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Found 17 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 17


MMS, Van Allen Probes, GOES 13, and Ground Based Magnetometer Observations of EMIC Wave Events Before, During, and After a Modest Interplanetary Shock

The stimulation of EMIC waves by a magnetospheric compression is perhaps the closest thing to a controlled experiment that is currently possible in magnetospheric physics, in that one prominent factor that can increase wave growth acts at a well-defined time. We present a detailed analysis of EMIC waves observed in the outer dayside magnetosphere by the four Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft, Van Allen Probe A, and GOES 13, and by four very high latitude ground magnetometer stations in the western hemisphere before, during, and after a modest interplanetary shock on December 14, 2015. Analysis shows several features consistent with current theory, as well as some unexpected features. During the most intense MMS wave burst, which began ~ 1 min after the end of a brief magnetosheath incursion, independent transverse EMIC waves with orthogonal linear polarizations appeared simultaneously at all four spacecraft. He++ band EMIC waves were observed by MMS inside the magnetosphere, whereas almost all previous studies of He++ band EMIC waves observed them only in the magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layers. Transverse EMIC waves also appeared at Van Allen Probe A and GOES 13 very near the times when the magnetic field compression reached their locations, indicating that the compression lowered the instability threshold to allow for EMIC wave generation throughout the outer dayside magnetosphere. The timing of the EMIC waves at both MMS and Van Allen Probe A was consistent with theoretical expectations for EMIC instabilities based on characteristics of the proton distributions observed by instruments on these spacecraft.

Engebretson, M.; Posch, J.; Capman, N.; Campuzano, N.; elik, P.; Allen, R.; Vines, S.; Anderson, B.; Tian, S.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Fuselier, S.; Argall, M.; Lessard, M.; Torbert, R.; Moldwin, M.; Hartinger, M.; Kim, H.; Russell, C.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Singer, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025984

Van Allen Probes


Lower-hybrid drift waves and electromagnetic electron space-phase holes associated with dipolarization fronts and field-aligned currents observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission during a substorm

We analyse two ion scale dipolarization fronts associated with field-aligned currents detected by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission during a large substorm on August 10, 2016. The first event corresponds to a fast dawnward flow with an anti-parallel current and could be generated by the wake of a previous fast earthward flow. It is associated with intense lower-hybrid drift waves detected at the front and propagating dawnward with a perpendicular phase speed close to the electric drift and the ion thermal velocity. The second event corresponds to a flow reversal: from southwward/dawnward to northward/duskward associated with a parallel current consistent with a brief expansion of the plasma sheet before the front crossing, and with a smaller lower-hybrid drift wave activity. Electromagnetic electron phase-space holes are detected near these low-frequency drift waves during both events. The drift waves could accelerate electrons parallel to the magnetic field and produce the parallel electron drift needed to generate the electron holes. Yet, we cannot rule out the possibility that the drift waves are produced by the anti-parallel current associated with the fast flows, leaving the source for the electron holes unexplained.

Contel, O.; Nakamura, R.; Breuillard, H.; Argall, M.; Graham, D.; Fischer, D.; o, A.; Berthomier, M.; Pottelette, R.; Mirioni, L.; Chust, T.; Wilder, F.; Gershman, D.; Varsani, A.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Norgren, C.; Ergun, R.; Goodrich, K.; Burch, J.; Torbert, R.; Needell, J.; Chutter, M.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Russell, C.; Magnes, W.; Strangeway, R.; Bromund, K.; Wei, H; Plaschke, F.; Anderson, B.; Le, G.; Moore, T.; Giles, B.; Paterson, W.; Pollock, C.; Dorelli, J.; Avanov, L.; Saito, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Fuselier, S.; Mauk, B.; Cohen, I.; Turner, D.; Fennell, J.; Leonard, T.; Jaynes, A.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024550

dipolarization front; electron hole; fast flow:Van allen Probes; Field-Aligned Current; lower-hybrid drift wave; substorm

Dominance of high energy (>150 keV) heavy ion intensities in Earth\textquoterights middle to outer magnetosphere

Previous observations have driven the prevailing assumption in the field that energetic ions measured by an instrument using a bare solid state detector (SSD) are predominantly protons. However, new near-equatorial energetic particle observations obtained between 7 and 12 RE during Phase 1 of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission challenge the validity of this assumption. In particular, measurements by the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) instruments have revealed that the intensities of heavy ion species (specifically oxygen and helium) dominate those of protons at energies math formula150-220 keV in the middle to outer (>7 RE) magnetosphere. Given that relative composition measurements can drift as sensors degrade in gain, quality cross-calibration agreement between EIS observations and those from the SSD-based Fly\textquoterights Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) sensors provides critical support to the veracity of the measurement. Similar observations from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft extend the ion composition measurements into the middle magnetosphere and reveal a strongly proton-dominated environment at math formula, but decreasing proton intensities at math formula. It is concluded that the intensity dominance of the heavy ions at higher energies (>150 keV) arises from the existence of significant populations of multiply-charged heavy ions, presumably of solar wind origin.

Cohen, Ian; Mitchell, Donald; Kistler, Lynn; Mauk, Barry; Anderson, Brian; Westlake, Joseph; Ohtani, Shinichi; Hamilton, Douglas; Turner, Drew; Blake, Bern; Fennell, Joseph; Jaynes, Allison; Leonard, Trevor; Gerrard, Andrew; Lanzerotti, Louis; Allen, Robert; Burch, James;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024351

energetic ion composition; magnetospheric ion composition; Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS); outer magnetosphere; ring current composition; suprathermal ions; Van Allen Probes

Global observations of magnetospheric high- m poloidal waves during the 22 June 2015 magnetic storm

We report global observations of high-m poloidal waves during the recovery phase of the 22 June 2015 magnetic storm from a constellation of widely spaced satellites of five missions including Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm (THEMIS), Cluster, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). The combined observations demonstrate the global spatial extent of storm time poloidal waves. MMS observations confirm high azimuthal wave numbers (m ~ 100). Mode identification indicates the waves are associated with the second harmonic of field line resonances. The wave frequencies exhibit a decreasing trend as L increases, distinguishing them from the single-frequency global poloidal modes normally observed during quiet times. Detailed examination of the instantaneous frequency reveals discrete spatial structures with step-like frequency changes along L. Each discrete L shell has a steady wave frequency and spans about 1 RE, suggesting that there exist a discrete number of drift-bounce resonance regions across L shells during storm times.

Le, G.; Chi, P.; Strangeway, R.; Russell, C.; Slavin, J.; Takahashi, K.; Singer, H.; Anderson, B.; Bromund, K.; Fischer, D.; Kepko, E.; Magnes, W.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Torbert, R.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073048

field line resonances; high-m poloidal waves; magnetic storm; magnetospheric multiscale mission; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Spatial Scale and Duration of One Microburst Region on 13 August 2015

Prior studies of microburst precipitation have largely relied on estimates of the spatial scale and temporal duration of the microburst region in order to determine the radiation belt loss rate of relativistic electrons. These estimates have often relied on the statistical distribution of microburst events. However, few studies have directly observed the spatial and temporal evolution of a single microburst event. In this study, we combine BARREL balloon-borne X-ray measurements with FIREBIRD-II and AeroCube-6 CubeSat electron measurements to determine the spatial and temporal evolution of a microburst region in the morning MLT sector on 13 August 2015. The microburst region is found to extend across at least four hours in local time in the morning sector, from 09:00 to 13:00 MLT, and from L of 5 out to 10. The microburst event lasts for nearly nine hours. Smaller scale structure is investigated using the dual AeroCube-6 CubeSats, and is found to be consistent with the spatial size of whistler mode chorus wave observations near the equatorial plane.

Anderson, B.; Shekhar, S.; Millan, R.; Crew, A.; Spence, H.; Klumpar, D.; Blake, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Turner, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023752

Microbursts; Radiation Belt Dynamics; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode chorus waves


The permeability of the magnetopause to a multispecies substorm injection of energetic particles

Leakage of ions from the magnetosphere into the magnetosheath remains an important topic in understanding the plasma physics of Earth\textquoterights magnetopause and the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. Here using sophisticated instrumentation from two spacecraft (Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment on the Van Allen Probes and Energetic Ion Spectrometer on the Magnetospheric Multiscale) spaced uniquely near and outside the dayside magnetopause, we are able to determine the escape mechanisms for large gyroradii oxygen ions and much smaller gyroradii hydrogen and helium ions. The oxygen ions are entrained on the magnetosphere boundary, while the hydrogen and helium ions appear to escape along reconnected field lines. These results have important implications for not only Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere but also other solar system magnetospheres.

Westlake, J.; Cohen, I.; Mauk, B.; Anderson, B.; Mitchell, D.; Gkioulidou, M.; Walsh, B.; Lanzerotti, L.; Strangeway, R.; Russell, C.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070189

energetic particles; magnetopause; magnetosheath; MMSEPD; Van Allen Probes

Multispacecraft Observations and Modeling of the June 22/23, 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

The magnetic storm of June 22-23, 2015 was one of the largest in the current solar cycle. We present in situ observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) and the Van Allen Probes (VAP) in the magnetotail, field-aligned currents from AMPERE, and ionospheric flow data from DMSP. Our real-time space weather alert system sent out a \textquotedblleftred alert\textquotedblright, correctly predicting Kp indices greater than 8. We show strong outflow of ionospheric Oxygen, dipolarizations in the MMS magnetometer data, and dropouts in the particle fluxes seen by the MMS FPI instrument suite. At ionospheric altitudes, the AMPERE data show highly variable currents exceeding 20 MA. We present numerical simulations with the BATS-R-US global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model linked with the Rice Convection Model (RCM). The model predicted the magnitude of the dipolarizations, and varying polar cap convection patterns, which were confirmed by DMSP measurements.

Reiff, P.; Daou, A.; Sazykin, S; Nakamura, R.; Hairston, M.; Coffey, V.; Chandler, M.; Anderson, B.; Russell, C.; Welling, D.; Fuselier, S.; Genestreti, K.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 05/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069154

Dipolarization; Geomagnetic storm; MMS; prediction; simulation; Space weather; Van Allen Probes


On the formation and origin of substorm growth phase/onset auroral arcs inferred from conjugate space-ground observations

Magnetotail processes and structures related to substorm growth phase/onset auroral arcs remain poorly understood mostly due to the lack of adequate observations. In this study we make a comparison between ground-based optical measurements of the premidnight growth phase/onset arcs at subauroral latitudes and magnetically conjugate measurements made by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) at ~780 km in altitude and by the Van Allen Probe B (RBSP-B) spacecraft crossing L values of ~5.0\textendash5.6 in the premidnight inner tail region. The conjugate observations offer a unique opportunity to examine the detailed features of the arc location relative to large-scale Birkeland currents and of the magnetospheric counterpart. Our main findings include (1) at the early stage of the growth phase the quiet auroral arc emerged ~4.3\textdegree equatorward of the boundary between the downward Region 2 (R2) and upward Region 1 (R1) currents; (2) shortly before the auroral breakup (poleward auroral expansion) the latitudinal separation between the arc and the R1/R2 demarcation narrowed to ~1.0\textdegree; (3) RBSP-B observed a magnetic field signature of a local upward field-aligned current (FAC) connecting the arc with the near-Earth tail when the spacecraft footprint was very close to the arc; and (4) the upward FAC signature was located on the tailward side of a local plasma pressure increase confined near L ~5.2\textendash5.4. These findings strongly suggest that the premidnight arc is connected to highly localized pressure gradients embedded in the near-tail R2 source region via the local upward FAC.

Motoba, T.; Ohtani, S.; Anderson, B.; Korth, H.; Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L.; Shiokawa, K.; Connors, M.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v120.1010.1002/2015JA021676

FACs; growth phase/onset arc; M-I coupling; Van Allen Probes

A Summary of the BARREL Campaigns: Technique for studying electron precipitation

The Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) studies the loss of energetic electrons from Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. BARREL\textquoterights array of slowly drifting balloon payloads was designed to capitalize on magnetic conjunctions with NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes. Two campaigns were conducted from Antarctica in 2013 and 2014. During the first campaign in January and February of 2013, there were three moderate geomagnetic storms with Sym-Hmin < -40 nT. Similarly, two minor geomagnetic storms occurred during the second campaign, starting in December of 2013 and continuing on into February of 2014. Throughout the two campaigns, BARREL observed electron precipitation over a wide range of energies and exhibiting temporal structure from 100\textquoterights of milliseconds to hours. Relativistic electron precipitation was observed in the dusk to midnight sector, and microburst precipitation was primarily observed near dawn. In this paper we review the two BARREL science campaigns and discuss the data products and analysis techniques as applied to relativistic electron precipitation observed on 19 January 2013.

Woodger, L.; Halford, A.; Millan, R.; McCarthy, M.; Smith, D.; Bowers, G.; Sample, J.; Anderson, B.; Liang, X.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020874

electron precipitation; event timing; gamma ray burst; multi-point observation; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; x-ray spectroscopy


The Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL)

BARREL is a multiple-balloon investigation designed to study electron losses from Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts. Selected as a NASA Living with a Star Mission of Opportunity, BARREL augments the Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission by providing measurements of relativistic electron precipitation with a pair of Antarctic balloon campaigns that will be conducted during the Austral summers (January-February) of 2013 and 2014. During each campaign, a total of 20 small (\~20 kg) stratospheric balloons will be successively launched to maintain an array of \~5 payloads spread across \~6 hours of magnetic local time in the region that magnetically maps to the radiation belts. Each balloon carries an X-ray spectrometer to measure the bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by precipitating relativistic electrons as they collide with neutrals in the atmosphere, and a DC magnetometer to measure ULF-timescale variations of the magnetic field. BARREL will provide the first balloon measurements of relativistic electron precipitation while comprehensive in situ measurements of both plasma waves and energetic particles are available, and will characterize the spatial scale of precipitation at relativistic energies. All data and analysis software will be made freely available to the scientific community.

Millan, R.; McCarthy, M.; Sample, J.; Smith, D.; Thompson, L.; McGaw, D.; Woodger, L.; Hewitt, J.; Comess, M.; Yando, K.; Liang, A.; Anderson, B.; Knezek, N.; Rexroad, W.; Scheiman, J.; Bowers, G.; Halford, A.; Collier, A.; Clilverd, M.; Lin, R.; Hudson, M.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9971-z

RBSP; Van Allen Probes


Slot region electron loss timescales due to plasmaspheric hiss and lightning-generated whistlers

[1] Energetic electrons (E > 100 keV) in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts undergo Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonant interactions with a variety of whistler mode waves leading to pitch angle scattering and subsequent loss to the atmosphere. In this study we assess the relative importance of plasmaspheric hiss and lightning-generated whistlers in the slot region and beyond. Electron loss timescales are determined using the Pitch Angle and energy Diffusion of Ions and Electrons (PADIE) code with global models of the spectral distributions of the wave power based on CRRES observations. Our results show that plasmaspheric hiss propagating at small and intermediate wave normal angles is a significant scattering agent in the slot region and beyond. In contrast, plasmaspheric hiss propagating at large wave normal angles and lightning-generated whistlers do not contribute significantly to radiation belt loss. The loss timescale of 2 MeV electrons due to plasmaspheric hiss propagating at small and intermediate wave normal angles in the center of the slot region (L = 2.5) lies in the range 1\textendash10 days, consistent with recent Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) observations. Wave turbulence in space, which is responsible for the generation plasmaspheric hiss, thus leads to the formation of the slot region. During active periods, losses due to plasmaspheric hiss may occur on a timescale of 1 day or less for a wide range of energies, 200 keV < E < 1 MeV, in the region 3.5 < L < 4.0. Plasmaspheric hiss may thus also be a significant loss process in the inner region of the outer radiation belt during magnetically disturbed periods.

Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Glauert, Sarah; Anderson, Roger;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 08/2007

YEAR: 2007     DOI: 10.1029/2007JA012413

Local Loss due to VLF/ELF/EMIC Waves


Storm time evolution of the outer radiation belt: Transport and losses

During geomagnetic storms the magnetic field of the inner magnetosphere exhibits large-scale variations over timescales from minutes to days. Being mainly controlled by the magnetic field the motion of relativistic electrons of the outer radiation belt can be highly susceptible to its variations. This paper investigates evolution of the outer belt during the 7 September 2002 storm. Evolution of electron phase space density is calculated with the use of a test-particle simulation in storm time magnetic and electric fields. The results show that storm time intensification of the ring current produces a large impact on the belt. In contrast to the conventional Dst effect the dominant effects are nonadiabatic and lead to profound and irreversible transformations of the belt. The diamagnetic influence of the partial ring current leads to expansion of electron drift orbits such that their paths intersect the magnetopause leading to rapid electron losses. About 2.5 hr after the storm onset most of the electrons outside L = 5 are lost. The partial ring current pressure also leads to an electron trap in the dayside magnetosphere where electrons stay on closed dayside drift orbits for as long as 11 hours. These sequestered electrons are reinjected into the outer belt due to partial recovery of the ring current. The third adiabatic invariant of these electrons exhibits rapid jumps and changes sign. These jumps produce localized peaks in the L*-profile of electron phase space density which have previously been considered as an observable indication of local electron acceleration.

Ukhorskiy, A; Anderson, B.; Brandt, P.; Tsyganenko, N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 11/2006

YEAR: 2006     DOI: 10.1029/2006JA011690

Magnetopause Losses

Energetic outer zone electron loss timescales during low geomagnetic activity

Following enhanced magnetic activity the fluxes of energetic electrons in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt gradually decay to quiet-time levels. We use CRRES observations to estimate the energetic electron loss timescales and to identify the principal loss mechanisms. Gradual loss of energetic electrons in the region 3.0 <= L <= 5.0 occurs during quiet periods (Kp < 3-) following enhanced magnetic activity on timescales ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 days for 214 keV electrons to 5.5 to 6.5 days for 1.09 MeV electrons. The intervals of decay are associated with large average values of the ratio fpe/fce (>7), indicating that the decay takes place in the plasmasphere. We compute loss timescales for pitch-angle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss using the PADIE code with wave properties based on CRRES observations. The resulting timescales suggest that pitch angle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss propagating at small or intermediate wave normal angles is responsible for electron loss over a wide range of energies and L shells. The region where hiss dominates loss is energy-dependent, ranging from 3.5 <= L <= 5.0 at 214 keV to 3.0 <= L <= 4.0 at 1.09 MeV. Plasmaspheric hiss at large wave normal angles does not contribute significantly to the loss rates. At E = 1.09 MeV the loss timescales are overestimated by a factor of \~5 for 4.5 <= L <= 5.0. We suggest that resonant wave-particle interactions with EMIC waves, which become important at MeV energies for larger L (L > \~4.5), may play a significant role in this region.

Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Glauert, Sarah; Thorne, Richard; Summers, D.; Albert, Jay; Anderson, Roger;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 05/2006

YEAR: 2006     DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011516

Local Loss due to VLF/ELF/EMIC Waves


Impact of toroidal ULF waves on the outer radiation belt electrons

Relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt exhibit highly variable complex behavior. Previous studies have established a strong correlation of electron fluxes and the inner magnetospheric ULF waves in the Pc 3\textendash5 frequency range. Resonant interaction of ULF waves with the drift motion of radiation belt electrons violates their third adiabatic invariant and consequently leads to their radial transport. If the wave-particle interaction has a stochastic character, then the electron transport is diffusive. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of toroidal ULF waves on radiation belt electrons. The study is based on direct measurements of ULF electric fields on the CRRES spacecraft. We show that the electric fields of inner magnetospheric toroidal ULF waves exhibit high asymmetry in magnetic local time and have narrow-band frequency spectra. Such narrow-band waves can induce radial diffusion of energetic electrons, if an extrinsic stochasticity is introduced in the system. The quasi-periodic variations in the solar wind dynamic pressure are identified as a possible source of extrinsic stochasticity. In the asymmetric magnetic field, drifting electrons can interact with both azimuthal and radial electric field components. We derive analytically and then calculate numerically the diffusion rates associated with azimuthal and radial electric field components of the waves. It is shown that even under highly disturbed geomagnetic conditions, when the background field asymmetry is large, the diffusion rates due to the radial field component are small. At the same time, the resonant scattering of energetic electrons by the azimuthal electric field of the waves provides an efficient form of radial diffusion and therefore can play an important role in the dynamics of the outer radiation belt.

Ukhorskiy, A; Takahashi, K; Anderson, B.; Korth, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 10/2005

YEAR: 2005     DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011017

Radial Transport


Energization of relativistic electrons in the presence of ULF power and MeV microbursts: Evidence for dual ULF and VLF acceleration

We examine signatures of two types of waves that may be involved in the acceleration of energetic electrons in Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belts. We have compiled a database of ULF wave power from SAMNET and IMAGE ground magnetometer stations for 1987\textendash2001. Long-duration, comprehensive, in situ VLF/ELF chorus wave observations are not available, so we infer chorus wave activity from low-altitude SAMPEX observations of MeV electron microbursts for 1996\textendash2001 since microbursts are thought to be caused by interactions between chorus and trapped electrons. We compare the ULF and microburst observations to in situ trapped electrons observed by high-altitude satellites from 1989\textendash2001. We find that electron acceleration at low L shells is closely associated with both ULF activity and MeV microbursts and thereby probably also with chorus activity. Electron flux enhancements across the outer radiation belt are, in general, related to both ULF and VLF/ELF activity. However, we suggest that electron flux peaks observed at L \~ 4.5 are likely caused by VLF/ELF wave acceleration, while ULF activity probably produces the dominant electron acceleration at geosynchronous orbit and beyond.

O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Lorentzen, K.; Mann, I.; Meredith, N.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Looper, M.; Milling, D.; Anderson, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 08/2003

YEAR: 2003     DOI: 10.1029/2002JA009784

Local Acceleration due to Wave-Particle Interaction

Evidence for chorus-driven electron acceleration to relativistic energies from a survey of geomagnetically disturbed periods

We perform a survey of the plasma wave and particle data from the CRRES satellite during 26 geomagnetically disturbed periods to investigate the viability of a local stochastic electron acceleration mechanism to relativistic energies driven by Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonant interactions with whistler mode chorus. Relativistic electron flux enhancements associated with moderate or strong storms may be seen over the whole outer zone (3 < L < 7), typically peaking in the range 4 < L < 5, whereas those associated with weak storms and intervals of prolonged substorm activity lacking a magnetic storm signature (PSALMSS) are typically observed further out in the regions 4 < L < 7 and 4.5 < L < 7, respectively. The most significant relativistic electron flux enhancements are seen outside of the plasmapause and are associated with periods of prolonged substorm activity with AE greater than 100 nT for a total integrated time greater than 2 days or greater than 300 nT for a total integrated time greater than 0.7 days. These events are also associated with enhanced fluxes of seed electrons and enhanced lower-band chorus wave power with integrated lower-band chorus wave intensities of greater than 500 pT2 day. No significant flux enhancements are seen unless the level of substorm activity is sufficiently high. These results are consistent with a local, stochastic, chorus-driven electron acceleration mechanism involving the energization of a seed population of electrons with energies of a few hundred keV to relativistic energies operating on a timescale of the order of days.

Meredith, Nigel; Cain, Michelle; Horne, Richard; Thorne, Richard; Summers, D.; Anderson, Roger;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 06/2003

YEAR: 2003     DOI: 10.1029/2002JA009764

Local Acceleration due to Wave-Particle Interaction


The temporal evolution of electron distributions and associated wave activity following substorm injections in the inner magnetosphere

The temporal evolution of electron distributions and associated wave activity following substorm injections in the inner magnetosphere are investigated using data from the CRRES satellite. Equatorial electron distributions and concomitant wave spectra outside the plasmapause on the nightside of the Earth are studied as a function of time since injection determined from the auroral-electrojet index (AE). The electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) wave amplitudes are shown to be very sensitive to small modeling errors in the location of the magnetic equator. They are best understood at the ECH equator, defined by the local maximum in the ECH wave activity in the vicinity of the nominal magnetic equator, suggesting that the ECH equator is a better measure of the location of the true equator. Strong ECH and whistler mode wave amplitudes are associated with the injected distributions and at the ECH equator, in the region 6.0 <= L < 7.0, exponential fits reveal wave amplitude decay time constants of 6.3\textpm1.2 and 4.6\textpm0.7 hours, respectively. Pancake electron distributions are seen to develop from injected distributions that are nearly isotropic in velocity space and, in this region, are seen to form on a similar timescale of approximately 4 hours suggesting that both wave types are involved in their production. The timescale for pancake production and wave decay is comparable with the average time interval between substorm events so that the wave-particle interactions are almost continually present in this region leading to a continual supply of electrons to power the diffuse aurora. In the region 3.8 <= L < 6.0 the timescale for wave decay at the ECH equator is 2.3 \textpm 0.6 and 1.1 \textpm 0.2 hours for ECH waves and whistler mode waves respectively, although the pancakes in this region show no clear evolution as a function of time.

Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Johnstone, Alan; Anderson, Roger;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 06/2000

YEAR: 2000     DOI: 10.1029/2000JA900010

Substorm Injections