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2020 
The knearestneighbor technique is used to mine a multimission magnetometer database for a subset of data points from time intervals that are similar to the storm state of the magnetosphere for a particular moment in time. These subsets of data are then used to fit an empirical magnetic field model. Performing this for each snapshot in time reconstructs the dynamic evolution of the magnetic and electric current density distributions during storms. However, because weaker storms occur more frequently than stronger storms, the reconstructions are biased toward them. We demonstrate that distance weighting the nearestneighbors mitigates this issue while allowing a sufficient amount of data to be included in the fitting procedure to limit overfitting. Using this technique, we reconstruct the distribution of the magnetic field and electric currents and their evolution for two storms, the intense 17–19 March 2015 “Saint Patrick s Day” storm and a moderate storm occurring on 13–15 July 2013, from which the pressure distributions can be computed assuming isotropy and by integrating the steadystate forcebalance equation. As the main phase of a storm progresses in time, the westward ring current density and pressure increases in the inner magnetosphere particularly on the nightside, becoming more symmetric as the recovery phase progresses. We validate the empirical pressure by comparing it to the observed pressures from the Van Allen Probes mission by summing over particle fluxes from all available energy channels and species. Stephens, G.; Bingham, S.; Sitnov, M.; Gkioulidou, M.; Merkin, V.; Korth, H.; Tsyganenko, N.; Ukhorskiy, A; Published by: Space Weather Published on: 10/2020 YEAR: 2020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020SW002583 storms; empirical geomagnetic field; ring current; data mining; eastward current; plasma pressure; Van Allen Probes 
2019 
Empirical Modeling of the Geomagnetosphere for SIR and CMEDriven Magnetic Storms During geomagnetic disturbances, the solar wind arrives in the form of characteristic sequences lasting from tens of hours to days. The most important magnetic storm drivers are the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and the slowfast stream interaction regions (SIRs). Previous databased magnetic field models did not distinguish between these types of the solar wind driving. In the present work we retained the basic structure of the Tsyganenko and Andreeva (2015) model but fitted it to data samples corresponding to (1) SIRdriven storms, (2) CMEdriven storms preceded with a shock ahead of the CME, and (3) CMEdriven storms without such shocks. The storm time dynamics of the model current systems has been represented using the parametrization method developed by Tsyganenko and Sitnov (2005), based on dynamical variables Wi, calculated from concurrent solar wind characteristics and their previous history. The database included observations of THEMIS, Polar, Cluster, Geotail, and Van Allen Probes missions during 155 storms in 1997\textendash2016. The model current systems drastically differ from each other with respect to decay rate and total current magnitudes. During SIRinduced storms, all current systems saturate, while during CMEinduced disturbances, the saturation occurs only for the symmetric ring current and the tail current. The partial ring current parameters are drastically different between SIR and CMEinduced storm sets. In the case of SIRdriven storms, the total partial ring current is comparable with symmetric ring current, whereas for all CMEinduced events it is nearly twice higher. The results are compared with GOES 15 magnetometer observations. Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 07/2019 YEAR: 2019 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026008 Magnetic Storms; Magnetosphere; Modeling; Solar wind; spacecraft data; Van Allen Probes 
Global Empirical Picture of Magnetospheric Substorms Inferred From Multimission Magnetometer Data Magnetospheric substorms represent key explosive processes in the interaction of the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere with the solar wind, and their understanding and modeling are critical for space weather forecasting. During substorms, the magnetic field on the nightside is first stretched in the antisunward direction and then it rapidly contracts earthward bringing hot plasmas from the distant space regions into the inner magnetosphere, where they contribute to geomagnetic storms and Joule dissipation in the polar ionosphere, causing impressive splashes of aurora. Here we show for the first time that mining millions of spaceborne magnetometer data records from multiple missions allows one to reconstruct the global 3D picture of these stretching and dipolarization processes. Stretching results in the formation of a thin (less than the Earth\textquoterights radius) and strong current sheet, which is diverted into the ionosphere during dipolarization. In the meantime, the dipolarization signal propagates further into the inner magnetosphere resulting in the accumulation of a longer lived current there, giving rise to a protogeomagnetic storm. The global 3D structure of the corresponding substorm currents including the substorm current wedge is reconstructed from data. Stephens, G.; Sitnov, M.; Korth, H.; Tsyganenko, N.; Ohtani, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 01/2019 YEAR: 2019 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025843 Current sheet thinning; Datamining; Magnetotail dipolarization; Stormsubstorm relationship; substorm current wedge; substorms; Van Allen Probes 
2017 
Empirical modeling of the quiet and stormtime geosynchronous magnetic field A dynamical empirical model of the neargeosynchronous magnetic field has been constructed, based on a recently developed RBF approach and a multiyear set of spacecraft data taken by THEMIS, Polar, Cluster, and Van Allen Probes missions including 133 geomagnetic storms in the time interval between 1996 and 2016. The model describes the field as a function of Cartesian solarmagnetic coordinates, dipole tilt angle, solar wind ram pressure, and of a set of dynamic variables representing the response of the magnetosphere to the external driving/loading during the active phase of a space weather event, followed by the internal relaxation/dissipation during the storm recovery. In terms of the disturbance level, the model\textquoterights validity range extends to intense storms with peak SymH values down to 150 nT. The spatial validity domain is a toroidal volume bounded by the inner (L\~4) and outer (L\~9) dipolar Lshells, which allows the model to be used for tracing field lines to magnetically map geosynchronous spacecraft locations down to low altitudes. The model has been validated on independent outofsample magnetic field data and compared with an earlier empirical model and GOES15 data taken in 2012 and 2015. Published by: Space Weather Published on: 12/2017 YEAR: 2017 DOI: 10.1002/2017SW001684 geomagnetic field; geostationary orbit; Modeling; spacecraft data; Van Allen Probes 
2016 
Reconstructing the magnetosphere from data using radial basis functions A new method is proposed to derive from data magnetospheric magnetic field configurations without any a priori assumptions on the geometry of electric currents. The approach utilizes large sets of archived satellite data and uses an advanced technique to represent the field as a sum of toroidal and poloidal parts, whose generating potentials Ψ1 and Ψ2 are expanded into series of radial basis functions (RBF) with their nodes regularly distributed over the 3D modeling domain. The method was tested by reconstructing the inner and highlatitude field within geocentric distances up to 12RE on the basis of magnetometer data of Geotail, Polar, Cluster, THEMIS, and Van Allen space probes, taken during 1995\textendash2015. Four characteristic states of the magnetosphere before and during a disturbance have been modeled: a quiet prestorm period, storm deepening phase with progressively decreasing SymH index, the storm maximum around the negative peak of SymH, and the recovery phase. Fitting the RBF model to data faithfully resolved contributions to the total magnetic field from all principal sources, including the westward and eastward ring current, the tail current, diamagnetic currents associated with the polar cusps, and the largescale effect of the fieldaligned currents. For two main phase conditions, the model field exhibited a strong dawndusk asymmetry of the lowlatitude magnetic depression, extending to low altitudes and partly spreading sunward from the terminator plane in the dusk sector. The RBF model was found to resolve even finer details, such as the bifurcation of the innermost tail current. The method can be further developed into a powerful tool for databased studies of the magnetospheric currents. Andreeva, Varvara; Tsyganenko, Nikolai; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2016 YEAR: 2016 DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022242 current systems; magnetospheric modeling; polar cusps; Van Allen Probes 
2015 
The structure of stormtime currents in the inner magnetosphere, including its innermost region inside 4RE, is studied for the first time using a modification of the empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D and new data from Van Allen Probes and THEMIS missions. It is shown that the model, which uses basisfunction expansions instead of ad hoc current modules to approximate the magnetic field, consistently improves its resolution and magnetic field reconstruction with the increase of the number of basis functions and resolves the spatial structure and evolution of the innermost eastward current. This includes a connection between the westward ring current flowing largely at inline image and the eastward ring current concentrated at inline image resulting in a vortex current pattern. A similar pattern coined \textquoteleftbanana current\textquoteright was previously inferred from the pressure distributions based on the energetic neutral atom imaging and firstprinciples ring current simulations. The morphology of the equatorial currents is dependent on storm phase. During the main phase, it is complex, with several asymmetries forming \textquoterightbanana currents\textquoteright. Near SymH minimum, the \textquoterightbanana current\textquoteright is strongest, is localized in the eveningmidnight sector, and is more structured compared to the main phase. It then weakens during the recovery phase resulting in the equatorial currents to become mostly azimuthally symmetric. Stephens, G.; Sitnov, M.; Ukhorskiy, A; Roelof, E.; Tsyganenko, N.; Le, G.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 01/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021700 eastward current; empirical geomagnetic field; magnetic storm; ring current; Van Allen Probes 
2014 
Testing a twoloop pattern of the substorm current wedge (SCW2L) Recent quantitative testing of the classical (region 1 sense) substorm current wedge (SCI) model revealed systematic discrepancies between the observed and predicted amplitudes, which suggested us to include additional region 2 sense currents (R2 loop) earthward of the dipolarized region (SCW2L model). Here we discuss alternative circuit geometries of the 3D substorm current system and interpret observations of the magnetic field dipolarizations made between 6.6RE and 11RE, to quantitatively investigate the SCW2L model parameters. During two cases of a dipolelike magnetotail configuration, the dipolarization/injection front fortuitously stopped at r ~ 9RE for the entire duration of ~ 30 min long SCWrelated dipolarization within a unique, radially distributed multispacecraft constellation, which allowed us to determine the locations and total currents of both SCW2L loops. In addition, we analyzed the dipolarization amplitudes in events, simultaneously observed at 6.6RE, 11RE and at colatitudes under a wide range of magnetograph conditions. We infer that the ratio I2/I1 varies in the range 0.2 to 0.6 (median value 0.4) and that the equatorial part of the R2 current loop stays at r>6.6RE in the case of a dipolelike field geometry (BZ0>75 nT at 6.6RE prior to the onset), but it is located at r<6.6RE in the case of a stretched magnetic field configuration (with BZ0<60 nT). Since the ground midlatitude perturbations are sensitive to the combined effect of the R1 and R2 sense current loops with the net current roughly equal to I1I2, the ratio I2/I1 becomes an important issue when attempting to monitor the current disruption intensity from ground observations. Sergeev, V.; Nikolaev, A.; Tsyganenko, N.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Singer, H.; Yang, J.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2014 YEAR: 2014 DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019629 
2006 
Storm time evolution of the outer radiation belt: Transport and losses During geomagnetic storms the magnetic field of the inner magnetosphere exhibits largescale variations over timescales from minutes to days. Being mainly controlled by the magnetic field the motion of relativistic electrons of the outer radiation belt can be highly susceptible to its variations. This paper investigates evolution of the outer belt during the 7 September 2002 storm. Evolution of electron phase space density is calculated with the use of a testparticle simulation in storm time magnetic and electric fields. The results show that storm time intensification of the ring current produces a large impact on the belt. In contrast to the conventional Dst effect the dominant effects are nonadiabatic and lead to profound and irreversible transformations of the belt. The diamagnetic influence of the partial ring current leads to expansion of electron drift orbits such that their paths intersect the magnetopause leading to rapid electron losses. About 2.5 hr after the storm onset most of the electrons outside L = 5 are lost. The partial ring current pressure also leads to an electron trap in the dayside magnetosphere where electrons stay on closed dayside drift orbits for as long as 11 hours. These sequestered electrons are reinjected into the outer belt due to partial recovery of the ring current. The third adiabatic invariant of these electrons exhibits rapid jumps and changes sign. These jumps produce localized peaks in the L*profile of electron phase space density which have previously been considered as an observable indication of local electron acceleration. Ukhorskiy, A; Anderson, B.; Brandt, P.; Tsyganenko, N.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 11/2006 YEAR: 2006 DOI: 10.1029/2006JA011690 
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