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Found 8 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 8


Empirical Modeling of the Geomagnetosphere for SIR and CME-Driven Magnetic Storms

During geomagnetic disturbances, the solar wind arrives in the form of characteristic sequences lasting from tens of hours to days. The most important magnetic storm drivers are the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and the slow-fast stream interaction regions (SIRs). Previous data-based magnetic field models did not distinguish between these types of the solar wind driving. In the present work we retained the basic structure of the Tsyganenko and Andreeva (2015) model but fitted it to data samples corresponding to (1) SIR-driven storms, (2) CME-driven storms preceded with a shock ahead of the CME, and (3) CME-driven storms without such shocks. The storm time dynamics of the model current systems has been represented using the parametrization method developed by Tsyganenko and Sitnov (2005), based on dynamical variables Wi, calculated from concurrent solar wind characteristics and their previous history. The database included observations of THEMIS, Polar, Cluster, Geotail, and Van Allen Probes missions during 155 storms in 1997\textendash2016. The model current systems drastically differ from each other with respect to decay rate and total current magnitudes. During SIR-induced storms, all current systems saturate, while during CME-induced disturbances, the saturation occurs only for the symmetric ring current and the tail current. The partial ring current parameters are drastically different between SIR- and CME-induced storm sets. In the case of SIR-driven storms, the total partial ring current is comparable with symmetric ring current, whereas for all CME-induced events it is nearly twice higher. The results are compared with GOES 15 magnetometer observations.

Andreeva, V.; Tsyganenko, N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026008

Magnetic Storms; Magnetosphere; Modeling; Solar wind; spacecraft data; Van Allen Probes

Variation of Radiation belt electron flux during CME and CIR driven geomagnetic storms: Van Allen Probes observations

Relativistic electron flux responses in the inner magnetosphere are investigated for 28 magnetic storms driven by Corotating Interaction Region (CIR) and 27 magnetic storms driven by Coronal Mass Ejection (CME), using data from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) instrument on board Van-Allen Probes from Oct-2012 to May-2017. In this present study we analyze the role of CIRs and CMEs in electron dynamics by sorting the electron fluxes in terms of averaged solar wind parameters, L-values, and energies. The major outcomes from our study are: (i) At L = 3 and E = 3.4 MeV, for >70\% cases the electron flux remains stable, while at L = 5, for ~82\% cases it changes with the geomagnetic conditions. (ii) At L = 5, ~53\% of the CIR storms and 30\% of the CME storms show electron flux increase. (iii) At a given L-value, the tendency for the electron flux variation diminishes with the increasing energies for both categories of storms. (iv) In case of CIR driven storms, the electron flux changes are associated with changes in Vsw and Sym-H. (v) At L ~ 3, CME storms show increased electron flux, while at L ~ 5, CIR storms are responsible for the electron flux enhancements. (vi) During CME and CIR driven storms, distinct electron flux variations are observed at L = 3 and L = 5.

Pandya, Megha; Veenadhari, B.; Ebihara, Y.; Kanekal, S.G.; Baker, D.N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026771

electron flux; innermagnetosphere; Magnetic Storms; Radiation belt; solar wind driver; Van Allen Probes

Statistical Study of Selective Oxygen Increase in High-Energy Ring Current Ions During Magnetic Storms

Ion transport from the plasma sheet to the ring current is the main cause of the development of the ring current. Energetic (>150 keV) ring current ions are known to be transported diffusively in several days. A recent study suggested that energetic oxygen ions are transported closer to the Earth than protons due to the diffusive transport caused by a combination of the drift and drift-bounce resonances with Pc 3\textendash5 ultralow frequency waves during the 24 April 2013 magnetic storm. To understand the occurrence conditions of such selective oxygen increase (SOI), we investigate the phase space densities (PSDs) between protons and oxygen ions with the first adiabatic invariants (μ) of 0.1\textendash2.0 keV/nT measured by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment instrument on the Van Allen Probes at L ~ 3\textendash6 during 90 magnetic storms in 2013\textendash2017. We identified the SOI events in which oxygen PSDs increase while proton PSDs do not increase during a period of ~9 hr (one orbital period). Among the 90 magnetic storms, 33\% were accompanied by the SOI events. Global enhancements of Pc 4 and Pc 5 waves observed by ground magnetometers during the SOI events suggest that radial transport due to combination of the drift-bounce resonance with Pc 4 oscillations and the drift resonance with Pc 5 oscillations can be the cause of SOIs. The contribution of the SOI events to the magnetic storm intensity is roughly estimated to be ~9\% on average.

Mitani, K.; Seki, K.; Keika, K.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L.; Mitchell, D.; Kletzing, C.; Yoshikawa, A.; Obana, Y.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026168

Magnetic Storms; Oxygen ions; ring current; Van Allen Probes


RBSPICE measurement of ion loss during the 2015 March storm: Adiabatic response to the geomagnetic field change

A strongly energy-dependent ring current ion loss was measured by the RBSPICE instrument on the Van Allen Probes A spacecraft in the local evening sector during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm. The ion loss is found to be energy dependent where only ions with energies measured above \~ 150 keV have a significant drop in intensity. At these energies the ion dynamics are principally controlled by variations of the geomagnetic field which, during magnetic storms, exhibits large scale variations on timescales from minutes to hours. Here we show that starting from \~ 19:10 UTC on March 17 the geomagnetic field increased from 220 to 260 nT on a time scale of about an hour as captured by RBSPICE-A close to spacecraft apogee, L = 6.1 and MLT = 21.85 hr. [GSM coordinates X=-4.89, Y=3.00, Z=-0.73)]. We demonstrate the relationship between this large geomagnetic field increase and the drop-outs of the inline image 150 keV ring current ions.

Soto-Chavez, A.; Lanzerotti, L.; Gerrard, A.; Kim, H.; Bortnik, J.; Manweiler, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022512

inner magnetosphere; Magnetic Storms; Ring current ion.; Van Allen Probes


Weak Kinetic Alfv\ en Waves Turbulence during the November 14th 2012 geomagnetic storm: Van Allen Probes observations

n the dawn sector, L~ 5.5 and MLT~4-7, from 01:30 to 06:00 UT during the November 14th 2012 geomagnetic storm, both Van Allen Probes observed an alternating sequence of locally quiet and disturbed intervals with two strikingly different power fluctuation levels and magnetic field orientations: either small (~10-2 nT2) total power with strong GSM Bx and weak By, or large (~10 nT2) total power with weak Bx, and strong By and Bz components. During both kinds of intervals the fluctuations occur in the vicinity of the local ion gyro-frequencies (0.01-10 Hz) in the spacecraft frame, propagate oblique to the magnetic field, (θ ~ 60\textdegree) and have magnetic compressibility C = |δB|||/|δB⊥| \~ 1, where δB|| (δB⊥) are the average amplitudes of the fluctuations parallel (perpendicular) to the mean field. Electric field fluctuations are present whenever the magnetic field is disturbed, and large electric field fluctuations follow the same pattern for quiet and disturbed intervals. Magnetic frequency power spectra at both spacecraft correspond to steep power-laws \~ f \textendashα with 4 < α < 5 for f ≲ 2 Hz, and 1.1 < α < 1.7 for f ≲ 2 Hz, spectral profiles that are consistent with weak Kinetic Alfv\ en Waves (KAW) turbulence. Electric power is larger than magnetic power for all frequencies above 0.1 Hz, and the ratio increases with increasing frequency. Vlasov linear analysis is consistent with the presence of compressive KAW with k⊥ρi ≲ 1, right-handed polarization and positive magnetic helicity, in the plasma frame, considering a multi-ion plasma. All these results suggest the presence of weak KAW turbulence which dissipates the energy associated with the intermittent sudden changes in the magnetic field during the main phase of the storm.

Moya, Pablo.; Pinto, V\; Vi\~nas, Adolfo; Sibeck, David; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Wygant, John;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020281

Kinetic Alfven Waves; Magnetic Storms; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Unraveling the drivers of the storm time radiation belt response

We present a new framework to study the time evolution and dynamics of the outer Van Allen belt electron fluxes. The framework is entirely based on the large-scale solar wind storm drivers and their substructures. The Van Allen Probe observations, revealing the electron flux behavior throughout the outer belt, are combined with continuous, long-term (over 1.5 solar cycles) geosynchronous orbit data set from GOES and solar wind measurements A superposed epoch analysis, where we normalize the timescales for each substructure (sheath, ejecta, and interface region) allows us to avoid smearing effects and to distinguish the electron flux evolution during various driver structures. We show that the radiation belt response is not random: The electron flux variations are determined by the combined effect of the structured solar wind driver and prestorm electron flux levels. In particular, we find that loss mechanisms dominate during stream interface regions, coronal mass ejection (CME) ejecta, and sheaths while enhancements occur during fast streams trailing the stream interface or the CME.

Kilpua, E.; Hietala, H.; Turner, D.; Koskinen, H.; Pulkkinen, T.; Rodriguez, J.; Reeves, G.; Claudepierre, S.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063542

coronal mass ejections; Magnetic Storms; Radiation belts; solar wind storm drivers; stream interaction regions; Van Allen Probes


Comparative Investigation of the Energetic Ion Spectra Comprising the Magnetospheric Ring Currents of the Solar System

Investigated here are factors that control the intensities and shapes of energetic ion spectra that make up the ring current populations of the strongly magnetized planets of the solar system, specifically those of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Following a previous and similar comparative investigation of radiation belt electrons, we here turn our attention to ions. Specifically, we examine the possible role of the differential ion Kennel-Petschek limit, as moderated by Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves, as a standard for comparing the most intense ion spectra within the strongly magnetized planetary magnetospheres. In carrying out this investigation, the substantial complexities engendered by the very different ion composition distributions of these diverse magnetospheres must be addressed, given that the dispersion properties of the EMIC waves are strongly determined by the ion composition of the plasmas within which the waves propagate. Chosen for comparison are the ion spectra within these systems that are the most intense observed, specifically at 100 keV and 1 MeV. We find that Earth and Jupiter are unique in having their most intense ion spectra likely limited and sculpted by the Kennel-Petschek process. The ion spectra of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune reside far below their respective limits and are likely limited by interactions with gas and dust (Saturn) and by the absence of robust ion acceleration processes (Uranus and Neptune). Suggestions are provided for further testing the efficacy of the differential Kennel-Petschek limit for ions using the Van Allen Probes.

Mauk, B.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020392

Ion Spectra; Magnetic Storms; Planetary magnetospheres; ring current; Van Allen Probes

One year of on-orbit performance of the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE)

The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment is a 3-unit (10cm \texttimes 10cm \texttimes 30cm) CubeSat funded by the National Science Foundation and constructed at the University of Colorado (CU). The CSSWE science instrument, the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile), provides directional differential flux measurements of 0.5 to >3.3 MeV electrons and 9 to 40 MeV protons. Though a collaboration of 60+ multidisciplinary graduate and undergraduate students working with CU professors and engineers at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), CSSWE was designed, built, tested, and delivered in 3 years. On September 13, 2012, CSSWE was inserted to a 477 \texttimes 780 km, 65\textdegree orbit as a secondary payload on an Atlas V through the NASA Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa) program. The first successful contact with CSSWE was made within a few hours of launch. CSSWE then completed a 20 day system commissioning phase which validated the performance of the communications, power, and attitude control systems. This was immediately followed by an accelerated 24 hour REPTile commissioning period in time for a geomagnetic storm. The high quality, low noise science data return from REPTile is complementary to the NASA Van Allen Probes mission, which launched two weeks prior to CSSWE. On September 13, 2013, CSSWE completed one year of on-orbit operations. In this talk we will discuss the issues encountered with designing and operating a cubesat in orbit. Data from the mission will be presented and discussed in the larger context of ionospheric and magnetospheric physics.

Palo, Scott; Gerhardt, David; Li, Xinlin; Blum, Lauren; Schiller, Quintin; Kohnert, Rick;

Published by:       Published on: 01/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1109/USNC-URSI-NRSM.2014.6928087

artificial satellites; atmospheric measuring apparatus; Ionosphere; Magnetic Storms; Magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes