic Electron Storage Ring Embedded in Earth\textquoterights Outer Van Allen Belt

Since their discovery more than 50 years ago, Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts have been considered to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. The outer zone is composed predominantly of megaelectron volt (MeV) electrons that wax and wane in intensity on time scales ranging from hours to days, depending primarily on external forcing by the solar wind. The spatially separated inner zone is composed of commingled high-energy electrons and very energetic positive ions (mostly protons), the latter being stable in intensity levels over years to decades. In situ energy-specific and temporally resolved spacecraft observations reveal an isolated third ring, or torus, of high-energy (>2 MeV) electrons that formed on 2 September 2012 and persisted largely unchanged in the geocentric radial range of 3.0 to ~3.5 Earth radii for more than 4 weeks before being disrupted (and virtually annihilated) by a powerful interplanetary shock wave passage.

Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Hoxie, V.; Henderson, M.; Li, X.; Spence, H.; Elkington, S.; Friedel, R.; Goldstein, J.; Hudson, M.; Reeves, G.; Thorne, R.; Kletzing, C.; Claudepierre, S.;

Published by: Science      Published on: 04/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1126/science.1233518

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Mission Overview for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

Provided here is an overview of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission design. The driving mission and science requirements are presented, and the unique engineering challenges of operating in Earth\textquoterights radiation belts are discussed in detail. The implementation of both the space and ground segments are presented, including a discussion of the challenges inherent with operating multiple observatories concurrently and working with a distributed network of science operation centers. An overview of the launch vehicle and the overall mission design will be presented, and the plan for space weather data broadcast will be introduced.

Stratton, J.; Harvey, R.; Heyler, G.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 01/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-012-9933-x

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

A novel technique for rapid L* calculation using UBK coordinates

[1] The magnetic drift invariant (L*) is an important quantity used for tracking and organizing particle dynamics in the radiation belts, but its accurate calculation has been computationally expensive in the past, thus making it difficult to employ this quantity in real-time space weather applications. In this paper, we propose a new, efficient method to calculate L* using the principle of energy conservation. This method uses Whipple\textquoterights (U, B, K) coordinates to quickly and accurately determine trajectories of particles at the magnetic mirror point from two-dimensional isoenergy contours. The method works for any magnetic field configuration and is able to accommodate constant electric potential along field lines. We compare the result of this method with those of International Radiation Belt Environment Modeling library (IRBEM-LIB) to demonstrate the performance of this new method. The method requires a preparation step, and thus may not be the optimal method for a single trajectory calculation; however, it presents a huge performance gain when adiabatically propagating a large population of particles in a given magnetic field configuration.

Min, Kyungguk; Bortnik, J.; Lee, Jeongwoo;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 01/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1029/2012JA018177

Generalized L value; L star; RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Rapid acceleration of protons upstream of earthward propagating dipolarization fronts

[1] Transport and acceleration of ions in the magnetotail largely occurs in the form of discrete impulsive events associated with a steep increase of the tail magnetic field normal to the neutral plane (Bz), which are referred to as dipolarization fronts. The goal of this paper is to investigate how protons initially located upstream of earthward moving fronts are accelerated at their encounter. According to our analytical analysis and simplified two-dimensional test-particle simulations of equatorially mirroring particles, there are two regimes of proton acceleration: trapping and quasi-trapping, which are realized depending on whether the front is preceded by a negative depletion in Bz. We then use three-dimensional test-particle simulations to investigate how these acceleration processes operate in a realistic magnetotail geometry. For this purpose we construct an analytical model of the front which is superimposed onto the ambient field of the magnetotail. According to our numerical simulations, both trapping and quasi-trapping can produce rapid acceleration of protons by more than an order of magnitude. In the case of trapping, the acceleration levels depend on the amount of time particles stay in phase with the front which is controlled by the magnetic field curvature ahead of the front and the front width. Quasi-trapping does not cause particle scattering out of the equatorial plane. Energization levels in this case are limited by the number of encounters particles have with the front before they get magnetized behind it.

Ukhorskiy, A; Sitnov, M.; Merkin, V.; Artemyev, A.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50452

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

The Van Allen Probes Mission

Fox, N.; Burch, J.;

Published by:       Published on:

YEAR: 2013     DOI:

RBSP; Van Allen Probes


Design, Fabrication, and Testing of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Propulsion Systems

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes spacecraft , part of NASA\textquoterights Living with a Star program, are scheduled for launch into Earth orbit in August 2012. 1,2,3 The twin spacecraft possess identical blowdown monopropellant hydrazine propulsion systems to provide spinup/spindown, precession, Delt a\textendashV, and deorbit capability. Each spacecraft manifests eight Aerojet 0.2 lbf (0.9 N) MR\textendash103G thrust ers, three ARD\ E Inconel 718 propellant tanks, and other components required to control the fl ow of propellant and monitor system health and performance. The propulsion systems were fabricated and installed by Aerojet Redmond and subsequently tested at the Jo hns Hopkins University / Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, MD. The test se quence at APL included thermal balance; end\textendash to\textendashend phasing; leak and functional; mass properties; water load (as a propellant simulant); water\textendashloaded vibration and acoustic testing; water offload; and thermal vacuum operations. This paper will document the design of th e propulsion system, component selection challenges faced, and system\textendashl evel tests performed prior to propellant load and launch.

Bushman, Stewart;

Published by:       Published on: 08/2012

YEAR: 2012     DOI: 10.2514/6.2012-4332

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

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