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Found 4 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 4


TWINS Observations of the Dynamics of Ring Currents Ion Spectra on 17th March and 7th October 2015

Direct comparisons between RBSP (Van Allen Probes or Radiation Belt Storm Probes) and TWINS (Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers) for the main phase of two storms, 17th March and 7th October 2015, showed agreement between the in–situ ion measurements and the ion spectra from the deconvolved energetic neutral atom (ENA) measurements, except when O+ ions were significant. Spatial evolution of individual energy peaks in the ion spectra are studied using TWINS data. O+ ions are seen to result in intense peaks at 5–10 keV/amu in the TWINS ion spectra. These ion populations are confined to low L shells (L < 5) and localized in the pre midnight sector. When H+ ions are significant, the low energy peaks ( < 25 keV/amu) are found to be less intense than the high energy peaks ( > 25 keV/amu), located at L > 4 and localized within the premidnight sector. During times of rapidly varying AE indices, two spatially distinct peaks, between 3–5RE and 6–8RE, are observed for the ions with energies > 25 keV/amu. The outer peak appears for a few hours and fades while the inner peak is more stable. These structures are found to be consistent with particle injections observed in the RBSP data. When double peaked structures are swept off, low energy ions accumulate in the pre midnight to midnight sectors whereas high energy ions are located pre to post midnight sectors. Faster drift orbits of > 25 keV/amu ions may cause this kind of distribution.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Shekhar, S.; Perez, J.; Ferradas, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

Ring Currents; Magnetosphere; energy dependent drift; ion nose; Substorm Injections; Ion Spectra; Van Allen Probes


Statistical investigation of the efficiency of EMIC waves in precipitating relativistic electrons

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been proposed to cause Relativistic Electron Precipitation (REP). In our study, we carry out 4 years of analysis from 2013 to 2016, with relativistic electron precipitation spikes obtained from POES satellites and EMIC waves observation from Van Allen Probes. Among the 473 coincidence events when POES satellites go through the region conjugate to EMIC wave activity, only 127 are associated with REP. Additionally, the coincidence occurrence rate is about 10\% higher than the random coincidence occurrence rate, indicating that EMIC waves and relativistic electrons can be statistically related, but the link is weaker than expected. H+ band EMIC waves have been regarded as less important than He+ band EMIC waves for the precipitation of relativistic electrons. We demonstrate that the proportion of H+ band EMIC wave events that are associated with REP (22\% to 32\%) is slightly higher than for He+ band EMIC wave activity (18\% to 27\%). An even greater proportion (25\% to 40\%) of EMIC waves are accompanied by REP events when H+ band and He+ band EMIC waves occur simultaneously.

Qin, Murong; Hudson, Mary; Millan, Mary; Woodger, Leslie; Shekhar, Sapna;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025419

causally related; coincidence occurrence rate; efficiency; EMIC wave; random coincidence occurrence rate; relativistic electron precipitation; Van Allen Probes


A Statistical Study of the Spatial Extent of Relativistic Electron Precipitation with Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites.

Relativistic Electron Precipitation (REP) in the atmosphere can contribute significantly to electron loss from the outer radiation belts. In order to estimate the contribution to this loss, it is important to estimate the spatial extent of the precipitation region. We observed REP with the zenith pointing (0o) Medium Energy Proton Electron Detector (MEPED) on board Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), for 15 years (2000-2014) and used both single and multi satellite measurements to estimate an average extent of the region of precipitation in L shell and Magnetic Local Time (MLT). In the duration of 15 years (2000-2014), 31035 REP events were found in this study. Events were found to split into two classes; one class of events coincided with proton precipitation in the P1 channel (30-80 keV), were located in the dusk and early morning sector, and were more localized in L shell (dL<0.5), whereas the other class of events did not coincide with proton precipitation, were located mostly in the midnight sector and were wider in L shell (dL \~ 1-2.5). Both classes were highly localized in MLT (dMLT <= 3 hrs), occuring mostly during the declining phase of the solar cycle and geomagnetically active times. The events located in the midnight sector for both classes were found to be associated with tail magnetic field stretching which could be due to the fact that they tend to occur mostly during geomagnetically active times, or could imply that precipitation is caused by current sheet scattering.

Shekhar, Sapna; Millan, Robyn; Smith, David;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024716

Magnetosphere; precipitation; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; spatial scale of REP; Van Allen Probes; wave particle scattering

Spatial Scale and Duration of One Microburst Region on 13 August 2015

Prior studies of microburst precipitation have largely relied on estimates of the spatial scale and temporal duration of the microburst region in order to determine the radiation belt loss rate of relativistic electrons. These estimates have often relied on the statistical distribution of microburst events. However, few studies have directly observed the spatial and temporal evolution of a single microburst event. In this study, we combine BARREL balloon-borne X-ray measurements with FIREBIRD-II and AeroCube-6 CubeSat electron measurements to determine the spatial and temporal evolution of a microburst region in the morning MLT sector on 13 August 2015. The microburst region is found to extend across at least four hours in local time in the morning sector, from 09:00 to 13:00 MLT, and from L of 5 out to 10. The microburst event lasts for nearly nine hours. Smaller scale structure is investigated using the dual AeroCube-6 CubeSats, and is found to be consistent with the spatial size of whistler mode chorus wave observations near the equatorial plane.

Anderson, B.; Shekhar, S.; Millan, R.; Crew, A.; Spence, H.; Klumpar, D.; Blake, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Turner, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023752

Microbursts; Radiation Belt Dynamics; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode chorus waves