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Found 9 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 9


Van Allen Probes observations of chorus wave vector orientations: Implications for the chorus-to-hiss mechanism

Using observations from the Van Allen Probes EMFISIS instrument, coupled with ray tracing simulations, we determine the fraction of chorus wave power with the conditions required to access the plasmasphere and evolve into plasmaspheric hiss. It is found that only an extremely small fraction of chorus occurs with the required wave vector orientation, carrying only a small fraction of the total chorus wave power. The exception is on the edge of plasmaspheric plumes, where strong azimuthal density gradients are present. In these cases, up to 94\% of chorus wave power exists with the conditions required to access the plasmasphere. As such, we conclude that strong azimuthal density gradients are actually a requirement if a significant fraction of chorus wave power is to enter the plasmasphere and be a source of plasmaspheric hiss. This result suggests it is unlikely that chorus directly contributes a significant fraction of plasmaspheric hiss wave power.

Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; Chen, L.; Horne, R.; ik, O.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082111

chorus waves; EMFISIS; Plasmaspheric Hiss; plasmaspheric plumes; Van Allen Probes; wave normal angle


Quasiperiodic Whistler Mode Emissions Observed by the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft

Quasiperiodic (QP) emissions are whistler mode electromagnetic waves observed in the inner magnetosphere which exhibit a QP time modulation of the wave intensity. We analyze 768 QP events observed during the first five years of the operation of the Van Allen Probes spacecraft (09/2012\textendash10/2017). Multicomponent wave measurements performed in the equatorial region, where the emissions are likely generated, are used to reveal new experimental information about their properties. We show that the events are observed nearly exclusively inside the plasmasphere. Wave frequencies are mostly between about 0.5 and 4 kHz. The events observed at larger radial distances and on the duskside tend to have slightly lower frequencies than the emissions observed elsewhere. The maximum event frequencies are limited by half of the equatorial electron gyrofrequency, suggesting the importance of wave ducting. Modulation periods are typically between about 0.5 and 5 minutes, and they increase with the in-situ measured plasma number density. This increase is consistent with the main mechanisms suggested to explain the origin of the QP modulation. Two-point measurements performed by the Van Allen Probes are used to estimate a typical spatial extent of the emissions to about 1RE in radial distance and 1.5 hours in magnetic local time. Detailed wave analysis shows that the emissions are right-hand circularly polarized, and they usually come from several different directions simultaneously. They, however, predominantly propagate at rather low wave normal angles and away from the geomagnetic equator.

emec, F.; Hospodarsky, G.; a, B.; Demekhov, A.; Pasmanik, D.; ik, O.; Kurth, W.; Hartley, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026058

EMFISIS; QP emissions; quasiperiodic; Van Allen Probes

Determining Plasmaspheric Densities from Observations of Plasmaspheric Hiss

A new method of inferring electron plasma densities inside of the plasmasphere is presented. Utilizing observations of the electric and magnetic field wave power associated with plasmaspheric hiss, coupled with the cold plasma dispersion relation, permits calculation of the plasma density. This methodology yields a density estimate for each frequency channel and time interval where plasmaspheric hiss is observed and is shown to yield results that are generally in agreement with densities determined via other methods. A statistical calibration is performed against the density from the upper hybrid line, accounting for both systematic offsets and distribution scatter in the hiss-inferred densities. This calculation and calibration methodology provides accurate density estimates, both statistically and for individual events. These calibrated calculated densities are not subject to the same upper limit as densities inferred via other methodologies, thus permitting density estimates to be extended to lower L shells. This is of particular interest given that fpe/fce ratios indicate favorable conditions for efficient pitch-angle and energy diffusion in this region. Since hiss is almost always observable inside of the plasmasphere, the hiss-inferred densities are available for the majority of time periods, with 79\% data coverage for L < 4. This compares to 33\textendash37\% data coverage for other methods of inferring plasma densities. Due to the high-accuracy of these hiss-inferred densities and their plentiful availability, this methodology provides a viable alternative of calculating event-specific densities, and therefore diffusion coefficients, as opposed to relying on empirical models for periods when densities from other sources are not available.

Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; De Pascuale, S.; Kurth, W.; ik, O.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025658

Density; EMFISIS; plasmasphere; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes

Statistical Properties of Plasmaspheric Hiss from Van Allen Probes Observations

Van Allen Probes observations are used to statistically investigate plasmaspheric hiss wave properties. This analysis shows that the wave normal direction of plasmaspheric hiss is predominantly field aligned at larger L shells, with a bimodal distribution, consisting of a near-field aligned and a highly oblique component, becoming apparent at lower L shells. Investigation of this oblique population reveals that it is most prevalent at L < 3, frequencies with f/fce> 0.01 (or f> 700 Hz), low geomagnetic activity levels, and between 1900 and 0900 MLT. This structure is similar to that reported for oblique chorus waves in the equatorial region, perhaps suggesting a causal link between the two wave modes. Ray tracing results from HOTRAY confirm that is feasible for these oblique chorus waves to be a source of the observed oblique plasmaspheric hiss population. The decrease in oblique plasmaspheric hiss occurrence rates during more elevated geomagnetic activity levels may be attributed to the increase in Landau resonant electrons causing oblique chorus waves to be more substantially damped outside of the plasmasphere. In turn, this restricts the amount of wave power that can access the plasmasphere and evolve into oblique plasmaspheric hiss. These results confirm that, despite the difference in location of this bimodal distribution compared to previous studies, a direct link between oblique equatorial chorus outside of the plasmasphere and oblique hiss at low L shells is plausible. As such, these results are in keeping with the existing theory of chorus as the source of plasmaspheric hiss.

Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; ik, O.; Chen, L.; Horne, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024593

Bimodal; chorus waves; EMFISIS; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes; wave normal angle


On the Relationship Between Electron Flux Oscillations and ULF Wave-Driven Radial Transport

The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the levels of electron flux oscillations and radial diffusion for different Phase Space Density (PSD) gradients, through observation and particle tracing simulations under the effect of model Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) fluctuations. This investigation aims to demonstrate that electron flux oscillation is associated with and could be used as an indicator of ongoing radial diffusion. To this direction, flux oscillations are observed through the Van Allen Probes\textquoteright MagEIS energetic particle detector; subsequently, flux oscillations are produced in a particle tracing model that simulates radial diffusion by using model magnetic and electric field fluctuations that are approximating measured magnetic and electric field fluctuations as recorded by the Van Allen Probes\textquoteright EMFISIS and EFW instruments, respectively. The flux oscillation amplitudes are then correlated with Phase Space Density gradients in the magnetosphere and with the ongoing radial diffusion process.

Sarris, Theodore; Li, Xinlin; Temerin, Michael; Zhao, Hong; Califf, Sam; Liu, Wenlong; Ergun, Robert;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023741

Flux Oscillations; MAGEis; EMFISIS; EFW; Phase space density; radial diffusion; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

An improved sheath impedance model for the Van Allen probes EFW instrument: Effects of the spin axis antenna

A technique to quantitatively determine the sheath impedance of the Van Allen Probes Electric Field and Waves (EFW) instrument is presented. This is achieved, for whistler mode waves, through a comparison between the total electric field wave power spectra calculated from magnetic field observations and cold plasma theory, and the total electric field wave power measured by the EFW spherical double probes instrument. In a previous study, a simple density-dependent sheath impedance model was developed in order to account for the differences between the observed and calculated wave electric field. The current study builds on this previous work by investigating the remaining discrepancies, identifying their cause, and developing an improved sheath impedance correction. Analysis reveals that anomalous gains are caused by the spin axis antennas measuring too much electric field at specific densities and frequencies. This is accounted for in an improved sheath impedance model by introducing a density-dependent function describing the relative effective length of the probe separation, Leff, in addition to the sheath capacitance and resistance values previously calculated. Leff values vary between between 0.5 and 1.2, with values >1 accounting for the anomalous gains and values <1 accounting for the shorting effect at low densities. Applying this improved sheath impedance model results in a significant increase in the agreement level between observed and calculated electric field power spectra and wave powers over the previous model.

Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Bounds, S.; Averkamp, T.; Bonnell, J.; ik, O.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023597

antenna sheath impedance; EFW; electric field; EMFISIS; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode waves


Using the cold plasma dispersion relation and whistler-mode waves to quantify the antenna sheath impedance of the Van Allen Probes EFW instrument

Cold plasma theory and parallel wave propagation are often assumed when approximating the whistler mode magnetic field wave power from electric field observations. The current study is the first to include the wave normal angle from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science package on board the Van Allen Probes in the conversion factor, thus allowing for the accuracy of these assumptions to be quantified. Results indicate that removing the assumption of parallel propagation does not significantly affect calculated plasmaspheric hiss wave powers. Hence, the assumption of parallel propagation is valid. For chorus waves, inclusion of the wave normal angle in the conversion factor leads to significant alterations in the distribution of wave power ratios (observed/ calculated); the percentage of overestimates decreases, the percentage of underestimates increases, and the spread of values is significantly reduced. Calculated plasmaspheric hiss wave powers are, on average, a good estimate of those observed, whereas calculated chorus wave powers are persistently and systematically underestimated. Investigation of wave power ratios (observed/calculated), as a function of frequency and plasma density, reveals a structure consistent with signal attenuation via the formation of a plasma sheath around the Electric Field and Waves spherical double probes instrument. A simple, density-dependent model is developed in order to quantify this effect of variable impedance between the electric field antenna and the plasma interface. This sheath impedance model is then demonstrated to be successful in significantly improving agreement between calculated and observed power spectra and wave powers.

Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Bounds, S.; Averkamp, T.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J.; ik, O.; Watt, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022501

EFW; EMFISIS; Plasmaspheric Hiss; sheath impedance; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode chorus

Survey of the Frequency Dependent Latitudinal Distribution of the Fast Magnetosonic Wave Mode from Van Allen Probes EMFISIS Wave Form Receiver Plasma Wave Analysis

We present a statistical survey of the latitudinal structure of the fast magnetosonic wave mode detected by the Van Allen Probes spanning the time interval of 9/21/2012 to 8/1/2014. We show that statistically the latitudinal occurrence of the wave frequency (f) normalized by the local proton cyclotron frequency (fcP) has a distinct funnel shaped appearance in latitude about the magnetic equator similar to that found in case studies. By comparing the observed E/B ratios with the model E/B ratio, using the observed plasma density and background magnetic field magnitude as input to the model E/B ratio, we show that this mode is consistent with the extraordinary (whistler) mode at wave normal angles (θk) near 90\textdegree. Performing polarization analysis on synthetic waveforms composed from a superposition of extra-ordinary mode plane waves with θk randomly chosen between 87 and 90\textdegree, we show that the uncertainty in the derived wave normal is substantially broadened, with a tail extending down to θk of 60\textdegree, suggesting that another approach is necessary to estimate the true distribution of θk. We find that the histograms of the synthetically derived ellipticities and θk are consistent with the observations of ellipticities and θk derived using polarization analysis. We make estimates of the median equatorial θk by comparing observed and model ray tracing frequency dependent probability occurrence with latitude, and give preliminary frequency dependent estimates of the equatorial θk distribution around noon and 4 RE, with the median of ~4 to 7\textdegree from 90\textdegree at f /fcP = 2 and dropping to ~0.5\textdegree from 90\textdegree at f /fcP = 30. The occurrence of waves in this mode peaks around noon near the equator at all radial distances, and we find that the overall intensity of these waves increases with AE*, similar to findings of other studies.

Boardsen, Scott; Hospodarsky, George; Kletzing, Craig; Engebretson, Mark; Pfaff, Robert; Wygant, John; Kurth, William; Averkamp, Terrance; Bounds, Scott; Green, Jim; De Pascuale, Sebastian;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021844

EMFISIS; Fast Magnetosonic Waves; latitudinal distribution; statistical study; Van Allen Probes; wave normal angle


Applying the cold plasma dispersion relation to whistler mode chorus waves: EMFISIS wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes

Most theoretical wave models require the power in the wave magnetic field in order to determine the effect of chorus waves on radiation belt electrons. However, researchers typically use the cold plasma dispersion relation to approximate the magnetic wave power when only electric field data are available. In this study, the validity of using the cold plasma dispersion relation in this context is tested using Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) observations of both the electric and magnetic spectral intensities in the chorus wave band (0.1\textendash0.9 fce). Results from this study indicate that the calculated wave intensity is least accurate during periods of enhanced wave activity. For observed wave intensities >10-3 nT2, using the cold plasma dispersion relation results in an underestimate of the wave intensity by a factor of 2 or greater 56\% of the time over the full chorus wave band, 60\% of the time for lower band chorus, and 59\% of the time for upper band chorus. Hence, during active periods, empirical chorus wave models that are reliant on the cold plasma dispersion relation will underestimate chorus wave intensities to a significant degree, thus causing questionable calculation of wave-particle resonance effects on MeV electrons.

Hartley, D.; Chen, Y.; Kletzing, C.; Denton, M.; Kurth, W.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020808

chorus waves; EMFISIS; energetic electrons; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions