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2021 
Abstract Magnetosonic (MS) waves and Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are important plasma waves in the magnetosphere. Using the Van Allen Probes observations from 2012 to 2017, we constructed the global distribution of simultaneous occurrence of MS and EMIC waves. We found a total of 214 events, and the waves distribute from the noon sector to the duskside. Furthermore, we quantitatively analyze the combined effects of both waves on protons and electrons by calculating of particle diffusion coefficients and 2D FokkerPlanck diffusion simulations. The simulation results show the combined effects of MS and EMIC waves. Highfrequency EMIC waves and intense MS waves at low proton harmonics are essential for the enhanced proton acceleration at several hundred eV and enhanced electron loss at several MeV. Our results provide new sights into understanding the distribution of MS and EMIC waves and evaluating their combined effects on the evolution of energetic particles. Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 08/2021 YEAR: 2021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093885 EMIC waves; MS waves; Waveparticle interaction; diffusion coefficients; Van Allen Probes 
2017 
Effects of whistler mode hiss waves in March 2013 We present simulations of the loss of radiation belt electrons by resonant pitch angle diffusion caused by whistler mode hiss waves for March 2013. Pitch angle diffusion coefficients are computed from the wave properties and the ambient plasma data obtained by the Van Allen Probes with a resolution of 8 hours and 0.1 Lshell. Loss rates follow a complex dynamic structure, imposed by the wave and plasma properties. Hiss effects can be strong, with minimum lifetimes (of ~1 day) moving from energies of ~100 keV at L~5 up to ~2 MeV at L~2, and stop abruptly, similarly to the observed energydependent inner belt edge. Periods when the plasmasphere extends beyond L~5 favor longlasting hiss losses from the outer belt. Such loss rates are embedded in a reduced FokkerPlanck code and validated against MagEIS observations of the belts at all energy. Results are complemented with a sensitivity study involving different radial diffusion and lifetime models. Validation is carried out globally at all Lshells and energies. The good agreement between simulations and observations demonstrates that hiss waves drive the slot formation during quiet times. Combined with transport, they sculpt the energystructure of the outer belt into an "Sshape". Low energy electrons (<0.3 MeV) are less subject to hiss scattering below L=4. In contrast, 0.31.5 MeV electrons evolve in a environment that depopulates them as they migrate from L~5 to L~2.5. Ultrarelativistic electrons are not affected by hiss losses until L~23. Ripoll, J.F.; Santol?k, O.; Reeves, G.; Kurth, W.; Denton, M.; Loridan, V.; Thaller, S.; Kletzing, C.; Turner, D.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 06/2017 YEAR: 2017 DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024139 diffusion coefficients; electron lifetimes; energystructure; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; Whistlermode hiss 
2015 
Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyroresonant waveparticle interaction and quasilinear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the 17 March 2013 storm. We consider the Earth\textquoterights magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against nondipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring currentatmosphere interactions model with a selfconsistent magnetic field (RAMSCB), a code that models the Earth\textquoterights ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth\textquoterights magnetic field. By applying quasilinear theory, the bounce and Magnetic Local Time (MLT)averaged electron pitch angle, mixedterm, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (\~1 MeV) and ring current (\~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounceaveraged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyroresonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L=4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the 17 March 2013 storm and for L≲4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth\textquoterights magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons. Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian; Jordanova, Vania; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020858 
We used the fluxgate magnetometer data from Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) of the compressional component of the geomagnetic field in the \~1 mHz to \~8 mHz range. We conclude that magnetic wave power is generally higher in the noon sector for quiet times with no significant difference between the dawn, dusk, and the midnight sectors. However, during high Kp activity, the noon sector is not necessarily dominant anymore. The magnetic PSDs have a very distinct dependence on Kp. In addition, the PSDs appear to have a weak dependence on McIlwain parameter L with power slightly increasing as L increases. The magnetic wave PSDs are used along with the Fei et al. (2006) formulation to compute inline image as a function of L and Kp. The L dependence of inline image is systematically studied and is shown to depend on Kp. More significantly, we conclude that inline imageis the dominant term driving radial diffusion, typically exceeding inline image by 1\textendash2 orders of magnitude. Ali, Ashar; Elkington, Scot; Tu, Weichao; Ozeke, Louis; Chan, Anthony; Friedel, Reiner; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020419 
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