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Found 4 entries in the Bibliography.

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Observational Evidence for Whistler Waves Guided/Ducted by the Inner and Outer Edges of the Plasmapause

Abstract With Van Allen Probes data, we present the observational support for whistler waves guided by the plasmapause based on a case study and statistical analyses. Due to the combined effects of inhomogeneous magnetic fields and plasma densities, whistler waves near the inner edge of plasmapause (plasmasphere side) will be guided by a HDD-like (HDD, high density duct) density gradient, and tend to have very small wave normal angles (WNAs ≤20°). In contrast, whistler waves around the outer edge of the plasmapause (plasmatrough side) guided by a LDD-like (LDD, low density duct) density gradient, tend to have quite large WNAs (≥∼60°). Moreover, the statistical analysis reveals the remarkably different properties of whistler waves around inner and outer edges of plasmapause. We suggest that the plasmapause density gradients may play a significant role in the distribution of whistler waves.

Chen, Rui; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Tsurutani, Bruce; Wang, Shui;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Plasmapause; whistler wave; ducting effect; inner edge; outer edge; wave normal angle; Van Allen Probes

In situ Observations of Whistler-mode Chorus Waves Guided by Density Ducts

Abstract In this paper, we report the proof of the existence of density ducts in the Earth’s magnetosphere by studying in situ observations of whistler-mode chorus waves using NASA’s Van Allen Probe-A data. Chorus waves, originally excited inside the density ducts with wave normal angles (WNAs) smaller than the Gendrin angle at near equator region, are efficiently confined to a limited area inside density ducts (i.e., ducted regions), and remain with small WNAs as they propagate towards high latitudes. The ducted region becomes narrower for the higher-frequency waves. Chorus waves with WNAs larger than the Gendrin angle are not guided by density ducts. Our study reveals that density ducts can effectively control the property and distribution of chorus waves, and may ultimately regulate electron dynamics in the Earth’s or other planetary radiation belts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Chen, Rui; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Chen, Lunjin; Tsurutani, Bruce; Li, Wen; Ni, Binbin; Wang, Shui;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Radiation belt; Chorus wave; density duct; ducted region; Van Allen Probes


Statistical Evidence for EMIC Wave Excitation Driven by Substorm Injection and Enhanced Solar Wind Pressure in the Earth s Magnetosphere: Two Different EMIC Wave Sources

Substorm injection and solar wind dynamic pressure have long been considered as two main drivers of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave excitation, but clear observational evidence is still lacking. With Van Allen Probes data from 2012–2017, we have investigated the roles of the two EMIC wave drivers separately, by using time-modified AE+ and . Both the occurrence rate and magnetic amplitude of waves significantly increase with the enhancement of each index. During large AE+, EMIC waves are mainly generated in the dusk sector (16 ≤ MLT ≤ 20) and near the magnetic equator (|MLAT| < 10°). This is presumably due to substorm-injected protons drifting from midnight sector to the plasmaspheric bulge. While during large , EMIC waves mainly occur in the noon sector (9 ≤ MLT ≤ 15). But there exist higher-latitude (10° < |MLAT| < 20°) source regions besides equatorial source, possibly due to the minimum B regions. Our results provide strong observational support to existing generation mechanisms of EMIC waves in the Earth s magnetosphere.

Chen, Huayue; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Tsurutani, Bruce; Wang, Shui;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 10/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

EMIC wave; wave excitation; source region; substorm injection; solar wind dynamic pressure; Earth s magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

Lower-Band “Monochromatic” Chorus Riser Subelement/Wave Packet Observations

Three lower-band (f < 0.5 fce) chorus riser elements detected in the dayside generation region were studied in detail using the Van Allen Probe data. Two subelements/wave packets within each riser were examined for their wave “frequency” constancy within seven consecutive wave cycles. The seven wave cycles contained the maximum amplitudes of the subelements/packets. Maximum variance B1 zero crossings were used for the identification of wave cycle start and stop times. It is found that the frequency is constant to within ~3\% (one standard deviation), with no evidence of upward frequency sweeping over the seven cycles. Continuous wavelet power spectra for the duration of the seven cycles confirm this conclusion. The implication is that a chorus riser element is composed of coherent approximately “monochromatic” steps instead of a gradual sweep in frequency over the whole element. There was no upward frequency stepping where the wave amplitude was the largest, contrary to the sideband theory prediction. It is shown that a chorus riser involves instability of cyclotron resonant energetic electrons from ~6 to ~40 keV at L = 5.8, that is, essentially the whole substorm electron energy spectrum. The above findings may have important consequences for possible wave generation mechanisms. Some new ideas for mechanisms are suggested in conclusion.

Tsurutani, Bruce; Chen, Rui; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Pickett, Jolene; Lakhina, Gurbax; Sen, Abhijit; Hajra, Rajkumar; Park, Sang; Falkowski, Barbara;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

chorus coherency; chorus subelement monochromaticity; a modified theory needed; Van Allen Probes