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Found 5 entries in the Bibliography.

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Lower-Band “Monochromatic” Chorus Riser Subelement/Wave Packet Observations

Three lower-band (f < 0.5 fce) chorus riser elements detected in the dayside generation region were studied in detail using the Van Allen Probe data. Two subelements/wave packets within each riser were examined for their wave “frequency” constancy within seven consecutive wave cycles. The seven wave cycles contained the maximum amplitudes of the subelements/packets. Maximum variance B1 zero crossings were used for the identification of wave cycle start and stop times. It is found that the frequency is constant to within ~3\% (one standard deviation), with no evidence of upward frequency sweeping over the seven cycles. Continuous wavelet power spectra for the duration of the seven cycles confirm this conclusion. The implication is that a chorus riser element is composed of coherent approximately “monochromatic” steps instead of a gradual sweep in frequency over the whole element. There was no upward frequency stepping where the wave amplitude was the largest, contrary to the sideband theory prediction. It is shown that a chorus riser involves instability of cyclotron resonant energetic electrons from ~6 to ~40 keV at L = 5.8, that is, essentially the whole substorm electron energy spectrum. The above findings may have important consequences for possible wave generation mechanisms. Some new ideas for mechanisms are suggested in conclusion.

Tsurutani, Bruce; Chen, Rui; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Pickett, Jolene; Lakhina, Gurbax; Sen, Abhijit; Hajra, Rajkumar; Park, Sang; Falkowski, Barbara;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

chorus coherency; chorus subelement monochromaticity; a modified theory needed; Van Allen Probes

Fine Harmonic Structure of Equatorial Noise with a Quasiperiodic Modulation

Abstract Equatorial noise emissions (fast magnetosonic waves) are electromagnetic waves observed routinely in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. They propagate with wave vectors nearly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field; that is, they are limited to frequencies below the lower hybrid frequency. The waves are generated by instabilities of ring-like proton distribution functions, which result in their fine harmonic structure with intensity maxima close to harmonics of the proton cyclotron frequency in the source region. Although most equatorial noise emissions are continuous in time, some events exhibit a clear quasiperiodic time modulation of the wave intensity, with typical modulation periods on the order of minutes. We analyze 72 such events (17 observed by the Cluster spacecraft, 55 observed by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft) for which high-resolution data were available. The analysis of the observed harmonic structure allows us to determine source radial distances of the events. It is found that the calculated source radial distances are generally close to the radial distances where the events were observed. The harmonic numbers where the events are generated range between about 12 and 30. Two events for which the spacecraft passed through the generation region were identified and analyzed. No simultaneous ultra-low-frequency magnetic field pulsations and no periodic plasma number density variations were observed. Although the in situ measured proton distribution functions were shown to be responsible for the wave growth, an insufficient resolution of the particle instruments prevented us from detecting a quasiperiodic modulation possibly present in the particle data.

Němec, F.; Tomori, A.; Santolik, O.; Boardsen, S.; Hospodarsky, G.; Kurth, W.; Pickett, J.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027509

equatorial noise; Fast Magnetosonic Waves; quasiperiodic modulation; Van Allen Probes


Conjugate observations of quasiperiodic emissions by the Cluster, Van Allen Probes, and THEMIS spacecraft

We present results of a detailed analysis of two electromagnetic wave events observed in the inner magnetosphere at frequencies of a few kilohertz, which exhibit a quasiperiodic (QP) time modulation of the wave intensity. The events were observed by the Cluster and Van Allen Probes spacecraft and in one event also by the THEMIS E spacecraft. The spacecraft were significantly separated in magnetic local time, demonstrating a huge azimuthal extent of the events. Geomagnetic conditions at the times of the observations were very quiet, and the events occurred inside the plasmasphere. The modulation period observed by the Van Allen Probes and THEMIS E spacecraft (duskside) was in both events about twice larger than the modulation period observed by the Cluster spacecraft (dawnside). Moreover, individual QP elements occur about 15 s earlier on THEMIS E than on Van Allen Probes, which might be related to a finite propagation speed of a modulating ULF wave.

emec, F.; Hospodarsky, G.; Pickett, J.; ik, O.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022774

QP emissions; quasiperiodic emissions; Van Allen Probes


Equatorial noise emissions with quasiperiodic modulation of wave intensity

Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are electromagnetic wave events at frequencies between the proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency observed in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. They propagate nearly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, and they exhibit a harmonic line structure characteristic of the proton cyclotron frequency in the source region. However, they were generally believed to be continuous in time. We investigate more than 2000 EN events observed by the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations and Wide-Band Data Plasma Wave investigation instruments on board the Cluster spacecraft, and we show that this is not always the case. A clear quasiperiodic (QP) time modulation of the wave intensity is present in more than 5\% of events. We perform a systematic analysis of these EN events with QP modulation of the wave intensity. Such events occur usually in the noon-to-dawn magnetic local time sector. Their occurrence seems to be related to the increased geomagnetic activity, and it is associated with the time intervals of enhanced solar wind flow speeds. The modulation period of these events is on the order of minutes. Compressional ULF magnetic field pulsations with periods about double the modulation periods of EN wave intensity and magnitudes on the order of a few tenths of nanotesla were identified in about 46\% of events. We suggest that these compressional magnetic field pulsations might be responsible for the observed QP modulation of EN wave intensity, in analogy to formerly reported VLF whistler mode QP events.

emec, F.; Santolik, O.; a, Hrb\; Pickett, J.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020816

equatorial noise; magnetosonic waves; quasiperiodic modulation


Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts

The Van Allen radiation belts1 are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth\textquoterights magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity2, 3 and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space4, 5. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer radiation belt was depleted and then re-formed closer to the Earth6, that the long established theory of acceleration by radial diffusion is inadequate; the electrons are accelerated more effectively by electromagnetic waves at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Wave acceleration can increase the electron flux by more than three orders of magnitude over the observed timescale of one to two days, more than sufficient to explain the new radiation belt. Wave acceleration could also be important for Jupiter, Saturn and other astrophysical objects with magnetic fields.

Horne, Richard; Thorne, Richard; Shprits, Yuri; Meredith, Nigel; Glauert, Sarah; Smith, Andy; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Baker, Daniel; Engebretson, Mark; Posch, Jennifer; Spasojevic, Maria; Inan, Umran; Pickett, Jolene; Decreau, Pierrette;

Published by: Nature      Published on: 09/2005

YEAR: 2005     DOI: 10.1038/nature03939

Local Acceleration due to Wave-Particle Interaction