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Found 10 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 10


Van Allen Probes Observations of Multi-MeV Electron Drift-Periodic Flux Oscillations in Earth’s Outer Radiation Belt During the March 2017 Event

Abstract Radiation belt electrons undergo frequent acceleration, transport, and loss processes under various physical mechanisms. One of the most prevalent mechanisms is radial diffusion, caused by the resonant interactions between energetic electrons and ULF waves in the Pc4-5 band. An indication of this resonant interaction is believed to be the appearance of periodic flux oscillations. In this study, we report long-lasting, drift-periodic flux oscillations of relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons with energies up to ∼7.7 MeV in the outer radiation belt, observed by the Van Allen Probes mission. During this March 2017 event, multi-MeV electron flux oscillations at the electron drift frequency appeared coincidently with enhanced Pc5 ULF wave activity and lasted for over 10 hours in the center of the outer belt. The amplitude of such flux oscillations is well correlated with the radial gradient of electron phase space density (PSD), with almost no oscillation observed near the PSD peak. The temporal evolution of the PSD radial profile also suggests the dominant role of radial diffusion in multi-MeV electron dynamics during this event. By combining these observations, we conclude that these multi-MeV electron flux oscillations are caused by the resonant interactions between electrons and broadband Pc5 ULF waves and are an indicator of the ongoing radial diffusion process during this event. They contain essential information of radial diffusion and have the potential to be further used to quantify the radial diffusion effects and aid in a better understanding of this prevailing mechanism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Zhao, Hong; Sarris, Theodore; Li, Xinlin; Weiner, Max; Huckabee, Isabela; Baker, Daniel; Jaynes, Allison; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Elkington, Scot; Barani, Mohammad; Tu, Weichao; Liu, Wenlong; Zhang, Dianjun; Hartinger, Michael;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Radiation belt; multi-MeV electrons; radial diffusion; ULF waves; Wave-particle interaction; Phase space density radial gradient; Van Allen Probes


Relation Between Shock-Related Impulse and Subsequent ULF Wave in the Earth s Magnetosphere

The generation of Pc4-5 ultralow frequency (ULF) waves after interplanetary shock-induced electric field impulses in the Earth s magnetosphere is studied using Van Allen Probes measurements by investigating the relationship between the first impulses and subsequent resonant ULF waves. In the dayside, the relevant time scales of the first impulse is correlated better with local Alfvén speed than with local eigenfrequency, implying that the temporal scale of the first impulse is more likely related to fast-mode wave propagation rather than local field line resonance. There are only 20 out of 51 events with narrow-band poloidal ULF waves induced after the first impulse, showing a higher chance for ULF wave generation at the locations where the impulse equivalent frequency scale matches the local eigenfrequency. It is suggested that the shock-related ULF wave can be excited in the magnetosphere on condition that shock-induced impulse has large enough amplitude with its frequency matching the local eigenfrequency.

Zhang, Dianjun; Liu, Wenlong; Li, Xinlin; Sarris, Theodore; Wang, Yongfu; Xiao, Chao; Zhang, Zhao; Wygant, John;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 11/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

ULF wave; interplanetary shock; Magnetosphere; Field line resonance; electric field; wave excitation; Van Allen Probes

Simulations of Electron Flux Oscillations as Observed by MagEIS in Response to Broadband ULF Waves

Coherent electron flux oscillations of hundreds of keV are often observed by the Van Allen Probes in the magnetosphere during quiet times in association with ultralow frequency (ULF) waves. They are observed in the form of periodic flux fluctuations, with a drift frequency that is energy dependent, but are not associated with drift echoes following storm- or substorm-related energetic particle injections. Instead, they are associated with the resonant interaction of electrons with ULF waves and are an indication of ongoing electron radial diffusion. To investigate details of such flux oscillations, particle-tracing simulations are conducted under the effect of realistic, broadband ULF electric and consistent magnetic fluctuations. Virtual detectors are simulated along spacecraft orbits and the results are compared to measurements. Through a parametric study, it is found that the width of electron energy channels is a critical parameter affecting the observed amplitude of flux oscillations, with narrower energy channel widths enabling the observation of higher-amplitude flux oscillations; this potentially explains why such features were not observed regularly before the Van Allen Probes era, as previous spacecraft generally had lower energy resolution, which only enabled the observation of large-amplitude drift echoes following a storm or substorm. Results are confirmed using the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) ultrahigh energy resolution data. Energy width effects are quantified through a parametric simulation study that matches flux oscillation observations during a period that is characterized by extremely quiet conditions, where the Van Allen Probes observed flux oscillations over multiple days.

Sarris, Theodore; Li, Xinlin; Temerin, Michael; Zhao, Hong; Khoo, Leng; Turner, Drew; Liu, Wenlong; Claudepierre, Seth;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

electron flux oscillations; ULF waves; Magnetosphere; Radiation belts; radial diffusion; particle tracing simulations; Van Allen Probes


On the Initial Enhancement of Energetic Electrons and the Innermost Plasmapause Locations: CME-Driven Storm Periods

Using Van Allen Probes\textquoteright observations and established plasmapause location (Lpp) models, we investigate the relationship between the location of the initial enhancement (IE) of energetic electrons and the innermost (among all magnetic local time sectors) Lpp over five intense storm periods. Our study reveals that the IE events for 30 keV to 2MeV electrons always occurred outside of the innermost Lpp. On average, the inner extent of the IE events (LIE) for <800 keV electrons was closer to the innermost Lpp when compared to the LIE for >800 keV electrons that was found consistently at ~1.5 RE outside of the innermost Lpp. The IE of 10s keV electrons was observed before the IE of 100s keV electrons, and the IE of >800 keV electrons was observed on average 12.6\textpm2.3 hours after the occurrence of the earliest IE event. In addition, we report an overall electron (~30 keV to ~2 MeV) flux increase outside the plasmasphere during the selected storm periods, in contrast to the little change of energy spectrum evolution inside the plasmasphere; this demonstrates the important role of the plasmasphere in shaping energetic electron dynamics. Our investigation of the LIE-Lpp relationship also provides insights into the underlying physical processes responsible for the dynamics of tens keV to >MeV electrons.

Khoo, Leng; Li, Xinlin; Zhao, Hong; Sarris, Theodore; Xiang, Zheng; Zhang, Kun; Kellerman, Adam; Blake, Bernard;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026074

energetic electron; enhancements; plasmasphere; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Observations of impulsive electric fields induced by Interplanetary Shock

We investigate the characteristics of impulsive electric fields in Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere, as measured by the Van Allen Probes, in association with interplanetary shocks, as measured by ACE and Wind spacecraft in the solar wind from January 2013 to July 2016. It is shown that electric field impulses are mainly induced by global compressions by the shocks, mostly in the azimuthal direction and the amplitudes of the initial electric field impulses are positively correlated with the rate of increase of dynamic pressure across the shock in the dayside. It is also shown that the temporal profile of the impulse is related to the temporal profile of the solar wind dynamic pressure, Pd. It is suggested that during the first period of the impulse the evolution of the electric field is directly controlled by external solar wind forcing, and thus finite rates of change of Pd should be considered in the study of the interactions between solar wind and magnetosphere. Implications of shock-induced impulsive electric fields on the acceleration and transport of radiation belt electrons are also discussed.

Zhang, Dianjun; Liu, Wenlong; Li, Xinlin; Sarris, Theodore; Xiao, Chao; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078809

electric field; inner magnetosphere; interplanetary shock; particle accelaration; Van Allen Probes


On the Relationship Between Electron Flux Oscillations and ULF Wave-Driven Radial Transport

The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the levels of electron flux oscillations and radial diffusion for different Phase Space Density (PSD) gradients, through observation and particle tracing simulations under the effect of model Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) fluctuations. This investigation aims to demonstrate that electron flux oscillation is associated with and could be used as an indicator of ongoing radial diffusion. To this direction, flux oscillations are observed through the Van Allen Probes\textquoteright MagEIS energetic particle detector; subsequently, flux oscillations are produced in a particle tracing model that simulates radial diffusion by using model magnetic and electric field fluctuations that are approximating measured magnetic and electric field fluctuations as recorded by the Van Allen Probes\textquoteright EMFISIS and EFW instruments, respectively. The flux oscillation amplitudes are then correlated with Phase Space Density gradients in the magnetosphere and with the ongoing radial diffusion process.

Sarris, Theodore; Li, Xinlin; Temerin, Michael; Zhao, Hong; Califf, Sam; Liu, Wenlong; Ergun, Robert;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023741

Flux Oscillations; MAGEis; EMFISIS; EFW; Phase space density; radial diffusion; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

The role of the convection electric field in filling the slot region between the inner and outer radiation belts

The Van Allen Probes have reported frequent flux enhancements of 100s keV electrons in the slot region, with lower energy electrons exhibiting more dynamic behavior at lower L shells. Also, in situ electric field measurements from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), and the Van Allen Probes have provided evidence for large-scale electric fields at low L shells during active times. We study an event on 19 February 2014 where hundreds of keV electron fluxes were enhanced by orders of magnitude in the slot region and electric fields of 1\textendash2 mV/m were observed below L = 3. Using a 2-D guiding center particle tracer and a simple large-scale convection electric field model, we demonstrate that the measured electric fields can account for energization of electrons up to at least 500 keV in the slot region through inward radial transport.

Califf, S.; Li, X.; Zhao, H.; Kellerman, A.; Sarris, T.; Jaynes, A.; Malaspina, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023657

convection; electric field; electrons; Slot region; Van Allen Probes


Calculating ultra-low-frequency wave power of the compressional magnetic field vs. L and time: multi-spacecraft analysis using the Van Allen probes, THEMIS and GOES

Ultra-low-frequency (ULF) pulsations are critical in radial diffusion processes of energetic particles, and the power spectral density (PSD) of these fluctuations is an integral part of the radial diffusion coefficients and of assimilative models of the radiation belts. Using simultaneous measurements from two Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) geosynchronous satellites, three satellites of the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft constellation and the two Van Allen probes during a 10-day period of intense geomagnetic activity and ULF pulsations of October 2012, we calculate the PSDs of ULF pulsations at different L shells. By following the time history of measurements at different L it is shown that, during this time, ULF wave power is not enhanced uniformly throughout the magnetosphere but instead is mostly enhanced in the outer L shells, close to the magnetopause, and to a lesser extent in the inner magnetosphere, closer to the plasmapause. Furthermore, by using phase differences between two GOES geosynchronous satellite pairs, we estimate the daily-averaged distribution of power at different azimuthal wave numbers. These results can have significant implications in better defining the effect of radial diffusion in the phase space density of energetic particles for different wave numbers or L shell distributions of ULF power.

Sarris, Theodore; Li, Xinlin;

Published by: Annales Geophysicae      Published on: 06/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.5194/angeo-34-565-2016

energetic particles trapped; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; Magnetospheric physics; storms and substorms; Van Allen Probes


Estimates of the power per mode number of broadband ULF waves at geosynchronous orbit

In studies of radial diffusion processes in the magnetosphere it is well known that ultralow frequency (ULF) waves of frequency mωd can resonantly interact with particles of drift frequency ωd, where m is the waves\textquoteright azimuthal mode number. Due to difficulties in estimating m, an oversimplifying assumption is often made in simulations, namely that all ULF wave power is located at a single mode number. In this paper a technique is presented for extracting information on the distribution of ULF power in a range of azimuthal mode numbers. As a first step, the cross power and phase differences between time series from azimuthally aligned magnetometers are calculated. Subsequently, through integrating the ULF power at particular ranges of phase differences that correspond to particular mode numbers, estimates of the fraction of the total power at each phase difference range or mode number are provided. Albeit entwined with many ambiguities, this technique offers critical information that is currently missing when estimating radial diffusion of energetic particles. As proof-of-concept, the technique is first tested successfully for a well-studied case of narrowband ULF Field Line Resonances (FLR) for which the mode number was calculated simultaneously through ground-based and space measurements. Subsequently, the technique is demonstrated for the broadband ULF waves that accompanied the 2003 \textquotedblleftHalloween\textquotedblright magnetospheric storms. The temporal evolution of power at each mode number gives insight into the evolution of ULF waves during a storm as well as more accurate characterization of broadband ULF waves that can be used in radial diffusion simulations.

Sarris, T.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019238

Magnetosphere; mode number; radial diffusion; Radiation belts; ULF waves; ultralow frequency


Simulating radial diffusion of energetic (MeV) electrons through a model of fluctuating electric and magnetic fields

In the present work, a test particle simulation is performed in a model of analytic Ultra Low Frequency, ULF, perturbations in the electric and magnetic fields of the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. The goal of this work is to examine if the radial transport of energetic particles in quiet-time ULF magnetospheric perturbations of various azimuthal mode numbers can be described as a diffusive process and be approximated by theoretically derived radial diffusion coefficients. In the model realistic compressional electromagnetic field perturbations are constructed by a superposition of a large number of propagating electric and consistent magnetic pulses. The diffusion rates of the electrons under the effect of the fluctuating fields are calculated numerically through the test-particle simulation as a function of the radial coordinate L in a dipolar magnetosphere; these calculations are then compared to the symmetric, electromagnetic radial diffusion coefficients for compressional, poloidal perturbations in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. In the model the amplitude of the perturbation fields can be adjusted to represent realistic states of magnetospheric activity. Similarly, the azimuthal modulation of the fields can be adjusted to represent different azimuthal modes of fluctuations and the contribution to radial diffusion from each mode can be quantified. Two simulations of quiet-time magnetospheric variability are performed: in the first simulation, diffusion due to poloidal perturbations of mode number m=1 is calculated; in the second, the diffusion rates from multiple-mode (m=0 to m=8) perturbations are calculated. The numerical calculations of the diffusion coefficients derived from the particle orbits are found to agree with the corresponding theoretical estimates of the diffusion coefficient within a factor of two.

Sarris, T.; Li, X.; Temerin, M.;

Published by: Annales Geophysicae      Published on: 10/2006

YEAR: 2006     DOI: 10.5194/angeo-24-2583-2006

Radial Transport