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Found 8 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 8


Solar Energetic Proton Access to the Inner Magnetosphere during the 7-8 September 2017 event

Abstract The access of solar energetic protons into the inner magnetosphere on 7-8 September 2017 is investigated by following reversed proton trajectories to compute the proton cutoff energy using the Dartmouth geomagnetic cutoff code [Kress et al., 2010]. The cutoff energies for protons coming from the west and east direction, the minimum and maximum cutoff energy respectively, are calculated every five minutes along the orbit of Van Allen Probes using TS07 and the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) MHD magnetic field model. The result shows that the cutoff energy increases significantly as the radial distance decreases, and that the cutoff energy decreases with the building up of the ring current during magnetic storms. Solar wind dynamic pressure also affects cutoff suppression [Kress et al., 2004]. The LFM-RCM model shows stronger suppression of cutoff energy than TS07 during strong solar wind driving conditions. The simulation result is compared with proton flux measurements, showing consistent variation of the cutoff location during the 7-8 September 2017 geomagnetic storm. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Li, Zhao; Engel, Miles; Hudson, Mary; Kress, Brian; Patel, Maulik; Qin, Murong; Selesnick, Richard;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Van Allen Probes

Energetic electron detection packages on board Chinese navigation satellites in MEO

Abstract Energetic electron measurements and spacecraft charging are of great significance for theoretical research in space physics and space weather applications. In this paper, the energetic electron detection package (EEDP) deployed on three Chinese navigation satellites in medium Earth orbit (MEO) is reviewed. The instrument was developed by the space science payload team led by Peking University. The EEDP includes a pinhole medium-energy electron spectrometer (MES), a high-energy electron detector (HED) based on ΔE-E telescope technology, and a deep dielectric charging monitor (DDCM). The MES measures the energy spectra of 50−600 keV electrons from nine directions with a 180°×30° field of view (FOV). The HED measures the energy spectrum of 0.5−3.0 MeV electrons from one direction with a 30° cone-angle FOV. The ground test and calibration results indicate that these three sensors exhibit excellent performance. Preliminary observations show that the electron spectra measured by the MES and HED are in good agreement with the results from the magnetic electron-ion spectrometer (MagEIS) of the Van Allen Probes spacecraft, with an average relative deviation of 27.3\% for the energy spectra. The charging currents and voltages measured by the DDCM during storms are consistent with the high-energy electron observations of the HED, demonstrating the effectiveness of the DDCM. The observations of the EEDP on board the three MEO satellites can provide important support for theoretical research on the radiation belts and the applications related to space weather.

YuGuang, Ye; Hong, Zou; Qiu-Gang, Zong; HongFei, Chen; JiQing, Zou; WeiHong, Shi; XiangQian, Yu; WeiYing, Zhong; YongFu, Wang; YiXin, Hao; ZhiYang, Liu; XiangHong, Jia; Bo, Wang; XiaoPing, Yang; XiaoYun, Hao;

Published by: Earth and Planetary Physics      Published on: 04/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Radiation belts; energetic electron detection; Pin-hole technology; Chinese navigation satellites; MEO; internal charging; Van Allen Probes

Dependence of Relativistic Electron Precipitation in the Ionosphere on EMIC Wave Minimum Resonant Energy at the Conjugate Equator

Abstract We investigate relativistic electron precipitation events detected by POES in low-Earth orbit in close conjunction with Van Allen Probe A observations of EMIC waves near the geomagnetic equator. We show that the occurrence rate of > 0.7 MeV electron precipitation recorded by POES during those times strongly increases, reaching statistically significant levels when the minimum electron energy for cyclotron resonance with hydrogen or helium band EMIC waves at the equator decreases below ≃ 1.0 − 2.5 MeV, as expected from quasi-linear theory. Both hydrogen and helium band EMIC waves can be effective in precipitating MeV electrons. However, > 0.7 MeV electron precipitation is more often observed (at statistically significant levels) when the minimum electron energy for cyclotron resonance with hydrogen band waves is low (Emin = 0.6 − 1.0 MeV), whereas it is more often observed when the minimum electron energy for cyclotron resonance with helium band waves is slightly larger (Emin = 1.0 − 2.5 MeV), indicative of warm plasma effects for waves approaching the He+ gyrofrequency. We further show that most precipitation events had energies > 0.7 − 1.0 MeV, consistent with the estimated minimum energy (Emin ∼ 0.6 − 2.5 MeV) of cyclotron resonance with the observed EMIC waves during the majority of these events. However, 4 out of the 12 detected precipitation events cannot be explained by electron quasi-linear scattering by the observed EMIC waves, and 12 out of 20 theoretically expected precipitation events were not detected by POES, suggesting the possibility of nonlinear effects likely present near the magnetic equator, or warm plasma effects, and/or narrowly localized bursts of EMIC waves. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Zhang, X.-J.; Mourenas, D.; Shen, X.-C.; Qin, M.; Artemyev, A.; Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Hudson, M.; Angelopoulos, V.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

EMIC waves; relativistic electron precipitation; minimum resonant energy; Van Allen Probes; POES; Radiation belts


Statistical Dependence of EMIC Wave Scattering on Wave and Plasma Parameters

Abstract A recent statistical study (Qin et al., 2018, has suggested that not all electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can scatter relativistic electrons. However, knowledge of the factors that influence the EMIC wave scattering efficiency is still limited in observations. In our study, we perform 6 years of analysis of data from 2013 to 2018, with relativistic electron precipitation (REP) observed by POES and EMIC wave observations from Van Allen Probes. The coincidence occurrence rate between EMIC waves and relativistic electron precipitation events is about 34\%. Proportion of different bands of EMIC wave events that are associated with REP is as follows: H+ band and He+ band waves occurring simultaneously >H+ band >He+ band occurrence, same as in our previous study (Qin et al., 2018, It is also found that the coincidence occurrence rate of EMIC wave events and REP events increases with respect to increased background plasma density, with increases in the ratio of plasma frequency to local gyrofrequency, increasing EMIC wave power and when the wave frequency approaches the gyrofrequency. The dependence on background electron density is stronger than the dependence on the ratio of plasma frequency to gyrofrequency. The coincidence occurrence rate decreases as the magnetic field increases between 120 and 270 nT, consistent with a previous study. These results are critical for better understanding and predicting the REP into the upper atmosphere due to EMIC waves.

Qin, Murong; Hudson, Mary; Millan, Robyn; Woodger, Leslie; Shen, Xiaochen;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on:

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2020JA027772

EMIC waves; relativistic electron precipitation; coincidence occurrence rate; parametric dependence; Van Allen Probes


Investigating Loss of Relativistic Electrons Associated With EMIC Waves at Low L Values on 22 June 2015

In this study, rapid loss of relativistic radiation belt electrons at low L* values (2.4\textendash3.2) during a strong geomagnetic storm on 22 June 2015 is investigated along with five possible loss mechanisms. Both the particle and wave data are obtained from the Van Allen Probes. Duskside H+ band electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were observed during a rapid decrease of relativistic electrons with energy above 5.2 MeV occurring outside the plasmasphere during extreme magnetopause compression. Lower He+ composition and enriched O+ composition are found compared to typical values assumed in other studies of cyclotron resonant scattering of relativistic electrons by EMIC waves. Quantitative analysis demonstrates that even with the existence of He+ band EMIC waves, it is the H+ band EMIC waves that are likely to cause the depletion at small pitch angles and strong gradients in pitch angle distributions of relativistic electrons with energy above 5.2 MeV at low L values for this event. Very low frequency wave activity at other magnetic local time can be favorable for the loss of relativistic electrons at higher pitch angles. An illustrative calculation that combines the nominal pitch angle scattering rate due to whistler mode chorus at high pitch angles with the H+ band EMIC wave loss rate at low pitch angles produces loss on time scale observed at L=2.4\textendash3.2. At high L values and lower energies, radial loss to the magnetopause is a viable explanation.

Qin, Murong; Hudson, Mary; Li, Zhao; Millan, Robyn; Shen, Xiaochen; Shprits, Yuri; Woodger, Leslie; Jaynes, Allison; Kletzing, Craig;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025726

cold ion composition; EMIC wave; minimum resonant energy; pitch angle diffusion; quasi-linear theory; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes

Investigation of Solar Proton Access into the inner magnetosphere on 11 September 2017

In this study, access of solar energetic protons to the inner magnetosphere on 11 September 2017 is investigated by computing the reverse particle trajectories with the Dartmouth geomagnetic cutoff code [Kress et al., 2010]. The maximum and minimum cutoff rigidity at each point along the orbit of Van Allen Probe A is numerically computed by extending the code to calculate cutoff rigidity for particles coming from arbitrary direction. Pulse-height analyzed (PHA) data has the advantage of providing individual particle energies and effectively excluding background high energy proton contamination. This technique is adopted to study the cutoff locations for solar protons with different energy. The results demonstrate that cutoff latitude is lower for solar protons with higher energy, consistent with low altitude vertical cutoffs. Both the observations and numerical results show that proton access into the inner magnetosphere depends strongly on angle between particle arrival direction and magnetic west. The numerical result is approximately consistent with the observation that the energy of almost all solar protons stays above the minimum cutoff rigidity.

Qin, Murong; Hudson, Mary; Kress, Brian; Selesnick, Richard; Engel, Miles; Li, Zhao; Shen, Xiaochen;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026380

cutoff energy; cutoff location; Dartmouth geomagnetic cutoff code; Pulse height analyzed data; Solar proton; straggling function; Van Allen Probes


Statistical investigation of the efficiency of EMIC waves in precipitating relativistic electrons

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been proposed to cause Relativistic Electron Precipitation (REP). In our study, we carry out 4 years of analysis from 2013 to 2016, with relativistic electron precipitation spikes obtained from POES satellites and EMIC waves observation from Van Allen Probes. Among the 473 coincidence events when POES satellites go through the region conjugate to EMIC wave activity, only 127 are associated with REP. Additionally, the coincidence occurrence rate is about 10\% higher than the random coincidence occurrence rate, indicating that EMIC waves and relativistic electrons can be statistically related, but the link is weaker than expected. H+ band EMIC waves have been regarded as less important than He+ band EMIC waves for the precipitation of relativistic electrons. We demonstrate that the proportion of H+ band EMIC wave events that are associated with REP (22\% to 32\%) is slightly higher than for He+ band EMIC wave activity (18\% to 27\%). An even greater proportion (25\% to 40\%) of EMIC waves are accompanied by REP events when H+ band and He+ band EMIC waves occur simultaneously.

Qin, Murong; Hudson, Mary; Millan, Mary; Woodger, Leslie; Shekhar, Sapna;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025419

causally related; coincidence occurrence rate; efficiency; EMIC wave; random coincidence occurrence rate; relativistic electron precipitation; Van Allen Probes


Statistical study of the storm-time radiation belt evolution during Van Allen Probes era: CME- versus CIR-driven storms

CME- or CIR-driven storms can change the electron distributions in the radiation belt dramatically, which can in turn affect the spacecraft in this region or induce geomagnetic effects. The Van Allen Probes twin spacecraft, launched on 30 August 2012, orbit near the equatorial plane and across a wide range of L* with apogee at 5.8 RE and perigee at 620 km. Electron data from Van Allen Probes MagEIS and REPT instruments have been binned every six hours at L*=3 (defined as 2.5

Shen, Xiao-Chen; Hudson, Mary; Jaynes, Allison; Shi, Quanqi; Tian, Anmin; Claudepierre, Seth; Qin, Mu-Rong; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Sun, Wei-Jie;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024100

CIR-driven storm; CME-driven storm; outer radiation belt; Van Allen Probes