• Clicking on the title will open a new window with all details of the bibliographic entry.
  • Clicking on the DOI link will open a new window with the original bibliographic entry from the publisher.
  • Clicking on a single author will show all publications by the selected author.
  • Clicking on a single keyword, will show all publications by the selected keyword.

Found 12 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 12


Statistical Dependence of EMIC Wave Scattering on Wave and Plasma Parameters

Abstract A recent statistical study (Qin et al., 2018, has suggested that not all electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can scatter relativistic electrons. However, knowledge of the factors that influence the EMIC wave scattering efficiency is still limited in observations. In our study, we perform 6 years of analysis of data from 2013 to 2018, with relativistic electron precipitation (REP) observed by POES and EMIC wave observations from Van Allen Probes. The coincidence occurrence rate between EMIC waves and relativistic electron precipitation events is about 34\%. Proportion of different bands of EMIC wave events that are associated with REP is as follows: H+ band and He+ band waves occurring simultaneously >H+ band >He+ band occurrence, same as in our previous study (Qin et al., 2018, It is also found that the coincidence occurrence rate of EMIC wave events and REP events increases with respect to increased background plasma density, with increases in the ratio of plasma frequency to local gyrofrequency, increasing EMIC wave power and when the wave frequency approaches the gyrofrequency. The dependence on background electron density is stronger than the dependence on the ratio of plasma frequency to gyrofrequency. The coincidence occurrence rate decreases as the magnetic field increases between 120 and 270 nT, consistent with a previous study. These results are critical for better understanding and predicting the REP into the upper atmosphere due to EMIC waves.

Qin, Murong; Hudson, Mary; Millan, Robyn; Woodger, Leslie; Shen, Xiaochen;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on:

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2020JA027772

EMIC waves; relativistic electron precipitation; coincidence occurrence rate; parametric dependence; Van Allen Probes


Generation of EMIC Waves and Effects on Particle Precipitation During a Solar Wind Pressure Intensification with B z >

During geomagnetic storms, some fraction of the solar wind energy is coupled via reconnection at the dayside magnetopause, a process that requires a southward interplanetary magnetic field Bz. Through a complex sequence of events, some of this energy ultimately drives the generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, which can then scatter energetic electrons and ions from the radiation belts. In the event described in this paper, the interplanetary magnetic field remained northward throughout the event, a condition unfavorable for solar wind energy coupling through low-latitude reconnection. While this resulted in SYM/H remaining positive throughout the event (so this may not be considered a storm, in spite of the very high solar wind densities), pressure fluctuations were directly transferred into and then propagated throughout the magnetosphere, generating EMIC waves on global scales. The generation mechanism presumably involved the development of temperature anisotropies via perpendicular pressure perturbations, as evidenced by strong correlations between the pressure variations and the intensifications of the waves globally. Electron precipitation was recorded by the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses balloons, although it did not have the same widespread signatures as the waves and, in fact, appears to have been quite patchy in character. Observations from Van Allen Probe A satellite (at postmidnight local time) showed clear butterfly distributions, and it may be possible that the EMIC waves contributed to the development of these distribution functions. Ion precipitation was also recorded by the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite satellites, though tended to be confined to the dawn-dusk meridians.

Lessard, Marc; Paulson, Kristoff; Spence, Harlan; Weaver, Carol; Engebretson, Mark; Millan, Robyn; Woodger, Leslie; Halford, Alexa; Horne, Richard; Rodger, Craig; Hendry, Aaron;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026477

Van Allen Probes

Investigating Loss of Relativistic Electrons Associated With EMIC Waves at Low L Values on 22 June 2015

In this study, rapid loss of relativistic radiation belt electrons at low L* values (2.4\textendash3.2) during a strong geomagnetic storm on 22 June 2015 is investigated along with five possible loss mechanisms. Both the particle and wave data are obtained from the Van Allen Probes. Duskside H+ band electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were observed during a rapid decrease of relativistic electrons with energy above 5.2 MeV occurring outside the plasmasphere during extreme magnetopause compression. Lower He+ composition and enriched O+ composition are found compared to typical values assumed in other studies of cyclotron resonant scattering of relativistic electrons by EMIC waves. Quantitative analysis demonstrates that even with the existence of He+ band EMIC waves, it is the H+ band EMIC waves that are likely to cause the depletion at small pitch angles and strong gradients in pitch angle distributions of relativistic electrons with energy above 5.2 MeV at low L values for this event. Very low frequency wave activity at other magnetic local time can be favorable for the loss of relativistic electrons at higher pitch angles. An illustrative calculation that combines the nominal pitch angle scattering rate due to whistler mode chorus at high pitch angles with the H+ band EMIC wave loss rate at low pitch angles produces loss on time scale observed at L=2.4\textendash3.2. At high L values and lower energies, radial loss to the magnetopause is a viable explanation.

Qin, Murong; Hudson, Mary; Li, Zhao; Millan, Robyn; Shen, Xiaochen; Shprits, Yuri; Woodger, Leslie; Jaynes, Allison; Kletzing, Craig;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025726

cold ion composition; EMIC wave; minimum resonant energy; pitch angle diffusion; quasi-linear theory; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes


Impact of Background Magnetic Field for EMIC Wave-Driven Electron Precipitation

Wave-particle interaction between relativistic electrons and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is a highly debated loss process contributing to the dynamics of Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. Theoretical studies show that EMIC waves can result in strong loss of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts (Summers \& Thorne, 2003, However, many of these studies have not been validated by observations. Li et al. (2014, modeled the relativistic electron precipitation observed by Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) in a single-event case study based on a quasi-linear diffusion model and observations by Van Allen Probes and GOES 13. We expand upon that study to investigate the localization of the precipitation region and the effectiveness of EMIC waves as an electron loss mechanism.The model results of BARREL 1I observations on 17 January 2013 show that as the BARREL balloon drifts in local time to regions that map to lower equatorial magnetic field strength, the flux of precipitating electrons increases and peaks at lower energy. The hypothesis that the energy of the precipitating electrons is controlled by background magnetic field strength is further tested by considering observations from balloon campaigns conducted from 2000 to 2014, including BARREL. Consistent with theory for wave-particle interaction between relativistic electrons and EMIC waves, we find observationally that stronger equatorial magnetic field strength generally correlates with more energetic electron precipitation and further conclude that magnetic field strength can drive the localization and distribution of precipitating electrons.

Woodger, L.; Millan, R.; Li, Z.; Sample, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025315

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Statistical investigation of the efficiency of EMIC waves in precipitating relativistic electrons

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been proposed to cause Relativistic Electron Precipitation (REP). In our study, we carry out 4 years of analysis from 2013 to 2016, with relativistic electron precipitation spikes obtained from POES satellites and EMIC waves observation from Van Allen Probes. Among the 473 coincidence events when POES satellites go through the region conjugate to EMIC wave activity, only 127 are associated with REP. Additionally, the coincidence occurrence rate is about 10\% higher than the random coincidence occurrence rate, indicating that EMIC waves and relativistic electrons can be statistically related, but the link is weaker than expected. H+ band EMIC waves have been regarded as less important than He+ band EMIC waves for the precipitation of relativistic electrons. We demonstrate that the proportion of H+ band EMIC wave events that are associated with REP (22\% to 32\%) is slightly higher than for He+ band EMIC wave activity (18\% to 27\%). An even greater proportion (25\% to 40\%) of EMIC waves are accompanied by REP events when H+ band and He+ band EMIC waves occur simultaneously.

Qin, Murong; Hudson, Mary; Millan, Mary; Woodger, Leslie; Shekhar, Sapna;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025419

causally related; coincidence occurrence rate; efficiency; EMIC wave; random coincidence occurrence rate; relativistic electron precipitation; Van Allen Probes


Global-scale coherence modulation of radiation-belt electron loss from plasmaspheric hiss

Over 40 years ago it was suggested that electron loss in the region of the radiation belts that overlaps with the region of high plasma density called the plasmasphere, within four to five Earth radii1, 2, arises largely from interaction with an electromagnetic plasma wave called plasmaspheric hiss3, 4, 5. This interaction strongly influences the evolution of the radiation belts during a geomagnetic storm, and over the course of many hours to days helps to return the radiation-belt structure to its \textquoteleftquiet\textquoteright pre-storm configuration. Observations have shown that the long-term electron-loss rate is consistent with this theory but the temporal and spatial dynamics of the loss process remain to be directly verified. Here we report simultaneous measurements of structured radiation-belt electron losses and the hiss phenomenon that causes the losses. Losses were observed in the form of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by hiss-scattered electrons colliding with the Earth\textquoterights atmosphere after removal from the radiation belts. Our results show that changes of up to an order of magnitude in the dynamics of electron loss arising from hiss occur on timescales as short as one to twenty minutes, in association with modulations in plasma density and magnetic field. Furthermore, these loss dynamics are coherent with hiss dynamics on spatial scales comparable to the size of the plasmasphere. This nearly global-scale coherence was not predicted and may affect the short-term evolution of the radiation belts during active times.

Breneman, A.; Halford, A.; Millan, R.; McCarthy, M.; Fennell, J.; Sample, J.; Woodger, L.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.; Cattell, C.; Goldstein, J.; Malaspina, D.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Nature      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1038/nature14515

Magnetospheric physics; Van Allen Probes

A Summary of the BARREL Campaigns: Technique for studying electron precipitation

The Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) studies the loss of energetic electrons from Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. BARREL\textquoterights array of slowly drifting balloon payloads was designed to capitalize on magnetic conjunctions with NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes. Two campaigns were conducted from Antarctica in 2013 and 2014. During the first campaign in January and February of 2013, there were three moderate geomagnetic storms with Sym-Hmin < -40 nT. Similarly, two minor geomagnetic storms occurred during the second campaign, starting in December of 2013 and continuing on into February of 2014. Throughout the two campaigns, BARREL observed electron precipitation over a wide range of energies and exhibiting temporal structure from 100\textquoterights of milliseconds to hours. Relativistic electron precipitation was observed in the dusk to midnight sector, and microburst precipitation was primarily observed near dawn. In this paper we review the two BARREL science campaigns and discuss the data products and analysis techniques as applied to relativistic electron precipitation observed on 19 January 2013.

Woodger, L.; Halford, A.; Millan, R.; McCarthy, M.; Smith, D.; Bowers, G.; Sample, J.; Anderson, B.; Liang, X.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020874

electron precipitation; event timing; gamma ray burst; multi-point observation; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; x-ray spectroscopy

BARREL observations of an ICME-Shock impact with the magnetosphere and the resultant radiation belt electron loss.

The Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) mission of opportunity working in tandem with the Van Allen Probes was designed to study the loss of radiation belt electrons to the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. BARREL is also sensitive to X-rays from other sources. During the second BARREL campaign the Sun produced an X-class flare followed by a solar energetic particle event (SEP) associated with the same active region. Two days later on 9 January 2014 the shock generated by the coronal mass ejection (CME) originating from the active region hit the Earth while BARREL was in a close conjunction with the Van Allen Probes. Time History Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observed the impact of the ICME-shock near the magnetopause, and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) satellites were on either side of the BARREL/Van Allen Probe array. The solar interplanetary magnetic field was not ideally oriented to cause a significant geomagnetic storm, but compression from the shock impact led to the loss of radiation belt electrons. We propose that an azimuthal electric field impulse generated by magnetopause compression caused inward electron transport and minimal loss. This process also drove chorus waves, which were responsible for most of the precipitation observed outside the plasmapause. Observations of hiss inside the plasmapause explains the absence of loss at this location. ULF waves were found to be correlated withthe structure of the precipitation. We demonstrate how BARREL can monitor precipitation following a ICME-shock impact at Earth in a cradle-to-grave view; from flare, to SEP, to electron precipitation.

Halford, A.; McGregor, S.; Murphy, K.; Millan, R.; Hudson, M.; Woodger, L.; Cattel, C.; Breneman, A.; Mann, I.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Gkioulidou, M.; Fennell, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020873

BARREL; Van Allen Probes


Investigation of EMIC wave scattering as the cause for the BARREL January 17, 2013 relativistic electron precipitation event: a quantitative comparison of simulation with observations

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were observed at multiple observatory locations for several hours on 17 January 2013. During the wave activity period, a duskside relativistic electron precipitation (REP) event was observed by one of the BARREL balloons, and was magnetically mapped close to GOES-13. We simulate the relativistic electron pitch-angle diffusion caused by gyroresonant interactions with EMIC waves using wave and particle data measured by multiple instruments on board GOES-13 and the Van Allen Probes. We show that the count rate, the energy distribution and the time variation of the simulated precipitation all agree very well with the balloon observations, suggesting that EMIC wave scattering was likely the cause for the precipitation event. The event reported here is the first balloon REP event with closely conjugate EMIC wave observations, and our study employs the most detailed quantitative analysis on the link of EMIC waves with observed REP to date.

Li, Zan; Millan, Robyn; Hudson, Mary; Woodger, Leslie; Smith, David; Chen, Yue; Friedel, Reiner; Rodriguez, Juan; Engebretson, Mark; Goldstein, Jerry; Fennell, Joseph; Spence, Harlan;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 12/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062273

BARREL; EMIC waves; GOES; pitch angle diffusion; RBSP; relativistic electron precipitation; Van Allen Probes


The Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL)

BARREL is a multiple-balloon investigation designed to study electron losses from Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts. Selected as a NASA Living with a Star Mission of Opportunity, BARREL augments the Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission by providing measurements of relativistic electron precipitation with a pair of Antarctic balloon campaigns that will be conducted during the Austral summers (January-February) of 2013 and 2014. During each campaign, a total of 20 small (\~20 kg) stratospheric balloons will be successively launched to maintain an array of \~5 payloads spread across \~6 hours of magnetic local time in the region that magnetically maps to the radiation belts. Each balloon carries an X-ray spectrometer to measure the bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by precipitating relativistic electrons as they collide with neutrals in the atmosphere, and a DC magnetometer to measure ULF-timescale variations of the magnetic field. BARREL will provide the first balloon measurements of relativistic electron precipitation while comprehensive in situ measurements of both plasma waves and energetic particles are available, and will characterize the spatial scale of precipitation at relativistic energies. All data and analysis software will be made freely available to the scientific community.

Millan, R.; McCarthy, M.; Sample, J.; Smith, D.; Thompson, L.; McGaw, D.; Woodger, L.; Hewitt, J.; Comess, M.; Yando, K.; Liang, A.; Anderson, B.; Knezek, N.; Rexroad, W.; Scheiman, J.; Bowers, G.; Halford, A.; Collier, A.; Clilverd, M.; Lin, R.; Hudson, M.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9971-z

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

New conjunctive CubeSat and balloon measurements to quantify rapid energetic electron precipitation

Relativistic electron precipitation into the atmosphere can contribute significant losses to the outer radiation belt. In particular, rapid narrow precipitation features termed precipitation bands have been hypothesized to be an integral contributor to relativistic electron precipitation loss, but quantification of their net effect is still needed. Here we investigate precipitation bands as measured at low earth orbit by the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat. Two precipitation bands of MeV electrons were observed on 18\textendash19 January 2013, concurrent with precipitation seen by the 2013 Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) campaign. The newly available conjugate measurements allow for a detailed estimate of the temporal and spatial features of precipitation bands for the first time. We estimate the net electron loss due to the precipitation bands and find that ~20 such events could empty the entire outer belt. This study suggests that precipitation bands play a critical role in radiation belt losses.

Blum, L.; Schiller, Q.; Li, X.; Millan, R.; Halford, A.; Woodger, L.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058546

CubeSats; precipitation; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes


Energetic radiation belt electron precipitation showing ULF modulation

1] The energization and loss processes for energetic radiation belt electrons are not yet well understood. Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves have been correlated with both enhancement in outer zone radiation belt electron flux and modulation of precipitation loss to the atmosphere. This study considers the effects of ULF waves in the Pc-4 to Pc-5 period range (45 s\textendash600 s) on electron loss to the atmosphere on a time scale of several minutes. Global simulations using magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model fields as drivers provide a valuable tool for studying the dynamics of these \~MeV energetic particles. ACE satellite measurements of the MHD solar wind parameters are used as the upstream boundary condition for the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) 3D MHD code calculation of fields, used to drive electrons in a 3D test particle simulation that keeps track of attributes like energy, pitch-angle and L-shell. The simulation results are compared with balloon observations obtained during the January 21, 2005 CME-shock event. Rapid loss of 20 keV to 1.5 MeV electrons was detected by balloon-borne measurements ofbremsstrahlungX-rays during the MINIS campaign following the shock arrival at Earth. The global precipitation response of the radiation belts to this CME-shock driven storm was investigated focusing on their interaction with ULF waves. A primary cause for the precipitation modulation seen in both the simulation and the MINIS campaign is suggested based on the lowering of mirror points due to compressional magnetic field oscillations.

Brito, T.; Woodger, L.; Hudson, M.; MILLAN, R;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 11/2012

YEAR: 2012     DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053790

Charged particle motion and acceleration; Energetic particles: precipitating; Radiation belts; wave-particle interactions