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2021 
Abstract Stable auroral red (SAR) arcs are optical events with dominant 630.0nm emission caused by lowenergy electron heat flux into the topside ionosphere from the inner magnetosphere. SAR arcs are observed at subauroral latitudes and often occur during the recovery phase of magnetic storms and substorms. Past studies concluded that these lowenergy electrons were generated in the spatial overlap region between the outer plasmasphere and ringcurrent ions and suggested that Coulomb collisions between plasmaspheric electrons and ringcurrent ions are more feasible for the SARarc generation mechanism rather than Landau damping by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves or kinetic Alfvén waves. This paper studies three separate SARarc events with conjunctions, using allsky imagers and inner magnetospheric satellites (Arase and RBSP) during nonstormtime substorms on 19 December 2012 (event 1), 17 January 2015 (event 2), and 4 November 2019 (event 3). We evaluated for the first time the heat flux via Coulomb collision using fullenergyrange ion data obtained by the satellites. The electron heat fluxes due to Coulomb collisions reached ∼109 eV/cm2/s for events 1 and 2, indicating that Coulomb collisions could have caused the SAR arcs. RBSPA also observed local enhancements of 7–20mHz electromagnetic wave power above the SAR arc in event 2. The heat flux for the freshlydetached SAR arc in event 3 reached ∼108 eV/cm2/s, which is insufficient to have caused the SAR arc. In event 3, local flux enhancement of electrons (<200 eV) and various electromagnetic waves were observed, these are likely to have caused the freshlydetached SAR arc. Inaba, Yudai; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Oyama, ShinIchiro; Otsuka, Yuichi; Connors, Martin; Schofield, Ian; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Imajo, Shun; Shinbori, Atsuki; Gololobov, Artem; Kazama, Yoichi; Wang, ShiangYu; W. Y. Tam, Sunny; Chang, TzuFang; Wang, BoJhou; Asamura, Kazushi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Kasahara, Satoshi; Keika, Kunihiro; Hori, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Ayako; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Matsuda, Shoya; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Shoji, Masafumi; Kitahara, Masahiro; Nakamura, Satoko; Shinohara, Iku; Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoff; MacDowall, Robert; Smith, Charles; Wygant, John; Bonnell, John; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 03/2021 YEAR: 2021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA029081 SAR arc; Arase; RBSP; ring current; Nonstormtime substorm; Plasmapause; Van Allen Probes 
AbstractInsitu electron density profiles obtained from Arase in the night magnetic local time (MLT) sector and from RBSPB covering all MLTs are used to study the smallscale density irregularities present in the plasmasphere and near the plasmapause. Electron density perturbations with amplitudes > 10\% from background density and with timescales less than 30min are investigated here as the smallscale density irregularities. The statistical survey of the density irregularities is carried out using nearly two years of density data obtained from RBSPB and four months of data from Arase satellites. The results show that density irregularities are present globally at all MLT sectors and Lshells both inside and outside the plasmapause, with a higher occurrence at L > 4. The occurrence of density irregularities is found to be higher during disturbed geomagnetic and interplanetary conditions. The case studies presented here revealed: 1) The plasmaspheric density irregularities observed during both quiet and disturbed conditions are found to coexist with the hot plasma sheet population. 2) During quiet periods, the plasma waves in the whistlermode frequency range are found to be modulated by the smallscale density irregularities, with density depletions coinciding well with the decrease in whistler intensity. Our observations suggest that different source mechanisms are responsible for the generation of density structures at different MLTs and geomagnetic conditions.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Thomas, Neethal; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Shinohara, Iku; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Matsuoka, Ayako; Kasahara, Satoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Keika, Kunihiro; Hori, Tomo; Asamura, Kazushi; Wang, ShiangYu; Kazama, Yoichi; Tam, Sunny; Chang, TzuFang; Wang, BoJhou; Wygant, John; Breneman, Aaron; Reeves, Geoff; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2021 YEAR: 2021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA027917 Electron density; smallscale density irregularities; plasmasphere; inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes; Arase 
2020 
Bayesian Inference of QuasiLinear Radial Diffusion Parameters using Van Allen Probes Abstract The Van Allen radiation belts in the magnetosphere have been extensively studied using models based on radial diffusion theory, which is derived from a quasilinear approach with prescribed inner and outer boundary conditions. The 1D diffusion model requires the knowledge of a diffusion coefficient and an electron loss timescale, which is typically parameterized in terms of various quantities such as the spatial (L) coordinate or a geomagnetic index (e.g., Kp). These terms are typically empirically derived, not directly measurable, and hence are not known precisely, due to the inherent nonlinearity of the process and the variable boundary conditions. In this work, we demonstrate a probabilistic approach by inferring the values of the diffusion and loss term parameters, along with their uncertainty, in a Bayesian framework, where identification is obtained using the Van Allen Probe measurements. Our results show that the probabilistic approach statistically improves the performance of the model, compared to the empirical parameterization employed in the literature. Sarma, Rakesh; Chandorkar, Mandar; Zhelavskaya, Irina; Shprits, Yuri; Drozdov, Alexander; Camporeale, Enrico; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2020 YEAR: 2020 DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027618 radial diffusion; Magnetosphere; Bayesian inference; Van Allen radiation belt; Van Allen Probes 
Bayesian Inference of QuasiLinear Radial Diffusion Parameters using Van Allen Probes The Van Allen radiation belts in the magnetosphere have been extensively studied using models based on radial diffusion theory, which is derived from a quasilinear approach with prescribed inner and outer boundary conditions. The 1D diffusion model requires the knowledge of a diffusion coefficient and an electron loss timescale, which is typically parameterized in terms of various quantities such as the spatial (L) coordinate or a geomagnetic index (e.g., Kp). These terms are typically empirically derived, not directly measurable, and hence are not known precisely, due to the inherent nonlinearity of the process and the variable boundary conditions. In this work, we demonstrate a probabilistic approach by inferring the values of the diffusion and loss term parameters, along with their uncertainty, in a Bayesian framework, where identification is obtained using the Van Allen Probe measurements. Our results show that the probabilistic approach statistically improves the performance of the model, compared to the empirical parameterization employed in the literature. Sarma, Rakesh; Chandorkar, Mandar; Zhelavskaya, Irina; Shprits, Yuri; Drozdov, Alexander; Camporeale, Enrico; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2020 YEAR: 2020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JA027618 radial diffusion; Magnetosphere; Bayesian inference; Van Allen radiation belt; Van Allen Probes 
Plasmaspheric hiss is an important whistlermode emission shaping the Van Allen radiation belt environment. How the plasmaspheric hiss waves are generated, propagate, and dissipate remains under intense debate. With the five spacecraft of Van Allen Probes, Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (Arase), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites missions at widely spaced locations, we present here the first comprehensive observations of hiss waves growing from the substorminjected electron instability, spreading within the plasmasphere, and dissipating over a large spatial scale. During substorms, hot electrons were injected energydispersively into the plasmasphere near the dawnside and, probably through a combination of linear and nonlinear cyclotron resonances, generated whistlermode waves with globally drifting frequencies. These waves were able to propagate from the dawnside to the noonside, with the frequencydrifting feature retained. Approximately 5 hr of magnetic local time away from the source region in the dayside sector, the wave power was dissipated to urn:xwiley:grl:media:grl60110:grl60110math0001 of its original level. Liu, Nigang; Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Shinohara, Iku; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Matsuda, Shoya; Shoji, Masafumi; Mitani, Takefumi; Takashima, Takeshi; Kazama, Yoichi; Wang, BoJhou; Wang, ShiangYu; Jun, ChaeWoo; Chang, TzuFang; W. Y. Tam, Sunny; Kasahara, Satoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Keika, Kunihiro; Hori, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Ayako; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 01/2020 YEAR: 2020 DOI: 10.1029/2019GL086040 plasmasphere; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; Wave Dissipation; wave generation; wave propagation 
Abstract Plasmaspheric hiss is an important whistlermode emission shaping the Van Allen radiation belt environment. How the plasmaspheric hiss waves are generated, propagate, and dissipate remains under intense debate. With the five spacecraft of Van Allen Probes, Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (Arase), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites missions at widely spaced locations, we present here the first comprehensive observations of hiss waves growing from the substorminjected electron instability, spreading within the plasmasphere, and dissipating over a large spatial scale. During substorms, hot electrons were injected energydispersively into the plasmasphere near the dawnside and, probably through a combination of linear and nonlinear cyclotron resonances, generated whistlermode waves with globally drifting frequencies. These waves were able to propagate from the dawnside to the noonside, with the frequencydrifting feature retained. Approximately 5 hr of magnetic local time away from the source region in the dayside sector, the wave power was dissipated to of its original level. Liu, Nigang; Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Shinohara, Iku; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Matsuda, Shoya; Shoji, Masafumi; Mitani, Takefumi; Takashima, Takeshi; Kazama, Yoichi; Wang, BoJhou; Wang, ShiangYu; Jun, ChaeWoo; Chang, TzuFang; W. Y. Tam, Sunny; Kasahara, Satoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Keika, Kunihiro; Hori, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Ayako; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: YEAR: 2020 DOI: 10.1029/2019GL086040 Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belt; plasmasphere; wave generation; wave propagation; Wave Dissipation 
2018 
Electron flux measurements are an important diagnostic for interactions between ultralowfrequency (ULF) waves and relativistic (\~1 MeV) electrons. Since measurements are collected by particle detectors with finite energy channel width, they are affected by a phase mixing process that can obscure these interactions. We demonstrate that ultrahighresolution electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer on the Van Allen Probes mission\textemdashobtained using a data product that improves the energy resolution by roughly an order of magnitude\textemdashare crucial for understanding ULF waveparticle interactions. In particular, the ultrahighresolution measurements reveal a range of complex dynamics that cannot be resolved by standard measurements. Furthermore, the standard measurements provide estimates for the ULF flux modulation amplitude, period, and phase that may not be representative of true flux modulations, potentially leading to ambiguous conclusions concerning electron dynamics. Hartinger, M.; Claudepierre, S.; Turner, D.; Reeves, G.; Breneman, A.; Mann, I.; Peek, T.; Chang, E.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Looper, M.; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 10/2018 YEAR: 2018 DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080291 drift resonance; particle detector; Pc5; Radiation belts; ULF wave; Van Allen Probes; Waveparticle interaction 
Ultralowfrequency (ULF) wave and test particle models are used to investigate the pitch angle and energy dependence of ion differential fluxes measured by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft on October 6th, 2012. Analysis of the satellite data reveals modulations in differential flux resulting from drift resonance between H+ ions and fundamental mode poloidal Alfv\ en waves detected near the magnetic equator at L\~5.7. Results obtained from simulations reproduce important features of the observations, including a substantial enhancement of the differential flux between \~20\textdegree  40\textdegree pitch angle for ion energies between \~90  220keV, and an absence of flux modulations at 90\textdegree. The numerical results confirm predictions of driftbounce resonance theory and show good quantitative agreement with observations of modulations in differential flux produced by ULF waves. Wang, C.; Rankin, R.; Wang, Y.; Zong, Q.G.; Zhou, X.; Takahashi, K.; Marchand, R.; Degeling, A.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 05/2018 YEAR: 2018 DOI: 10.1029/2017JA025123 ULF wave; driftresonant; test particle simulation; Van Allen Probes 
Van Allen Probes Observations of Second Harmonic Poloidal Standing Alfv\ en Waves Longlasting secondharmonic poloidal standing Alfv\ en waves (P2 waves) were observed by the twin Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes, or RBSP) spacecraft in the noon sector of the plasmasphere, when the spacecraft were close to the magnetic equator and had a small azimuthal separation. Oscillations of proton fluxes at the wave frequency (\~10 mHz) were also observed in the energy (W) range 50\textendash300 keV. Using the unique RBSP orbital configuration, we determined the phase delay of magnetic field perturbations between the spacecraft with a 2nπ ambiguity. We then used finite gyroradius effects seen in the proton flux oscillations to remove the ambiguity and found that the waves were propagating westward with an azimuthal wave number (m) of \~200. The phase of the proton flux oscillations relative to the radial component of the wave magnetic field progresses with W, crossing 0 (northward moving protons) or 180\textdegree (southward moving protons) at W \~ 120 keV. This feature is explained by driftbounce resonance (mωd \~ ωb) of \~120 keV protons with the waves, where ωd and ωb are the proton drift and bounce frequencies. At lower energies, the proton phase space density ( math formula) exhibits a bumpontail structure with math formula occurring in the 1\textendash10 keV energy range. This math formula is unstable and can excite P2 waves through bounce resonance (ω \~ ωb), where ω is the wave frequency. Takahashi, Kazue; Oimatsu, Satoshi; e, Masahito; Min, Kyungguk; Claudepierre, Seth; Chan, Anthony; Wygant, John; Kim, Hyomin; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 01/2018 YEAR: 2018 DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024869 bounce and driftbounce resonances; energetic protons; plasmasphere; poloidal ULF waves; second harmonic; Van Allen Probes 
2016 
Modulation of chorus intensity by ULF waves deep in the inner magnetosphere Previous studies have shown that chorus wave intensity can be modulated by Pc4Pc5 compressional ULF waves. In this study, we present Van Allen Probes observation of ULF wave modulating chorus wave intensity, which occurred deep in the magnetosphere. The ULF wave shows fundamental poloidal mode signature and mirror mode compressional nature. The observed ULF wave can modulate not only the chorus wave intensity but also the distribution of both protons and electrons. Linear growth rate analysis shows consistence with observed chorus intensity variation at low frequency (f <\~ 0.3fce), but cannot account for the observed higherfrequency chorus waves, including the upper band chorus waves. This suggests the chorus waves at higherfrequency ranges require nonlinear mechanisms. In addition, we use combined observations of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) A and B to verify that the ULF wave event is spatially local and does not last long. Xia, Zhiyang; Chen, Lunjin; Dai, Lei; Claudepierre, Seth; Chan, Anthony; SotoChavez, A.; Reeves, G.; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 09/2016 YEAR: 2016 DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070280 chorus modulation; inner magnetosphere; ULF wave; Van Allen Probes; whistler wave 
Electric and Magnetic Radial Diffusion Coefficients Using the Van Allen Probes Data ULF waves are a common occurrence in the inner magnetosphere and they contribute to particle motion, significantly, at times. We used the magnetic and the electric field data from the EMFISIS and the EFW instruments on board the Van Allen Probes to estimate the ULF wave power in the compressional component of the magnetic field and the azimuthal component of the electric field, respectively. Using L*, Kp, and MLT as parameters, we conclude that the noon sector contains higher ULF Pc5 wave power compared with the other MLT sectors. The dawn, dusk, and midnight sectors have no statistically significant difference between them. The driftaveraged power spectral densities are used to derive the magnetic and the electric component of the radial diffusion coefficient. Both components exhibit little to no energy dependence, resulting in simple analytic models for both components. More importantly, the electric component is larger than the magnetic component by one to two orders of magnitude for almost all L* and Kp; thus, the electric field perturbations are more effective in driving radial diffusion of charged particles in the inner magnetosphere. We also present a comparison of the Van Allen Probes radial diffusion coefficients, including the error estimates, with some of the previous published results. This allows us to gauge the large amount of uncertainty present in such estimates. Ali, Ashar; Malaspina, David; Elkington, Scot; Jaynes, Allison; Chan, Anthony; Wygant, John; Kletzing, Craig; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 08/2016 YEAR: 2016 DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023002 Electric and Magnetic Components; radial diffusion; RBSP; Van Allen Probes 
Multispacecraft Observations and Modeling of the June 22/23, 2015 Geomagnetic Storm The magnetic storm of June 2223, 2015 was one of the largest in the current solar cycle. We present in situ observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) and the Van Allen Probes (VAP) in the magnetotail, fieldaligned currents from AMPERE, and ionospheric flow data from DMSP. Our realtime space weather alert system sent out a \textquotedblleftred alert\textquotedblright, correctly predicting Kp indices greater than 8. We show strong outflow of ionospheric Oxygen, dipolarizations in the MMS magnetometer data, and dropouts in the particle fluxes seen by the MMS FPI instrument suite. At ionospheric altitudes, the AMPERE data show highly variable currents exceeding 20 MA. We present numerical simulations with the BATSRUS global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model linked with the Rice Convection Model (RCM). The model predicted the magnitude of the dipolarizations, and varying polar cap convection patterns, which were confirmed by DMSP measurements. Reiff, P.; Daou, A.; Sazykin, S; Nakamura, R.; Hairston, M.; Coffey, V.; Chandler, M.; Anderson, B.; Russell, C.; Welling, D.; Fuselier, S.; Genestreti, K.; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 05/2016 YEAR: 2016 DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069154 Dipolarization; Geomagnetic storm; MMS; prediction; simulation; Space weather; Van Allen Probes 
2015 
We used the fluxgate magnetometer data from Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) of the compressional component of the geomagnetic field in the \~1 mHz to \~8 mHz range. We conclude that magnetic wave power is generally higher in the noon sector for quiet times with no significant difference between the dawn, dusk, and the midnight sectors. However, during high Kp activity, the noon sector is not necessarily dominant anymore. The magnetic PSDs have a very distinct dependence on Kp. In addition, the PSDs appear to have a weak dependence on McIlwain parameter L with power slightly increasing as L increases. The magnetic wave PSDs are used along with the Fei et al. (2006) formulation to compute inline image as a function of L and Kp. The L dependence of inline image is systematically studied and is shown to depend on Kp. More significantly, we conclude that inline imageis the dominant term driving radial diffusion, typically exceeding inline image by 1\textendash2 orders of magnitude. Ali, Ashar; Elkington, Scot; Tu, Weichao; Ozeke, Louis; Chan, Anthony; Friedel, Reiner; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020419 
2014 
Threedimensional stochastic modeling of radiation belts in adiabatic invariant coordinates A 3D model for solving the radiation belt diffusion equation in adiabatic invariant coordinates has been developed and tested. The model, named Radbelt Electron Model, obtains a probabilistic solution by solving a set of It\^o stochastic differential equations that are mathematically equivalent to the diffusion equation. This method is capable of solving diffusion equations with a full 3D diffusion tensor, including the radiallocal cross diffusion components. The correct form of the boundary condition at equatorial pitch angle α0=90\textdegree is also derived. The model is applied to a simulation of the October 2002 storm event. At α0 near 90\textdegree, our results are quantitatively consistent with GPS observations of phase space density (PSD) increases, suggesting dominance of radial diffusion; at smaller α0, the observed PSD increases are overestimated by the model, possibly due to the α0independent radial diffusion coefficients, or to insufficient electron loss in the model, or both. Statistical analysis of the stochastic processes provides further insights into the diffusion processes, showing distinctive electron source distributions with and without local acceleration. Zheng, Liheng; Chan, Anthony; Albert, Jay; Elkington, Scot; Koller, Josef; Horne, Richard; Glauert, Sarah; Meredith, Nigel; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2014 YEAR: 2014 DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.910.1002/2014JA020127 adiabatic invariant coordinates; diffusion equation; fully 3D model; Radiation belt; stochastic differential equation 
Signature modeling for LWIR spectrometer Hyperspectral longwave infrared (LWIR) is used for a variety of targets such as gases and solids with the advantage of day or night data collections. A longwave infrared system must have the ability to convert the radiance data it measures to emissivity prior to running a detection algorithm, commonly called a temperatureemissivity separation (TES) algorithm. Key parts of this TES algorithm are accounting for the reflected downwelling radiation from the atmosphere, upwelling background radiance removal, and most importantly determining the temperature of the material. Accounting for these environmental conditions allows for the data to be processed in emissivity to be used in the detection algorithm. The processed data also allows a baseline to determine where key features exist in the signatures collected. In this paper a new method is introduced to process field collected signatures gathered using the Design \& Prototypes microFTIR Model 102. The issue addressed here is calculating the collected signature from radiance to emissivity using a new technique for estimating the surface temperature of the collected sample. The key component of the TES was created to ensure the collected spectra are processed in emissivity space at a quality that is suitable for the detection library on air and ground LWIR systems. Firpi, Alexer; Oxenrider, Jason; Ramachandran, Vignesh; Mitchell, Herbert; Tzeng, Nigel; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Published by: Published on: 03/2014 YEAR: 2014 DOI: 10.1109/AERO.2014.6836439 hyperspectral imaging; infrared imaging; infrared spectrometers; radiance data conversion 
2013 
The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite contains an innovative complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements ever made in the inner magnetosphere and radiation belts. The coordinated RBSPECT particle measurements, analyzed in combination with fields and waves observations and stateoftheart theory and modeling, are necessary for understanding the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions, key science objectives of NASA\textquoterights Living With a Star program and the Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSPECT suite consists of three highlycoordinated instruments: the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) sensor, and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT). Collectively they cover, continuously, the full electron and ion spectra from one eV to 10\textquoterights of MeV with sufficient energy resolution, pitch angle coverage and resolution, and with composition measurements in the critical energy range up to 50 keV and also from a few to 50 MeV/nucleon. All three instruments are based on measurement techniques proven in the radiation belts. The instruments use those proven techniques along with innovative new designs, optimized for operation in the most extreme conditions in order to provide unambiguous separation of ions and electrons and clean energy responses even in the presence of extreme penetrating background environments. The design, fabrication and operation of ECT spaceflight instrumentation in the harsh radiation belt environment ensure that particle measurements have the fidelity needed for closure in answering key mission science questions. ECT instrument details are provided in companion papers in this same issue. In this paper, we describe the science objectives of the RBSPECT instrument suite on the Van Allen Probe spacecraft within the context of the overall mission objectives, indicate how the characteristics of the instruments satisfy the requirements to achieve these objectives, provide information about science data collection and dissemination, and conclude with a description of some early mission results. Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Bolton, M.; Bourdarie, S.; Chan, A.; Claudpierre, S.; Clemmons, J.; Cravens, J.; Elkington, S.; Fennell, J.; Friedel, R.; Funsten, H.; Goldstein, J.; Green, J.; Guthrie, A.; Henderson, M.; Horne, R.; Hudson, M.; Jahn, J.M.; Jordanova, V.; Kanekal, S.; Klatt, B.; Larsen, B.; Li, X.; MacDonald, E.; Mann, I.R.; Niehof, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Onsager, T.; Salvaggio, D.; Skoug, R.; Smith, S.; Suther, L.; Thomsen, M.; Thorne, R.; Published by: Space Science Reviews Published on: 11/2013 YEAR: 2013 DOI: DOI: 10.1007/s1121401300075 
2007 
The effect of ULF compressional modes and field line resonances on relativistic electron dynamics The adiabatic, driftresonant interaction between relativistic, equatorially mirroring electrons and a ULF compressional wave that couples to a field line resonance (FLR) is modelled. Investigations are focussed on the effect of azimuthal localisation in wave amplitude on the electron dynamics. The ULF wave fields on the equatorial plane (r , φ ) are modelled using a box model [Zhu, X., Kivelson, M.G., 1988. Analytic formulation and quantitative solutions of the coupled ULF wave problem. J. Geophys. Res. 93(A8), 8602\textendash8612], and azimuthal variations are introduced by adding a discrete spectrum of azimuthal modes. Electron trajectories are calculated using drift equations assuming constant magnetic moment M , and the evolution of the distribution function f(r,φ,M,t) from an assumed initial condition is calculated by assuming f remains constant along electron trajectories. The azimuthal variation in ULF wave structure is shown to have a profound effect on the electron dynamics once a threshold in azimuthal variation is exceeded. Electron energy changes occur that are significantly larger than the trapping width corresponding to the maximum wave amplitude. We show how this can be explained in terms of the overlap of multiple resonance islands, produced by the introduction of azimuthal amplitude variation. This anomalous energisation is characterised by performing parameter scans in the modulation amplitude ε and the wave electric field. A simple parametric model for the threshold is shown to give reasonable agreement with the threshold observed in the electron dynamics model. Above the threshold, the radial transport averaged over φ is shown to become diffusive in nature over a timescale of about 25 wave periods. The anomalous energisation described in this paper occurs over the first 15 wave periods, indicating the importance of convective transport in this process. Degeling, A.; Rankin, R.; Kabin, K.; Marchand, R.; Mann, I.R.; Published by: Planetary and Space Science Published on: 04/2007 YEAR: 2007 DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2006.04.039 
2006 
In an MHD particle simulation of the September 1998 magnetic storm the evolution of the radiation belt electron radial flux profile appears to be diffusive, and diffusion caused by ULF waves has been invoked as the probable mechanism. In order to separate adiabatic and nonadiabatic effects and to investigate the radial diffusion mechanism during this storm, in this work we solve a radial diffusion equation with ULF wave diffusion coefficients and a timedependent outer boundary condition, and the results are compared with the phase space density of the MHD particle simulation. The diffusion coefficients include contributions from both symmetric resonance modes (ω ≈ mωd, where ω is the wave frequency, m is the azimuthal wave number, and ωd is the bounceaveraged drift frequency) and asymmetric resonance modes (ω ≈ (m \textpm 1)ωd). ULF wave power spectral densities are obtained from a Fourier analysis of the electric and magnetic fields of the MHD simulation and are used in calculating the radial diffusion coefficients. The asymmetric diffusion coefficients are proportional to the magnetic field asymmetry, which is also calculated from the MHD field. The resulting diffusion coefficients vary with the radial coordinate L (the Roederer Lvalue) and with time during different phases of the storm. The last closed drift shell defines the location of the outer boundary. Both the location of the outer boundary and the value of the phase space density at the outer boundary are timevarying. The diffusion calculation simulates a 42hour period during the 24\textendash26 September 1998 magnetic storm, starting just before the storm sudden commencement and ending in the late recovery phase. The differential flux calculated in the MHD particle simulation is converted to phase space density. Phase space densities in both simulations (diffusion and MHD particle) are functions of Roederer Lvalue for fixed first and second adiabatic invariants. The Roederer Lvalue is calculated using drift shell tracing in the MHD magnetic field, and particles have zero second invariant. The radial diffusion calculation reproduces the main features of the MHD particle simulation quite well. The symmetric resonance modes dominate the radial diffusion, especially in the inner and middle L region, while the asymmetric resonances are more important in the outer region. Using both symmetric and asymmetric terms gives a better result than using only one or the other and is better than using a simple power law diffusion coefficient. We find that it is important to specify the value of the phase space density on the outer boundary dynamically in order to get better agreement between the radial diffusion simulation and the MHD particle simulation. Fei, Yue; Chan, Anthony; Elkington, Scot; Wiltberger, Michael; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 12/2006 YEAR: 2006 DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011211 
1999 
There has been increasing evidence that Pc5 ULF oscillations play a fundamental role in the dynamics of outer zone electrons. In this work we examine the adiabatic response of electrons to toroidalmode Pc5 field line resonances using a simplified magnetic field model. We find that electrons can be adiabatically accelerated through a driftresonant interaction with the waves, and present expressions describing the resonance condition and halfwidth for resonant interaction. The presence of magnetospheric convection electric fields is seen to increase the rate of resonant energization, and allow bulk acceleration of radiation belt electrons. Conditions leading to the greatest rate of acceleration in the proposed mechanism, a nonaxisymmetric magnetic field, superimposed toroidal oscillations, and strong convection electric fields, are likely to prevail during storms associated with high solar wind speeds. Elkington, Scot; Hudson, M.; Chan, Anthony; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 11/1999 YEAR: 1999 DOI: 10.1029/1999GL003659 
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