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Found 7 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 7


Observational Evidence for Whistler Waves Guided/Ducted by the Inner and Outer Edges of the Plasmapause

Abstract With Van Allen Probes data, we present the observational support for whistler waves guided by the plasmapause based on a case study and statistical analyses. Due to the combined effects of inhomogeneous magnetic fields and plasma densities, whistler waves near the inner edge of plasmapause (plasmasphere side) will be guided by a HDD-like (HDD, high density duct) density gradient, and tend to have very small wave normal angles (WNAs ≤20°). In contrast, whistler waves around the outer edge of the plasmapause (plasmatrough side) guided by a LDD-like (LDD, low density duct) density gradient, tend to have quite large WNAs (≥∼60°). Moreover, the statistical analysis reveals the remarkably different properties of whistler waves around inner and outer edges of plasmapause. We suggest that the plasmapause density gradients may play a significant role in the distribution of whistler waves.

Chen, Rui; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Tsurutani, Bruce; Wang, Shui;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Plasmapause; whistler wave; ducting effect; inner edge; outer edge; wave normal angle; Van Allen Probes


Analytical Fast Magnetosonic Wave Model Based on Observations of Van Allen Probe

Based on observations of Van Allen Probe-A during the period from 19 September 2012 to 28 February 2016, the relations of the fast magnetosonic (MS) wave amplitude Bw with kp index, the wave normal angle (WNA), and the wave normalized frequency (norF) are presented. Then, we establish an analytical regression model for MS wave amplitude as a function of geomagnetic storm activity (presented by kp index), L-shell (L), magnetic local time (MLT), magnetic latitude (λ), and the characteristics of MS wave, that is, wave norF and WNA. From the analytical Bw models, we found MS wave amplitude Bw has a positive relation with the intensity of geomagnetic activities both inside and outside the plasmapause, while the Bw can reach higher values inside the plasmapause than it does outside the plasmapause as the kp index increases. The Bw distribution on the norF demonstrates that most of the wave energies are concentrated on the lower harmonics part, which results from the excitation mechanism of MS waves. In addition, the Bw distribution on the WNA shows that the waves with larger normal angles have higher values of wave amplitude. Our analytic MS wave model agrees with the observed distribution in 3-D space of L, MLT, and λ well with high value of determine coefficient R2. The extended λ dimension will help us to calculate the more accurate bounced averaged diffusion coefficients during particles transit time.

Yao, Fei; Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Wang, Dedong; Ouyang, Zhihai;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

fast magnetosonic wave; Van Allen Probe; analytical regression model; wave normal angle; Plasmapause; Van Allen Probes


An Automatic Detection Algorithm Applied to Fast Magnetosonic Waves With Observations of the Van Allen Probes

Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves can play an important role in the evolution of the inner magnetosphere. However, there is still not an effective method to quantitatively identify such waves for observations of the Van Allen Probes reasonably. In this paper, we used Van Allen Probes data from 18 September 2012 to 30 September 2014 to find a more comprehensive automatic detection algorithm for fast MS waves through statistical analysis of the major properties, including the planarity, ellipticity, and wave normal angle of whole fluctuations using the singular value decomposition method. According to a control variate method, we find an obvious difference between fast MS waves and other waves in the statistical distribution of their major properties. After eliminating the influence of background noises, by excluding fluctuations at L < 1.8, we set up an automatic detection algorithm applied to fast MS waves, that is, smaller than 0.2 for the absolute value of wave ellipticity, larger than 70\textdegree for the wave normal angle, with frequency range of 2 Hz to 1.5 fLHR (fLHR is the local lower hybrid resonance frequency). Finally, we have checked the planarity to verify availability of this method and tested this completely automatic method on the Van Allen Probes data and found some results consistent with previous studies. Inside the plasmapause, we found that there is a more obviously favorable occurrence of MS waves at dusk sector with increasing magnetic latitudes.

Yuan, Zhigang; Yao, Fei; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Ouyang, Zhihai;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: Apr-05-2021

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026387

ellipticity; magnetosonic wave; normalized distribution; planarity; Van Allen Probes; wave normal angle

Van Allen Probes observations of chorus wave vector orientations: Implications for the chorus-to-hiss mechanism

Using observations from the Van Allen Probes EMFISIS instrument, coupled with ray tracing simulations, we determine the fraction of chorus wave power with the conditions required to access the plasmasphere and evolve into plasmaspheric hiss. It is found that only an extremely small fraction of chorus occurs with the required wave vector orientation, carrying only a small fraction of the total chorus wave power. The exception is on the edge of plasmaspheric plumes, where strong azimuthal density gradients are present. In these cases, up to 94\% of chorus wave power exists with the conditions required to access the plasmasphere. As such, we conclude that strong azimuthal density gradients are actually a requirement if a significant fraction of chorus wave power is to enter the plasmasphere and be a source of plasmaspheric hiss. This result suggests it is unlikely that chorus directly contributes a significant fraction of plasmaspheric hiss wave power.

Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; Chen, L.; Horne, R.; ik, O.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082111

chorus waves; EMFISIS; Plasmaspheric Hiss; plasmaspheric plumes; Van Allen Probes; wave normal angle


Statistical Properties of Plasmaspheric Hiss from Van Allen Probes Observations

Van Allen Probes observations are used to statistically investigate plasmaspheric hiss wave properties. This analysis shows that the wave normal direction of plasmaspheric hiss is predominantly field aligned at larger L shells, with a bimodal distribution, consisting of a near-field aligned and a highly oblique component, becoming apparent at lower L shells. Investigation of this oblique population reveals that it is most prevalent at L < 3, frequencies with f/fce> 0.01 (or f> 700 Hz), low geomagnetic activity levels, and between 1900 and 0900 MLT. This structure is similar to that reported for oblique chorus waves in the equatorial region, perhaps suggesting a causal link between the two wave modes. Ray tracing results from HOTRAY confirm that is feasible for these oblique chorus waves to be a source of the observed oblique plasmaspheric hiss population. The decrease in oblique plasmaspheric hiss occurrence rates during more elevated geomagnetic activity levels may be attributed to the increase in Landau resonant electrons causing oblique chorus waves to be more substantially damped outside of the plasmasphere. In turn, this restricts the amount of wave power that can access the plasmasphere and evolve into oblique plasmaspheric hiss. These results confirm that, despite the difference in location of this bimodal distribution compared to previous studies, a direct link between oblique equatorial chorus outside of the plasmasphere and oblique hiss at low L shells is plausible. As such, these results are in keeping with the existing theory of chorus as the source of plasmaspheric hiss.

Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; ik, O.; Chen, L.; Horne, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024593

Bimodal; chorus waves; EMFISIS; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes; wave normal angle


Propagation characteristics of plasmaspheric hiss: Van Allen Probe observations and global empirical models

Based on the Van Allen Probe A observations from 1 October 2012 to 31 December 2014, we develop two empirical models to respectively describe the hiss wave normal angle (WNA) and amplitude variations in the Earth\textquoterights plasmasphere for different substorm activities. The long-term observations indicate that the plasmaspheric hiss amplitudes on the dayside increase when substorm activity is enhanced (AE index increases), and the dayside hiss amplitudes are greater than the nightside. However, the propagation angles (WNAs) of hiss waves in most regions do not depend strongly on substorm activity, except for the intense substorm-induced increase in WNAs in the nightside low L-region. The propagation angles of plasmaspheric hiss increase with increasing magnetic latitude or decreasing radial distance (L-value). The global hiss WNAs (the power-weighted averages in each grid) and amplitudes (medians) can be well reproduced by our empirical models.

Yu, J.; Li, L; Cao, J.; Chen, L.; Wang, J.; Yang, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023372

hiss amplitude model; hiss wave amplitude; Plasmaspheric Hiss; propagation angle model of hiss waves; substorm dependence; Van Allen Probes; wave normal angle


Survey of the Frequency Dependent Latitudinal Distribution of the Fast Magnetosonic Wave Mode from Van Allen Probes EMFISIS Wave Form Receiver Plasma Wave Analysis

We present a statistical survey of the latitudinal structure of the fast magnetosonic wave mode detected by the Van Allen Probes spanning the time interval of 9/21/2012 to 8/1/2014. We show that statistically the latitudinal occurrence of the wave frequency (f) normalized by the local proton cyclotron frequency (fcP) has a distinct funnel shaped appearance in latitude about the magnetic equator similar to that found in case studies. By comparing the observed E/B ratios with the model E/B ratio, using the observed plasma density and background magnetic field magnitude as input to the model E/B ratio, we show that this mode is consistent with the extraordinary (whistler) mode at wave normal angles (θk) near 90\textdegree. Performing polarization analysis on synthetic waveforms composed from a superposition of extra-ordinary mode plane waves with θk randomly chosen between 87 and 90\textdegree, we show that the uncertainty in the derived wave normal is substantially broadened, with a tail extending down to θk of 60\textdegree, suggesting that another approach is necessary to estimate the true distribution of θk. We find that the histograms of the synthetically derived ellipticities and θk are consistent with the observations of ellipticities and θk derived using polarization analysis. We make estimates of the median equatorial θk by comparing observed and model ray tracing frequency dependent probability occurrence with latitude, and give preliminary frequency dependent estimates of the equatorial θk distribution around noon and 4 RE, with the median of ~4 to 7\textdegree from 90\textdegree at f /fcP = 2 and dropping to ~0.5\textdegree from 90\textdegree at f /fcP = 30. The occurrence of waves in this mode peaks around noon near the equator at all radial distances, and we find that the overall intensity of these waves increases with AE*, similar to findings of other studies.

Boardsen, Scott; Hospodarsky, George; Kletzing, Craig; Engebretson, Mark; Pfaff, Robert; Wygant, John; Kurth, William; Averkamp, Terrance; Bounds, Scott; Green, Jim; De Pascuale, Sebastian;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021844

EMFISIS; Fast Magnetosonic Waves; latitudinal distribution; statistical study; Van Allen Probes; wave normal angle