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Found 9 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 9


New Insights From Long-Term Measurements of Inner Belt Protons (10s of MeV) by SAMPEX, POES, Van Allen Probes, and Simulation Results

The Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) mission provided long-term measurements of 10s of megaelectron volt (MeV) inner belt (L < 2) protons (1992–2009) as did the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite-18 (POES-18, 2005 to present). These long-term measurements at low-Earth orbit (LEO) showed clear solar cycle variations which anticorrelate with sunspot number. However, the magnitude of the variation is much greater than the solar cycle variation of galactic cosmic rays (>GeV) that are regarded as a source of these trapped protons. Furthermore, the proton fluxes and their variations sensitively depend on the altitude above the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region. With respect to protons (>36 MeV) mirroring near the magnetic equator, both POES measurements and simulations show no obvious solar cycle variations at L > 1.2. This is also confirmed by recent measurements from the Van Allen Probes (2012–2019), but there are clear solar cycle variations and a strong spatial gradient of the proton flux below L = 1.2. A direct comparison between measurements and simulations leads to the conclusion that energy loss of trapped protons due to collisions with free and bound electrons in the ionosphere and atmosphere is the dominant mechanism for the strong spatial gradient and solar cycle variation of the inner belt protons. This fact is also key of importance for spacecraft and instrument design and operation in near-Earth space.

Li, Xinlin; Xiang, Zheng; Zhang, Kun; Khoo, Lengying; Zhao, Hong; Baker, Daniel; Temerin, Michael;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

Inner radiation belt; Inner Belt Proton; Solar cycle variation; Cosmic rays; neutron monitor; Low Earth Orbit satellite; Van Allen Probes

Dynamics of Energetic Electrons in the Slot Region During Geomagnetically Quiet Times: Losses Due to Wave-Particle Interactions Versus a Source From Cosmic Ray Albedo Neutron Decay (CRAND)

Earth s slot region, lying between the outer and inner radiation belts, has been identified as due to a balance between inward radial diffusion and pitch angle (PA) scattering induced by waves. However, recent satellite observations and modeling studies indicate that cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND) may also play a significant role in energetic electron dynamics in the slot region. In this study, using a drift-diffusion-source model, we investigate the relative contribution of all significant waves and CRAND to the dynamics of energetic electrons in the slot region during July 2014, an extended period of quiet geomagnetic activity. The bounce-averaged PA diffusion coefficients from three types of waves (hiss, lightning-generated whistlers [LGW], and very low frequency [VLF] transmitters) are calculated based on quasi-linear theory, while the CRAND source follows the results in Xiang et al. (2019, The simulation results indicate that both LGW and VLF transmitter waves can enhance loss and weaken the top hat PA distribution induced by hiss waves. For 470 keV electrons at L = 2.5, simulation results without CRAND show a much quicker decrease than observations from the Van Allen Probes. After including CRAND, simulated electron flux variations reproduce satellite observations, suggesting that CRAND is an important source for hundreds of keV electrons in the slot region during quiet times. The balance between the CRAND source and loss due to wave-particle interactions provides a lower limit to relativistic electron fluxes in the slot region, which can act as an important reference point for instrument calibration when a true background level is warranted.

Xiang, Zheng; Li, Xinlin; Ni, Binbin; Temerin, M.; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Kun; Khoo, Leng;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

Slot region; Wave-particle interaction; CRAND; energetic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Simulations of Electron Flux Oscillations as Observed by MagEIS in Response to Broadband ULF Waves

Coherent electron flux oscillations of hundreds of keV are often observed by the Van Allen Probes in the magnetosphere during quiet times in association with ultralow frequency (ULF) waves. They are observed in the form of periodic flux fluctuations, with a drift frequency that is energy dependent, but are not associated with drift echoes following storm- or substorm-related energetic particle injections. Instead, they are associated with the resonant interaction of electrons with ULF waves and are an indication of ongoing electron radial diffusion. To investigate details of such flux oscillations, particle-tracing simulations are conducted under the effect of realistic, broadband ULF electric and consistent magnetic fluctuations. Virtual detectors are simulated along spacecraft orbits and the results are compared to measurements. Through a parametric study, it is found that the width of electron energy channels is a critical parameter affecting the observed amplitude of flux oscillations, with narrower energy channel widths enabling the observation of higher-amplitude flux oscillations; this potentially explains why such features were not observed regularly before the Van Allen Probes era, as previous spacecraft generally had lower energy resolution, which only enabled the observation of large-amplitude drift echoes following a storm or substorm. Results are confirmed using the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) ultrahigh energy resolution data. Energy width effects are quantified through a parametric simulation study that matches flux oscillation observations during a period that is characterized by extremely quiet conditions, where the Van Allen Probes observed flux oscillations over multiple days.

Sarris, Theodore; Li, Xinlin; Temerin, Michael; Zhao, Hong; Khoo, Leng; Turner, Drew; Liu, Wenlong; Claudepierre, Seth;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

electron flux oscillations; ULF waves; Magnetosphere; Radiation belts; radial diffusion; particle tracing simulations; Van Allen Probes

Upper Limit of Electron Fluxes Observed in the Radiation Belts

Radiation belt electrons have a complicated relationship with geomagnetic activity. We select electron measurements from 7 years of DEMETER and 6 years of Van Allen Probes data during geomagnetic storms to conduct statistical analysis focusing on the correlation between electron flux and Dst index. We report, for the first time, an upper limit of electron fluxes observed by both satellites throughout the inner and outer belts across a wide energy range from ?100s keV to multi-MeV. The upper flux limit is determined at different L s and energies, for example, 1.9 × 107/cm2-s-sr-MeV at 470 keV at L = 1.5 and 3.6 × 105/cm2-s-sr-MeV at 3.4 MeV at L = 4 (Van Allen Probes). We present the energy spectra of the electron flux upper limit at different L shells and find the measured upper flux limit to be at least three times higher than the predicted flux from the AE8/AE9 models, although the spectral shape is remarkably similar. We show that the average flux with an applied time lag is better correlated with the Dst index and that the time lag optimizing the correlation coefficient is larger at lower L and at higher energies. These findings present the underlying challenges to model the dynamic variation of relativistic electrons in the inner magnetosphere and are important information for space weather considerations.

Zhang, Kun; Li, Xinlin; Zhao, Hong; Xiang, Zheng; Khoo, Leng; Zhang, Wenxun; Hogan, Benjamin; Temerin, Michael;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on:

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

electron; Radiation belt; statistics; upper limit; Van Allen Probes


On the Relationship Between Electron Flux Oscillations and ULF Wave-Driven Radial Transport

The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the levels of electron flux oscillations and radial diffusion for different Phase Space Density (PSD) gradients, through observation and particle tracing simulations under the effect of model Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) fluctuations. This investigation aims to demonstrate that electron flux oscillation is associated with and could be used as an indicator of ongoing radial diffusion. To this direction, flux oscillations are observed through the Van Allen Probes\textquoteright MagEIS energetic particle detector; subsequently, flux oscillations are produced in a particle tracing model that simulates radial diffusion by using model magnetic and electric field fluctuations that are approximating measured magnetic and electric field fluctuations as recorded by the Van Allen Probes\textquoteright EMFISIS and EFW instruments, respectively. The flux oscillation amplitudes are then correlated with Phase Space Density gradients in the magnetosphere and with the ongoing radial diffusion process.

Sarris, Theodore; Li, Xinlin; Temerin, Michael; Zhao, Hong; Califf, Sam; Liu, Wenlong; Ergun, Robert;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023741

Flux Oscillations; MAGEis; EMFISIS; EFW; Phase space density; radial diffusion; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes


Simulating radial diffusion of energetic (MeV) electrons through a model of fluctuating electric and magnetic fields

In the present work, a test particle simulation is performed in a model of analytic Ultra Low Frequency, ULF, perturbations in the electric and magnetic fields of the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. The goal of this work is to examine if the radial transport of energetic particles in quiet-time ULF magnetospheric perturbations of various azimuthal mode numbers can be described as a diffusive process and be approximated by theoretically derived radial diffusion coefficients. In the model realistic compressional electromagnetic field perturbations are constructed by a superposition of a large number of propagating electric and consistent magnetic pulses. The diffusion rates of the electrons under the effect of the fluctuating fields are calculated numerically through the test-particle simulation as a function of the radial coordinate L in a dipolar magnetosphere; these calculations are then compared to the symmetric, electromagnetic radial diffusion coefficients for compressional, poloidal perturbations in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. In the model the amplitude of the perturbation fields can be adjusted to represent realistic states of magnetospheric activity. Similarly, the azimuthal modulation of the fields can be adjusted to represent different azimuthal modes of fluctuations and the contribution to radial diffusion from each mode can be quantified. Two simulations of quiet-time magnetospheric variability are performed: in the first simulation, diffusion due to poloidal perturbations of mode number m=1 is calculated; in the second, the diffusion rates from multiple-mode (m=0 to m=8) perturbations are calculated. The numerical calculations of the diffusion coefficients derived from the particle orbits are found to agree with the corresponding theoretical estimates of the diffusion coefficient within a factor of two.

Sarris, T.; Li, X.; Temerin, M.;

Published by: Annales Geophysicae      Published on: 10/2006

YEAR: 2006     DOI: 10.5194/angeo-24-2583-2006

Radial Transport


Multisatellite observations of the outer zone electron variation during the November 3\textendash4, 1993, magnetic storm

The disappearance and reappearance of outer zone energetic electrons during the November 3\textendash4, 1993, magnetic storm is examined utilizing data from the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), the Global Positioning System (GPS) series, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sensors onboard geosynchronous satellites. The relativistic electron flux drops during the main phase of the magnetic storm in association with the large negative interplanetary Bz and rapid solar wind pressure increase late on November 3. Outer zone electrons with E > 3 MeV measured by SAMPEX disappear for over 12 hours at the beginning of November 4. This represents a 3 orders of magnitude decrease down to the cosmic ray background of the detector. GPS and LANL sensors show similar effects, confirming that the flux drop of the energetic electrons occurs near the magnetic equator and at all pitch angles. Enhanced electron precipitation was measured by SAMPEX at L >= 3.5. The outer zone electron fluxes then recover and exceed prestorm levels within one day of the storm onset and the inner boundary of the outer zone moves inward to smaller L (<3). These multiple-satellite measurements provide a data set which is examined in detail and used to determine the mechanisms contributing to the loss and recovery of the outer zone electron flux. The loss of the inner part of the outer zone electrons is partly due to the adiabatic effects associated with the decrease of Dst, while the loss of most of the outer part (those electrons initially at L >= 4.0) are due to either precipitation into the atmosphere or drift to the magnetopause because of the strong compression of the magnetosphere by the solar wind. The recovery of the energetic electron flux is due to the adiabatic effects associated with the increase in Dst, and at lower energies (<0.5 MeV) due to rapid radial diffusion driven by the strong magnetic activity during the recovery phase of the storm. Heating of the electrons by waves may contribute to the energization of the more energetic part (>1.0 MeV) of the outer zone electrons.

Li, Xinlin; Baker, D.; Temerin, M.; Cayton, T.; Reeves, E.; Christensen, R.; Blake, J.; Looper, M.; Nakamura, R.; Kanekal, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 01/1997

YEAR: 1997     DOI: 10.1029/97JA01101

Magnetopause Losses


Large amplitude electric and magnetic field signatures in the inner magnetosphere during injection of 15 MeV electron drift echoes

Electric and magnetic fields were measured by the CRRES spacecraft at an L-value of 2.2 to 2.6 near 0300 magnetic local time during a strong storm sudden commencement (SSC) on March 24, 1991. The electric field signature at the spacecraft at the time of the SSC was characterized by a large amplitude oscillation (80 mV/m peak to peak) with a period corresponding to the 150 second drift echo period of the simultaneously observed 15 MeV electrons. Considerations of previous statistical studies of the magnitude of SSC electric and magnetic fields versus local time and analysis of the energization and cross-L transport of the particles imply the existence of 200 to 300 mV/m electric fields over much of the dayside magnetosphere. These observations also suggest that the 15 MeV drift echo electrons were selectively energized because their gradient drift velocity allowed them to reside in the region of strong electric fields for the duration of the accelerating phase of the electric field.

Wygant, J.; Mozer, F.; Temerin, M.; Blake, J.; Maynard, N.; Singer, H.; Smiddy, M.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/1994

YEAR: 1994     DOI: 10.1029/94GL00375

Shock-Induced Transport. Slot Refilling and Formation of New Belts.


Simulation of the prompt energization and transport of radiation belt particles during the March 24, 1991 SSC

We model the rapid (\~ 1 min) formation of a new electron radiation belt at L ≃ 2.5 that resulted from the Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC) of March 24, 1991 as observed by the CRRES satellite. Guided by the observed electric and magnetic fields, we represent the time-dependent magnetospheric electric field during the SSC by an asymmetric bipolar pulse that is associated with the compression and relaxation of the Earth\textquoterights magnetic field. We follow the electrons using a relativistic guiding center code. The test-particle simulations show that electrons with energies of a few MeV at L > 6 were energized up to 40 MeV and transported to L ≃ 2.5 during a fraction of their drift period. The energization process conserves the first adiabatic invariant and is enhanced due to resonance of the electron drift motion with the time-varying electric field. Our simulation results, with an initial W-8 energy flux spectra, reproduce the observed electron drift echoes and show that the interplanetary shock impacted the magnetosphere between 1500 and 1800 MLT.

Li, Xinlin; Roth, I.; Temerin, M.; Wygant, J.; Hudson, M.; Blake, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 11/1993

YEAR: 1993     DOI: 10.1029/93GL02701

Shock-Induced Transport. Slot Refilling and Formation of New Belts.