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Found 30 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 30


A dynamical model of equatorial magnetosonic waves in the inner magnetosphere: A machine learning approach

Abstract Equatorial magnetosonic waves, together with chorus and plasmaspheric hiss, play key roles in the dynamics of energetic electron fluxes in the magnetosphere. Numerical models, developed following a first principles approach, that are used to study the evolution of high energy electron fluxes are mainly based on quasilinear diffusion. The application of such numerical codes requires statistical models for the distribution of key magnetospheric wave modes to estimate the appropriate diffusion coefficients. These waves are generally statistically modelled as a function of spatial location and geomagnetic indices (e.g. AE, Kp, or Dst). This study presents a novel dynamic spatiotemporal model for equatorial magnetosonic (EMS) wave amplitude, developed using the Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Average eXogenous (NARMAX) machine learning approach. The EMS wave amplitude, measured by the Van Allen Probes, are modelled using the time lags of the solar wind and geomagnetic indices as inputs as well as the location at which the measurement is made. The resulting model performance is assessed on a separate Van Allen Probes dataset, where the prediction efficiency was found to be 34.0\% and the correlation coefficient was 56.9\%. With more training and validation data the performance metrics could potentially be improved, however, it is also possible that the EMS wave distribution is affected by stochastic factors and the performance metrics obtained for this model are close to the potential maximum.

Boynton, R.; Walker, S.; Aryan, H.; Hobara, Y.; Balikhin, M.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

magnetosonic waves; Machine learning; NARMAX; Van Allen Probes

Modeling the Dynamics of Radiation Belt Electrons with Source and Loss Driven by the Solar Wind

Abstract A radial diffusion model directly driven by the solar wind is developed to reproduce MeV electron variations between L=2-12 (L is L* in this study) from October 2012 to April 2015. The radial diffusion coefficient, internal source rate, quick loss due to EMIC waves, and slow loss due to hiss waves are all expressed in terms of the solar wind speed, dynamic pressure, and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The model achieves a prediction efficiency (PE) of 0.45 at L=5 and 0.51 at L=4 after converting the electron phase space densities to differential fluxes and comparing with Van Allen Probes measurements of 2 MeV and 3 MeV electrons at L=5 and L=4, respectively. Machine learning techniques are used to tune parameters to get higher PE. By tuning parameters for every 60-day period, the model obtains PE values of 0.58 and 0.82 at L=5 and L=4, respectively. Inspired by these results, we divide the solar wind activity into three categories based on the condition of solar wind speed, IMF Bz, and dynamic pressure, and then tune these three sets of parameters to obtain the highest PE. This experiment confirms that the solar wind speed has the greatest influence on the electron flux variations, particularly at higher L, while the dynamic pressure has more influence at lower L. Also, the PE at L=4 is mostly higher than those at L=5, suggesting that the electron loss due to the magnetopause shadowing combined with the outward radial diffusion is not well captured in the model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Xiang, Zheng; Li, Xinlin; Kapali, Sudha; Gannon, Jennifer; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Kun; Khoo, Leng;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Radiation belt; Solar wind; flux prediction; radial diffusion; magnetopause shadowing; wave-particle interactions; Van Allen Probes


Multi-Parameter Chorus and Plasmaspheric Hiss Wave Models

Abstract The resonant interaction of energetic particles with plasma waves, such as chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves, plays a direct and crucial role in the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons that ultimately affect the dynamics of the radiation belts. In this study, we use the comprehensive wave data measurements made by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science instruments on board the two Van Allen probes, to develop multi-parameter statistical chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models. The models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves are presented as a function of combined geomagnetic activity (AE), solar wind velocity (V), and southward interplanetary magnetic field (Bs). The relatively smooth wave models reveal new features. Despite, the coupling between geomagnetic and solar wind parameters, the results show that each parameter still carries a sufficient amount of unique information to more accurately constrain the chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave intensities. The new wave models presented here highlight the importance of multi-parameter wave models, and can improve radiation belt modeling.

Aryan, Homayon; Bortnik, Jacob; Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Sibeck, David; Balikhin, Michael;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

chorus waves; inner magnetosphere; multi parameter wave distribution; plasmaspheric hiss waves; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

Outer Radiation Belt Electron Lifetime Model Based on Combined Van Allen Probes and Cluster VLF Measurements

The flux of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt shows a high variability. The interactions of electrons with very low frequency (VLF) chorus waves play a significant role in controlling the flux variation of these particles. Quantifying the effects of these interactions is crucially important for accurately modeling the global dynamics of the outer radiation belt and to provide a comprehensive description of electron flux variations over a wide energy range (from the source population of 30 keV electrons up to the relativistic core population of the outer radiation belt). Here, we use a synthetic chorus wave model based on a combined database compiled from the Van Allen Probes and Cluster spacecraft VLF measurements to develop a comprehensive parametric model of electron lifetimes as a function of L-shell, electron energy, and geomagnetic activity. The wave model takes into account the wave amplitude dependence on geomagnetic latitude, wave normal angle distribution, and variations of wave frequency with latitude. We provide general analytical formulas to estimate electron lifetimes as a function of L-shell (for L = 3.0 to L = 6.5), electron energy (from 30 keV to 2 MeV), and geomagnetic activity parameterized by the AE index. The present model lifetimes are compared to previous studies and analytical results and also show a good agreement with measured lifetimes of 30 to 300 keV electrons at geosynchronous orbit.

Aryan, Homayon; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Artemyev, Anton; Mourenas, Didier; Balikhin, Michael; Boynton, Richard; Bortnik, Jacob;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

electron lifetimes; Van Allen radiation belts; chorus waves; pitch angle diffusion coefficients; Van Allen Probes; Cluster


Fast diffusion of ultra-relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt: 17 March 2015 storm event

Inward radial diffusion driven by ULF waves has long been known to be capable of accelerating radiation belt electrons to very high energies within the heart of the belts, but more recent work has shown that radial diffusion values can be highly event-specific and mean values or empirical models may not capture the full significance of radial diffusion to acceleration events. Here we present an event of fast inward radial diffusion, occurring during a period following the geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015. Ultra-relativistic electrons up to \~8 MeV are accelerated in the absence of intense higher-frequency plasma waves, indicating an acceleration event in the core of the outer belt driven primarily or entirely by ULF wave-driven diffusion. We examine this fast diffusion rate along with derived radial diffusion coefficients using particle and fields instruments on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft mission.

Jaynes, A.; Ali, A.; Elkington, S.; Malaspina, D.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S.; Henderson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079786

Magnetosphere; radial diffusion; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes


Van Allen Probes measurements of energetic particle deep penetration into the low L region (L<4) during the storm on 8 April 2016

Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes, a penetration event of 10s \textendash 100s of keV electrons and 10s of keV protons into the low L-shells (L<4) is studied. Timing and magnetic local time (MLT) differences of energetic particle deep penetration are unveiled and underlying physical processes are examined. During this event, both proton and electron penetrations are MLT-asymmetric. The observed MLT difference of proton penetration is consistent with convection of plasma sheet protons, suggesting enhanced convection during geomagnetic active times to be the cause of energetic proton deep penetration during this event. The observed MLT difference of 10s \textendash 100s of keV electron penetration is completely different from 10s of keV protons and cannot be well explained by inward radial diffusion, convection of plasma sheet electrons, or transport of trapped electrons by enhanced convection electric field represented by the Volland-Stern model or a uniform dawn-dusk electric field model based on the electric field measurements. It suggests that the underlying physical mechanism responsible for energetic electron deep penetration, which is very important for fully understanding energetic electron dynamics in the low L-shells, should be MLT-localized.

Zhao, H.; Baker, D.; Califf, S.; Li, X.; Jaynes, A.; Leonard, T.; Kanekal, S.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Turner, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024558

CIMI simulations with newly developed multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models

Numerical simulation studies of the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts are important to understand the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model considers the effects of the ring current and plasmasphere on the radiation belts to obtain plausible results. The CIMI model incorporates pitch angle, energy, and cross diffusion of electrons, due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. These parameters are calculated using statistical wave distribution models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss amplitudes. However, currently these wave distribution models are based only on a single parameter, geomagnetic index (AE), and could potentially underestimate the wave amplitudes. Here we incorporate recently developed multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models based on geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters. We then perform CIMI simulations for two geomagnetic storms and compare the flux enhancement of MeV electrons with data from the Van Allen Probes and Akebono satellites. We show that the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with multi-parameter wave models resembles the observations more accurately than the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with single-parameter wave models. This indicates that wave models based on a combination of geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters are more effective as inputs to radiation belt models.

Aryan, Homayon; Sibeck, David; Bin Kang, Suk-; Balikhin, Michael; Fok, Mei-Ching; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Komar, Colin; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Nagai, Tsugunobu;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024159

Chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models; CIMI numerical simulations; Geomagnetic storm events; Radiation belt electron flux enhancements; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves; Wave-particle interaction

On the Relationship Between Electron Flux Oscillations and ULF Wave-Driven Radial Transport

The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the levels of electron flux oscillations and radial diffusion for different Phase Space Density (PSD) gradients, through observation and particle tracing simulations under the effect of model Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) fluctuations. This investigation aims to demonstrate that electron flux oscillation is associated with and could be used as an indicator of ongoing radial diffusion. To this direction, flux oscillations are observed through the Van Allen Probes\textquoteright MagEIS energetic particle detector; subsequently, flux oscillations are produced in a particle tracing model that simulates radial diffusion by using model magnetic and electric field fluctuations that are approximating measured magnetic and electric field fluctuations as recorded by the Van Allen Probes\textquoteright EMFISIS and EFW instruments, respectively. The flux oscillation amplitudes are then correlated with Phase Space Density gradients in the magnetosphere and with the ongoing radial diffusion process.

Sarris, Theodore; Li, Xinlin; Temerin, Michael; Zhao, Hong; Califf, Sam; Liu, Wenlong; Ergun, Robert;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023741

Flux Oscillations; MAGEis; EMFISIS; EFW; Phase space density; radial diffusion; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Simultaneous event-specific estimates of transport, loss, and source rates for relativistic outer radiation belt electrons

The most significant unknown regarding relativistic electrons in Earth\textquoterights outer Van Allen radiation belt is the relative contribution of loss, transport, and acceleration processes within the inner magnetosphere. Detangling each individual process is critical to improve the understanding of radiation belt dynamics, but determining a single component is challenging due to sparse measurements in diverse spatial and temporal regimes. However, there are currently an unprecedented number of spacecraft taking measurements that sample different regions of the inner magnetosphere. With the increasing number of varied observational platforms, system dynamics can begin to be unraveled. In this work, we employ in situ measurements during the 13\textendash14 January 2013 enhancement event to isolate transport, loss, and source dynamics in a one-dimensional radial diffusion model. We then validate the results by comparing them to Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations, indicating that the three terms have been accurately and individually quantified for the event. Finally, a direct comparison is performed between the model containing event-specific terms and various models containing terms parameterized by geomagnetic index. Models using a simple 3/Kp loss time scale show deviation from the event-specific model of nearly 2 orders of magnitude within 72 h of the enhancement event. However, models using alternative loss time scales closely resemble the event-specific model.

Schiller, Q.; Tu, W.; Ali, A.; Li, X.; Godinez, H.; Turner, D.; Morley, S.; Henderson, M.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023093

CubeSat; data assimilation; electron; event specific; Modeling; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

The role of the convection electric field in filling the slot region between the inner and outer radiation belts

The Van Allen Probes have reported frequent flux enhancements of 100s keV electrons in the slot region, with lower energy electrons exhibiting more dynamic behavior at lower L shells. Also, in situ electric field measurements from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), and the Van Allen Probes have provided evidence for large-scale electric fields at low L shells during active times. We study an event on 19 February 2014 where hundreds of keV electron fluxes were enhanced by orders of magnitude in the slot region and electric fields of 1\textendash2 mV/m were observed below L = 3. Using a 2-D guiding center particle tracer and a simple large-scale convection electric field model, we demonstrate that the measured electric fields can account for energization of electrons up to at least 500 keV in the slot region through inward radial transport.

Califf, S.; Li, X.; Zhao, H.; Kellerman, A.; Sarris, T.; Jaynes, A.; Malaspina, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023657

convection; electric field; electrons; Slot region; Van Allen Probes


Electric and Magnetic Radial Diffusion Coefficients Using the Van Allen Probes Data

ULF waves are a common occurrence in the inner magnetosphere and they contribute to particle motion, significantly, at times. We used the magnetic and the electric field data from the EMFISIS and the EFW instruments on board the Van Allen Probes to estimate the ULF wave power in the compressional component of the magnetic field and the azimuthal component of the electric field, respectively. Using L*, Kp, and MLT as parameters, we conclude that the noon sector contains higher ULF Pc-5 wave power compared with the other MLT sectors. The dawn, dusk, and midnight sectors have no statistically significant difference between them. The drift-averaged power spectral densities are used to derive the magnetic and the electric component of the radial diffusion coefficient. Both components exhibit little to no energy dependence, resulting in simple analytic models for both components. More importantly, the electric component is larger than the magnetic component by one to two orders of magnitude for almost all L* and Kp; thus, the electric field perturbations are more effective in driving radial diffusion of charged particles in the inner magnetosphere. We also present a comparison of the Van Allen Probes radial diffusion coefficients, including the error estimates, with some of the previous published results. This allows us to gauge the large amount of uncertainty present in such estimates.

Ali, Ashar; Malaspina, David; Elkington, Scot; Jaynes, Allison; Chan, Anthony; Wygant, John; Kletzing, Craig;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023002

Electric and Magnetic Components; radial diffusion; RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Observation of chorus waves by the Van Allen Probes: Dependence on solar wind parameters and scale size

Highly energetic electrons in the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts can cause serious damage to spacecraft electronic systems and affect the atmospheric composition if they precipitate into the upper atmosphere. Whistler mode chorus waves have attracted significant attention in recent decades for their crucial role in the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons that ultimately change the dynamics of the radiation belts. The distribution of these waves in the inner magnetosphere is commonly presented as a function of geomagnetic activity. However, geomagnetic indices are nonspecific parameters that are compiled from imperfectly covered ground based measurements. The present study uses wave data from the two Van Allen Probes to present the distribution of lower band chorus waves not only as functions of single geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters but also as functions of combined parameters. Also the current study takes advantage of the unique equatorial orbit of the Van Allen Probes to estimate the average scale size of chorus wave packets, during close separations between the two spacecraft, as a function of radial distance, magnetic latitude, and geomagnetic activity, respectively. Results show that the average scale size of chorus wave packets is approximately 1300\textendash2300 km. The results also show that the inclusion of combined parameters can provide better representation of the chorus wave distributions in the inner magnetosphere and therefore can further improve our knowledge of the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons.

Aryan, Homayon; Sibeck, David; Balikhin, Michael; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Kletzing, Craig;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v121.810.1002/2016JA022775

distribution of chorus wave intensities in the inner magnetosphere; inner magnetosphere; Radiation belts; scale size of chorus wave packets; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Prompt acceleration of magnetospheric electrons to ultrarelativistic energies by the 17 March 2015 interplanetary shock

Trapped electrons in Earth\textquoterights outer Van Allen radiation belt are influenced profoundly by solar phenomena such as high-speed solar wind streams, coronal mass ejections (CME), and interplanetary (IP) shocks. In particular, strong IP shocks compress the magnetosphere suddenly and result in rapid energization of electrons within minutes. It is believed that the electric fields induced by the rapid change in the geomagnetic field are responsible for the energization. During the latter part of March 2015, a CME impact led to the most powerful geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -223 nT at 17 March, 23 UT) observed not only during the Van Allen Probe era but also the entire preceding decade. Magnetospheric response in the outer radiation belt eventually resulted in elevated levels of energized electrons. The CME itself was preceded by a strong IP shock whose immediate effects vis-a-vis electron energization were observed by sensors on board the Van Allen Probes. The comprehensive and high-quality data from the Van Allen Probes enable the determination of the location of the electron injection, timescales, and spectral aspects of the energized electrons. The observations clearly show that ultrarelativistic electrons with energies E > 6 MeV were injected deep into the magnetosphere at L ≈ 3 within about 2 min of the shock impact. However, electrons in the energy range of ≈250 keV to ≈900 keV showed no immediate response to the IP shock. Electric and magnetic fields resulting from the shock-driven compression complete the comprehensive set of observations that provide a full description of the near-instantaneous electron energization.

Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Fennell, J.; Jones, A.; Schiller, Q.; Richardson, I.; Li, X.; Turner, D.; Califf, S.; Claudepierre, S.; Wilson, L.; Jaynes, A.; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022596

electron; energizaiton; IP shock; ultrarelativsti; Van Allen Probes

Large-amplitude electric fields in the inner magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes observations of subauroral polarization streams

The subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) is an important magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) coupling phenomenon that impacts a range of particle populations in the inner magnetosphere. SAPS studies often emphasize ionospheric signatures of fast westward flows, but the equatorial magnetosphere is also affected through strong radial electric fields in the dusk sector. This study focuses on a period of steady southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) during the 29 June 2013 geomagnetic storm where the Van Allen Probes observe a region of intense electric fields near the plasmapause over multiple consecutive outbound duskside passes. We show that the large-amplitude electric fields near the equatorial plane are consistent with SAPS by investigating the relationship between plasma sheet ion and electron boundaries, associated field-aligned currents, and the spatial location of the electric fields. By incorporating high-inclination DMSP data we demonstrate the spatial and temporal variability of the SAPS region, and we suggest that discrete, earthward-propagating injections are driving the observed strong electric fields at low L shells in the equatorial magnetosphere. We also show the relationship between SAPS and plasmasphere erosion, as well as a possible correlation with flux enhancements for 100 s keV electrons.

Califf, S.; Li, X.; Wolf, R.; Zhao, H.; Jaynes, A.; Wilder, F.; Malaspina, D.; Redmon, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022252

electric field; injection; SAPS; subauroral; Van Allen Probes


Relativistic electron response to the combined magnetospheric impact of a coronal mass ejection overlapping with a high-speed stream: Van Allen Probes observations

During early November 2013, the magnetosphere experienced concurrent driving by a coronal mass ejection (CME) during an ongoing high-speed stream (HSS) event. The relativistic electron response to these two kinds of drivers, i.e., HSS and CME, is typically different, with the former often leading to a slower buildup of electrons at larger radial distances, while the latter energizing electrons rapidly with flux enhancements occurring closer to the Earth.We present a detailed analysis of the relativistic electron response including radial profiles of phase space density as observed by both MagEIS and REPT instruments on the Van Allen Probes mission. Data from the MagEIS instrument establishes the behavior of lower energy (<1MeV) electrons which span both intermediary and seed populations during electron energization. Measurements characterizing the plasma waves and magnetospheric electric and magnetic fields during this period are obtained by the EMFISIS instrument on board Van Allen Probes, SCM and FGM instruments onboard THEMIS, and the low altitude polar orbiting POES satellite. These observations suggest that, during this time period, both radial transport and local in-situ processes are involved in the energization of electrons. The energization attributable to radial diffusion is most clearly evident for the lower energy (<1MeV) electrons, while the effects of in-situ energization by interaction of chorus waves are prominent in the higher energy electrons.

Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Henderson, M.; Li, W.; Fennell, J.; Zheng, Y.; Richardson, I.; Jones, A.; Ali, A.; Elkington, S.; Jaynes, A.; Li, X.; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021395

CME; HSS; Van Allen Probes; IP shock; relativistic electrons

Source and Seed Populations for Relativistic Electrons: Their Roles in Radiation Belt Changes

Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in August-September 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen Probes particle and fields data to study the process of radiation belt electron acceleration. One particular interval, 13-22 September, initiated by a short-lived geomagnetic storm and characterized by a long period of primarily northward IMF, showed strong depletion of relativistic electrons (including an unprecedented observation of long-lasting depletion at geostationary orbit) while an immediately preceding, and another immediately subsequent, storm showed strong radiation belt enhancement. We demonstrate with these data that two distinct electron populations resulting from magnetospheric substorm activity are crucial elements in the ultimate acceleration of highly relativistic electrons in the outer belt: the source population (tens of keV) that give rise to VLF wave growth; and the seed population (hundreds of keV) that are, in turn, accelerated through VLF wave interactions to much higher energies. ULF waves may also play a role by either inhibiting or enhancing this process through radial diffusion effects. If any components of the inner magnetospheric accelerator happen to be absent, the relativistic radiation belt enhancement fails to materialize.

Jaynes, A.N.; Baker, D.N.; Singer, H.J.; Rodriguez, J.V.; Loto\textquoterightaniu, T.M.; Ali, A.; Elkington, S.R.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S.G.; Fennell, J.F.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.M.; Kletzing, C.A.; Spence, H.E.; Reeves, G.D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021234

Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; substorms; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves

Correlated Pc4-5 ULF waves, whistler-mode chorus and pulsating aurora observed by the Van Allen Probes and ground-based systems

Theory and observations have linked equatorial VLF waves with pulsating aurora for decades, invoking the process of pitch-angle scattering of 10\textquoterights keV electrons in the equatorial magnetosphere. Recently published satellite studies have strengthened this argument, by showing strong correlation between pulsating auroral patches and both lower-band chorus and 10\textquoterights keV electron modulation in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit. Additionally, a previous link has been made between Pc4-5 compressional pulsations and modulation of whistler-mode chorus using THEMIS. In the current study, we present simultaneous in-situ observations of structured chorus waves and an apparent field line resonance (in the Pc4-5 range) as a result of a substorm injection, observed by Van Allen Probes, along with ground-based observations of pulsating aurora. We demonstrate the likely scenario being one of substorm-driven Pc4-5 ULF pulsations modulating chorus waves, and thus providing the driver for pulsating particle precipitation into the Earth\textquoterights atmosphere. Interestingly, the modulated chorus wave and ULF wave periods are well correlated, with chorus occurring at half the periodicity of the ULF waves. We also show, for the first time, a particular few-Hz modulation of individual chorus elements that coincides with the same modulation in a nearby pulsating aurora patch. Such modulation has been noticed as a high-frequency component in ground-based camera data of pulsating aurora for decades, and may be a result of nonlinear chorus wave interactions in the equatorial region.

Jaynes, A.; Lessard, M.; Takahashi, K.; Ali, A.; Malaspina, D.; Michell, R.; Spanswick, E.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Cully, C.; Donovan, E.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Samara, M.; Spence, H.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021380

aurora; precipitation; pulsating aurora; substorms; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves

Three-dimensional current systems and ionospheric effects associated with small dipolarisation fronts

We present a case study of eight successive plasma sheet (PS) activations (usually referred to as bursty bulk flows or dipolarization fronts ) associated with small individual inline image increases on 31 March 2009 (0200\textendash0900 UT), observed by the THEMIS mission. This series of events happens during very quiet solar wind conditions, over a period of 7 hours preceding a substorm onset at 1230 UT. The amplitude of the dipolarizations increases with time. The low-amplitude dipolarization fronts are associated with few (1 or 2) rapid flux transport events (RFT, Eh > 2mV/m), whereas the large-amplitude ones encompass many more RFT events. All PS activations are associated with small and localized substorm current wedge (SCW) like current system signatures, which seems to be the consequence of RFT arrival in the near tail. The associated ground magnetic perturbations affect a larger part of the contracted auroral oval when, in the magnetotail, more RFT are embedded in PS activations (> 5). Dipolarization fronts with very low amplitude, a type usually not included in statistical studies, are of particular interest because we found even those to be associated with clear small SCW-like current system and particle injections at geosynchronous orbit. This exceptional dataset highlights the role of flow bursts in the magnetotail and leads to the conclusion that we may be observing the smallest form of a substorm, or rather its smallest element. This study also highlights the gradual evolution of the ionospheric current disturbance as the plasma sheet is observed to heat-up.

Palin, L.; Jacquey, C.; Opgenoorth, H.; Connors, M.; Sergeev, V.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Nakamura, R.; Reeves, G.D.; Singer, H.J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Turc, L.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021040

bursty bulk flow; dipolarization front; field-aligned currents; substorm; substorm current wedge; wedgelet

Magnetic field power spectra and magnetic radial diffusion coefficients using CRRES magnetometer data

We used the fluxgate magnetometer data from Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) of the compressional component of the geomagnetic field in the \~1 mHz to \~8 mHz range. We conclude that magnetic wave power is generally higher in the noon sector for quiet times with no significant difference between the dawn, dusk, and the midnight sectors. However, during high Kp activity, the noon sector is not necessarily dominant anymore. The magnetic PSDs have a very distinct dependence on Kp. In addition, the PSDs appear to have a weak dependence on McIlwain parameter L with power slightly increasing as L increases. The magnetic wave PSDs are used along with the Fei et al. (2006) formulation to compute inline image as a function of L and Kp. The L dependence of inline image is systematically studied and is shown to depend on Kp. More significantly, we conclude that inline imageis the dominant term driving radial diffusion, typically exceeding inline image by 1\textendash2 orders of magnitude.

Ali, Ashar; Elkington, Scot; Tu, Weichao; Ozeke, Louis; Chan, Anthony; Friedel, Reiner;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020419

CRRES; diffusion coefficients; radial diffusion; ULF waves

Field-aligned chorus wave spectral power in Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt

Chorus-type whistler waves are one of the most intense electromagnetic waves generated naturally in the magnetosphere. These waves have a substantial impact on the radiation belt dynamics as they are thought to contribute to electron acceleration and losses into the ionosphere through resonant wave\textendashparticle interaction. Our study is devoted to the determination of chorus wave power distribution on frequency in a wide range of magnetic latitudes, from 0 to 40\textdegree. We use 10 years of magnetic and electric field wave power measured by STAFF-SA onboard Cluster spacecraft to model the initial (equatorial) chorus wave spectral power, as well as PEACE and RAPID measurements to model the properties of energetic electrons (~ 0.1\textendash100 keV) in the outer radiation belt. The dependence of this distribution upon latitude obtained from Cluster STAFF-SA is then consistently reproduced along a certain L-shell range (4 <= L <= 6.5), employing WHAMP-based ray tracing simulations in hot plasma within a realistic inner magnetospheric model. We show here that, as latitude increases, the chorus peak frequency is globally shifted towards lower frequencies. Making use of our simulations, the peak frequency variations can be explained mostly in terms of wave damping and amplification, but also cross-L propagation. These results are in good agreement with previous studies of chorus wave spectral extent using data from different spacecraft (Cluster, POLAR and THEMIS). The chorus peak frequency variations are then employed to calculate the pitch angle and energy diffusion rates, resulting in more effective pitch angle electron scattering (electron lifetime is halved) but less effective acceleration. These peak frequency parameters can thus be used to improve the accuracy of diffusion coefficient calculations.

Breuillard, H.; Agapitov, O.; Artemyev, A.; Kronberg, E.; Haaland, S.; Daly, P.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Boscher, D.; Bourdarie, S.; Zaliznyak, Y.; Rolland, G.;

Published by: Annales Geophysicae      Published on: 01/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.5194/angeo-33-583-2015

Chorus-type whistler waves


Simulation of high-energy radiation belt electron fluxes using NARMAX-VERB coupled codes

This study presents a fusion of data-driven and physics-driven methodologies of energetic electron flux forecasting in the outer radiation belt. Data-driven NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Averages with eXogenous inputs) model predictions for geosynchronous orbit fluxes have been used as an outer boundary condition to drive the physics-based Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, to simulate energetic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt environment. The coupled system has been tested for three extended time periods totalling several weeks of observations. The time periods involved periods of quiet, moderate, and strong geomagnetic activity and captured a range of dynamics typical of the radiation belts. The model has successfully simulated energetic electron fluxes for various magnetospheric conditions. Physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the discrepancies between the model results and observations are discussed.

Pakhotin, I.; Drozdov, A; Shprits, Y; Boynton, R.; Subbotin, D.; Balikhin, M.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020238

Radiation belts; Space weather

THEMIS measurements of quasi-static electric fields in the inner magnetosphere

We use four years of THEMIS double-probe measurements to offer, for the first time, a complete picture of the dawn-dusk electric field covering all local times and radial distances in the inner magnetosphere based on in situ equatorial observations. This study is motivated by the results from the CRRES mission, which revealed a local maximum in the electric field developing near Earth during storm times, rather than the expected enhancement at higher L shells that is shielded near Earth as suggested by the Volland-Stern model. The CRRES observations were limited to the dusk side, while THEMIS provides complete local time coverage. We show strong agreement with the CRRES results on the dusk side, with a local maximum near L =4 for moderate levels of geomagnetic activity and evidence of strong electric fields inside L =3 during the most active times. The extensive dataset from THEMIS also confirms the day/night asymmetry on the dusk side, where the enhancement is closest to Earth in the dusk-midnight sector, and is farther away closer to noon. A similar, but smaller in magnitude, local maximum is observed on the dawn side near L =4. The noon sector shows the smallest average electric fields, and for more active times, the enhancement develops near L =7 rather than L =4. We also investigate the impact of the uncertain boom-shorting factor on the results, and show that while the absolute magnitude of the electric field may be underestimated, the trends with geomagnetic activity remain intact.

Califf, S.; Li, X.; Blum, L.; Jaynes, A.; Schiller, Q.; Zhao, H.; Malaspina, D.; Hartinger, M.; Wolf, R.; Rowland, D.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020360

convection; double probe; electric field; inner magnetosphere

Near real-time ionospheric monitoring over Europe at the Royal Observatory of Belgium using GNSS data

Various scientific applications and services increasingly demand real-time information on the effects of space weather on Earth\textquoterights atmosphere. In this frame, the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) takes advantage of the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN) to monitor the ionosphere over Europe from the measured delays in the GNSS signals, and provides publicly several derived products. The main ROB products consist of ionospheric vertical Total Electron Content (TEC) maps over Europe and their variability estimated in near real-time every 15 min on 0.5\textdegree \texttimes 0.5\textdegree grids using GPS observations. The maps are available online with a latency of ~3 min in IONEX format at and as interactive web pages at This paper presents the method used in the ROB-IONO software to generate the maps. The ROB-TEC maps show a good agreement with widely used post-processed products such as IGS and ESA with mean differences of 1.3 \textpm 0.9 and 0.4 \textpm 1.6 TECu respectively for the period 2012 to mid-2013. In addition, we tested the reliability of the ROB-IONO software to detect abnormal ionospheric activity during the Halloween 2003 ionospheric storm. For this period, the mean differences with IGS and ESA maps are 0.9 \textpm 2.2 and 0.6 \textpm 6.8 TECu respectively with maximum differences (>38 TECu) occurring during the major phase of the storm. These differences are due to the lower resolution in time and space of both IGS and ESA maps compared to the ROB-TEC maps. A description of two recent events, one on March 17, 2013 and one on February 27, 2014 also highlights the capability of the method adopted in the ROB-IONO software to detect in near real-time abnormal ionospheric behaviour over Europe. In that frame, ROB maintains a data base publicly available with identified ionospheric events since 2012.

Bergeot, Nicolas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bruyninx, Carine; Pottiaux, Eric; Aerts, Wim; Baire, Quentin; Legrand, Juliette; Defraigne, Pascale; Huang, Wei;

Published by: Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate      Published on: 09/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1051/swsc/2014028


Statistical analysis of electron lifetimes at GEO: Comparisons with chorus-driven losses

The population of electrons in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt increases when the magnetosphere is exposed to high-speed streams of solar wind, coronal mass ejections, magnetic clouds, or other disturbances. After this increase, the number of electrons decays back to approximately the initial population. This study statistically analyzes the lifetimes of the electron at Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) from Los Alamos National Laboratory electron flux data. The decay rate of the electron fluxes are calculated for 14 energies ranging from 24 keV to 3.5 MeV to identify a relationship between the lifetime and energy of the electrons. The statistical data show that electron lifetimes increase with energy. Also, the statistical results show a good agreement up to \~1 MeV with an analytical model of lifetimes, where electron losses are caused by their resonant interaction with oblique chorus waves, using average wave intensities obtained from Cluster statistics. However, above 500 keV, the measured lifetimes increase with energy becomes less steep, almost stopping. This could partly stem from the difficultly of identifying lifetimes larger than 10 days, for high energy, with the methods and instruments of the present study at GEO. It could also result from the departure of the actual geomagnetic field from a dipolar shape, since a compressed field on the dayside should preferentially increase chorus-induced losses at high energies. However, during nearly quiet geomagnetic conditions corresponding to lifetime measurement periods, it is more probably an indication that outward radial diffusion imposes some kind of upper limit on lifetimes of high-energy electrons near geostationary orbit.

Boynton, R.; Balikhin, M.; Mourenas, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA019920

Chorus; electron lifetimes; electron losses; oblique waves

The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation and the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation is one of 5 fields-and-particles investigations on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. MMS comprises 4 spacecraft flying in close formation in highly elliptical, near-Earth-equatorial orbits targeting understanding of the fundamental physics of the important physical process called magnetic reconnection using Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere as a plasma laboratory. EPD comprises two sensor types, the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) with one instrument on each of the 4 spacecraft, and the Fly\textquoterights Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) with 2 instruments on each of the 4 spacecraft. EIS measures energetic ion energy, angle and elemental compositional distributions from a required low energy limit of 20 keV for protons and 45 keV for oxygen ions, up to >0.5 MeV (with capabilities to measure up to >1 MeV). FEEPS measures instantaneous all sky images of energetic electrons from 25 keV to >0.5 MeV, and also measures total ion energy distributions from 45 keV to >0.5 MeV to be used in conjunction with EIS to measure all sky ion distributions. In this report we describe the EPD investigation and the details of the EIS sensor. Specifically we describe EPD-level science objectives, the science and measurement requirements, and the challenges that the EPD team had in meeting these requirements. Here we also describe the design and operation of the EIS instruments, their calibrated performances, and the EIS in-flight and ground operations. Blake et al. (The Flys Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) contribution to the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) investigation of the Magnetospheric Magnetoscale (MMS) Mission, this issue) describe the design and operation of the FEEPS instruments, their calibrated performances, and the FEEPS in-flight and ground operations. The MMS spacecraft will launch in early 2015, and over its 2-year mission will provide comprehensive measurements of magnetic reconnection at Earth\textquoterights magnetopause during the 18 months that comprise orbital phase 1, and magnetic reconnection within Earth\textquoterights magnetotail during the about 6 months that comprise orbital phase 2.

Mauk, B.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Clemmons, J.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Jaskulek, S.; Schlemm, C.; Brown, L.; Cooper, S.; Craft, J.; Fennell, J.; Gurnee, R.; Hammock, C.; Hayes, J.; Hill, P.; Ho, G.; Hutcheson, J.; Jacques, A.; Kerem, S.; Mitchell, D.; Nelson, K.; Paschalidis, N.; Rossano, E.; Stokes, M.; Westlake, J.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 06/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-014-0055-5

Magnetic reconnection; Magnetosphere; Magnetospheric multiscale; NASA mission; Particle acceleration; Space plasma


The Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) Instruments Aboard the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Spacecraft

This paper describes the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the RBSP spacecraft from an instrumentation and engineering point of view. There are four magnetic spectrometers aboard each of the two spacecraft, one low-energy unit (20\textendash240 keV), two medium-energy units (80\textendash1200 keV), and a high-energy unit (800\textendash4800 keV). The high unit also contains a proton telescope (55 keV\textendash20 MeV). The magnetic spectrometers focus electrons within a selected energy pass band upon a focal plane of several silicon detectors where pulse-height analysis is used to determine if the energy of the incident electron is appropriate for the electron momentum selected by the magnet. Thus each event is a two-parameter analysis, an approach leading to a greatly reduced background. The physics of these instruments are described in detail followed by the engineering implementation. The data outputs are described, and examples of the calibration results and early flight data presented.

Blake, J.; Carranza, P.; Claudepierre, S.; Clemmons, J.; Crain, W.; Dotan, Y.; Fennell, J.; Fuentes, F.; Galvan, R.; George, J.; Henderson, M.; Lalic, M.; Lin, A; Looper, M.; Mabry, D.; Mazur, J.; McCarthy, B.; Nguyen, C.; textquoterightBrien, T.; Perez, M.; Redding, M.; Roeder, J.; Salvaggio, D.; Sorensen, G.; Spence, H.; Yi, S.; Zakrzewski, M.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9991-8

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE)

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) on the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft is the magnetosphere ring current instrument that will provide data for answering the three over-arching questions for the Van Allen Probes Program: RBSPICE will determine \textquotedbllefthow space weather creates the storm-time ring current around Earth, how that ring current supplies and supports the creation of the radiation belt populations,\textquotedblright and how the ring current is involved in radiation belt losses. RBSPICE is a time-of-flight versus total energy instrument that measures ions over the energy range from \~20 keV to \~1 MeV. RBSPICE will also measure electrons over the energy range \~25 keV to \~1 MeV in order to provide instrument background information in the radiation belts. A description of the instrument and its data products are provided in this chapter.

Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L.; Kim, C.; Stokes, M.; Ho, G.; Cooper, S.; UKHORSKIY, A; Manweiler, J.; Jaskulek, S.; Haggerty, D.; Brandt, P.; SITNOV, M; Keika, K.; Hayes, J.; Brown, L.; Gurnee, R.; Hutcheson, J.; Nelson, K.; Paschalidis, N.; Rossano, E.; Kerem, S.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9965-x

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

The Relativistic Proton Spectrometer (RPS) for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

The Relativistic Proton Spectrometer (RPS) on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes spacecraft is a particle spectrometer designed to measure the flux, angular distribution, and energy spectrum of protons from \~60 MeV to \~2000 MeV. RPS will investigate decades-old questions about the inner Van Allen belt proton environment: a nearby region of space that is relatively unexplored because of the hazards of spacecraft operation there and the difficulties in obtaining accurate proton measurements in an intense penetrating background. RPS is designed to provide the accuracy needed to answer questions about the sources and losses of the inner belt protons and to obtain the measurements required for the next-generation models of trapped protons in the magnetosphere. In addition to detailed information for individual protons, RPS features count rates at a 1-second timescale, internal radiation dosimetry, and information about electrostatic discharge events on the RBSP spacecraft that together will provide new information about space environmental hazards in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere.

Mazur, J.; Friesen, L.; Lin, A.; Mabry, D.; Katz, N.; Dotan, Y.; George, J.; Blake, J.; LOOPER, M; Redding, M.; textquoterightBrien, T.; Cha, J.; Birkitt, A.; Carranza, P.; Lalic, M.; Fuentes, F.; Galvan, R.; McNab, M.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-012-9926-9

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

First Results from CSSWE CubeSat: Characteristics of Relativistic Electrons in the Near-Earth Environment During the October 2012 Magnetic Storms

Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile) on board the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat mission, which was launched into a highly inclined (65\textdegree) low Earth orbit, are analyzed along with measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) and the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes, which are in a low inclination (10\textdegree) geo-transfer-like orbit. Both REPT and MagEIS measure the full distribution of energetic electrons as they traverse the heart of the outer radiation belt. However, due to the small equatorial loss cone (only a few degrees), it is difficult for REPT and MagEIS to directly determine which electrons will precipitate into the atmosphere, a major radiation belt loss process. REPTile, a miniaturized version of REPT, measures the fraction of the total electron population that has small enough equatorial pitch angles to reach the altitude of CSSWE, 480 km \texttimes 780 km, thus measuring the precipitating population as well as the trapped and quasi-trapped populations. These newly available measurements provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the source, loss, and energization processes that are responsible for the dynamic behavior of outer radiation belt electrons. The focus of this paper will be on the characteristics of relativistic electrons measured by REPTile during the October 2012 storms; also included are long-term measurements from the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer to put this study into context.

Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Blum, L.; Califf, S.; Zhao, H.; Tu, W.; Turner, D.; Gerhardt, D.; Palo, S.; Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Looper, M.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019342

RBSP; Van Allen Probes


Weak turbulence in the magnetosphere: Formation of whistler wave cavity by nonlinear scattering

We consider the weak turbulence of whistler waves in the in low-β inner magnetosphere of the earth. Whistler waves, originating in the ionosphere, propagate radially outward and can trigger nonlinear induced scattering by thermal electrons provided the wave energy density is large enough. Nonlinear scattering can substantially change the direction of the wave vector of whistler waves and hence the direction of energy flux with only a small change in the frequency. A portion of whistler waves return to the ionosphere with a smaller perpendicular wave vector resulting in diminished linear damping and enhanced ability to pitch-angle scatter trapped electrons. In addition, a portion of the scatteredwave packets can be reflected near the ionosphere back into the magnetosphere. Through multiple nonlinear scatterings and ionospheric reflections a long-lived wavecavity containing turbulent whistler waves can be formed with the appropriate properties to efficiently pitch-angle scatter trapped electrons. The primary consequence on the earth\textquoterights radiation belts is to reduce the lifetime of the trapped electron population.

Crabtree, C.; Rudakov, L.; Ganguli, G.; Mithaiwala, M.; Galinsky, V.; Shevchenko, V.;

Published by: Physics of Plasmas      Published on: 01/2012

YEAR: 2012     DOI: 10.1063/1.3692092

Whistler waves; Magnetosphere