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Found 6 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 6


Lower-Band “Monochromatic” Chorus Riser Subelement/Wave Packet Observations

Three lower-band (f < 0.5 fce) chorus riser elements detected in the dayside generation region were studied in detail using the Van Allen Probe data. Two subelements/wave packets within each riser were examined for their wave “frequency” constancy within seven consecutive wave cycles. The seven wave cycles contained the maximum amplitudes of the subelements/packets. Maximum variance B1 zero crossings were used for the identification of wave cycle start and stop times. It is found that the frequency is constant to within ~3\% (one standard deviation), with no evidence of upward frequency sweeping over the seven cycles. Continuous wavelet power spectra for the duration of the seven cycles confirm this conclusion. The implication is that a chorus riser element is composed of coherent approximately “monochromatic” steps instead of a gradual sweep in frequency over the whole element. There was no upward frequency stepping where the wave amplitude was the largest, contrary to the sideband theory prediction. It is shown that a chorus riser involves instability of cyclotron resonant energetic electrons from ~6 to ~40 keV at L = 5.8, that is, essentially the whole substorm electron energy spectrum. The above findings may have important consequences for possible wave generation mechanisms. Some new ideas for mechanisms are suggested in conclusion.

Tsurutani, Bruce; Chen, Rui; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Pickett, Jolene; Lakhina, Gurbax; Sen, Abhijit; Hajra, Rajkumar; Park, Sang; Falkowski, Barbara;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

chorus coherency; chorus subelement monochromaticity; a modified theory needed; Van Allen Probes


Characteristics of Sudden Commencements Observed by Van Allen Probes in the Inner Magnetosphere

We have statistically studied sudden commencement (SC) by using the data acquired from Van Allen Probes (VAP) in the inner magnetosphere (L = 3.0\textendash6.5) and GOES spacecraft at geosynchronous orbit (L =\~ 6.7) from October 2012 to September 2017. During the time period, we identified 85 SCs in the inner magnetosphere and 90 SCs at geosynchronous orbit. Statistical results of the SC events reveal the following characteristics. (1) There is strong seasonal dependence of the geosynchronous SC amplitude in the radial BV component at all local times. However, BV shows weak seasonal variation on the dayside in the inner magnetosphere. (2) The local time dependence of the SC amplitude in the compressional BH component at geosynchronous orbit is similar to that in the inner magnetosphere. (3) In a nightside region of L = 5.0\textendash6.5, \~19\% of BH events are negative, while \~58\% of BH events are negative at geosynchronous orbit. (4) The amplitude of the SC-associated Ey perturbations varies systematically with local time with a morning-afternoon asymmetry near noon. These observations can be explained by spatial and/or temporal changes in the magnetopause and cross-tail currents, which are caused by changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure, with respect to spacecraft positions.

Fathy, A.; Kim, K.-H.; Park, J.-S.; Jin, H.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.; Ghamry, E.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024770

Sudden commencement; Van Allen Probes

Space Weather Operation at KASI with Van Allen Probes Beacon Signals

The Van Allen Probes (VAPs) are the only modern NASA spacecraft broadcasting real-time data on the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts for space weather operations. Since 2012, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has contributed to the receipt of this data via a 7-m satellite tracking antenna and used these data for space weather operations. An approximately 15-min period is required from measurement to acquisition of Level-1 data. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of VAP data for monitoring space weather conditions at geostationary orbit (GEO) by highlighting the Saint Patrick\textquoterights Day storm of 2015. During that storm, Probe-A observed a significant increase in the relativistic electron flux at 3 RE. Those electrons diffused outward resulting in a large increase of the electron flux > 2 MeV at GEO, which potentially threatened satellite operations. Based on this study, we conclude that the combination of VAP data and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (NOAA-GOES) data can provide improved space environment information to geostationary satellite operators. In addition, the findings obtained indicate that more data-receiving sites would be necessary and data connections improved if this or a similar system were to be used as an operational data service.

Lee, Jongkil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Romeo, Giuseppe; Ukhorskiy, Sasha; Sibeck, David; Kessel, Ramona; Mauk, Barry; Giles, Barbara; Gu, Bon-Jun; Lee, Hyesook; Park, Young-Deuk; Lee, Jaejin;

Published by: Space Weather      Published on: 01/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017SW001726

Electron acceleration; Radiation belt; Relativistic electron; Space weather; Van Allen Probes


Responses of relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt to geomagnetic storms

Geomagnetic storms can either increase or decrease relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt. A statistical survey of 84 isolated storms demonstrates that geomagnetic storms preferentially decrease relativistic electron fluxes at higher energies, while flux enhancements are more common at lower energies. In about 87\% of the storms, 0.3\textendash2.5 MeV electron fluxes show an increase, whereas 2.5\textendash14 MeV electron fluxes increase in only 35\% of the storms. Superposed epoch analyses suggest that such \textquotedblleftenergy-dependent\textquotedblright responses of electrons preferably occur during conditions of high solar wind density which is favorable to generate magnetospheric electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, and these events are associated with relatively weaker chorus activities. We have examined one of the cases where observed EMIC waves can resonate effectively with >2.5 MeV electrons and scatter them into the atmosphere. The correlation study further illustrates that electron flux dropouts during storm main phases do not correlate well with the flux buildup during storm recovery phases. We suggest that a combination of efficient EMIC-induced scattering and weaker chorus-driven acceleration provides a viable candidate for the energy-dependent responses of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons to geomagnetic storms. These results are of great interest to both understanding of the radiation belt dynamics and applications in space weather.

Xiong, Ying; Xie, Lun; Pu, Zuyin; Fu, Suiyan; Chen, Lunjin; Ni, Binbin; Li, Wen; Li, Jinxing; Guo, Ruilong; Parks, G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021440

energy dependence; Geomagnetic storm; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; Solar wind

Simultaneous Pi2 observations by the Van Allen Probes inside and outside the plasmasphere

Plasmaspheric virtual resonance (PVR) model has been proposed as one of source mechanisms for low-latitude Pi2 pulsations. Since PVR-associated Pi2 pulsations are not localized inside the plasmasphere, simultaneous multipoint observations inside and outside the plasmasphere require to test the PVR model. Until now, however, there are few studies using simultaneous multisatellite observations inside and outside the plasmasphere for understanding the radial structure of Pi2 pulsation. In this study, we focus on the Pi2 event observed at low-latitude Bohyun (BOH, L = 1.35) ground station in South Korea in the postmidnight sector (magnetic local time (MLT) = 3.0) for the interval from 1730 to 1900 UT on 12 March 2013. By using electron density derived from the frequency of the upper hybrid waves detected at Van Allen Probe-A (VAP-A) and Van Allen Probe-B (VAP-B), the plasmapause is identified. At the time of the Pi2 event, VAP-A was outside the plasmasphere near midnight (00:55 MLT and L = ~6), while VAP-B was inside the plasmasphere in the postmidnight sector (02:15 MLT and L = ~5). VAP-B observed oscillations in the compressional magnetic field component (Bz) and the dawn-to-dusk electric field component (Ey), having high coherence with the BOH Pi2 pulsation in the H component. The H - Bz and H - Ey cross phases at VAP-B inside the plasmasphere were near -180\textdegree and -90\textdegree, respectively.These phase relationships among Bz, Ey, and H are consistent with a radially standing oscillation of the fundamental mode reported in previous studies. At VAP-A outside the plasmasphere, Bz oscillations were highly correlated with BOH Pi2 pulsations with ~-180\textdegree phase delay, and the H-Ey cross phase is near -90\textdegree. From these two-satellite observations, we suggest that the fundamental PVR mode is directly detected by VAP-A and VAP-B.

Ghamry, E.; Kim, K.-H.; Kwon, H.-J.; Lee, D.-H.; Park, J.-S.; Choi, J.; Hyun, K.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021095

Pi2; plasmasphere; Plasmaspheric virtual resonance; Van Allen Probes

Comprehensive analysis of the flux dropout during 7-8 November 2008 storm using multi-satellites observations and RBE model

We investigate an electron flux dropout during a weak storm on 7\textendash8 November 2008, with Dst minimum value being -37 nT. During this period, two clear dropouts were observed on GOES 11 > 2 MeV electrons. We also find a simultaneous dropout in the subrelativistic electrons recorded by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms probes in the outer radiation belt. Using the Radiation Belt Environment model, we try to reproduce the observed dropout features in both relativistic and subrelativistic electrons. We found that there are local time dependences in the dropout for both observation and simulation in subrelativistic electrons: (1) particle loss begins from nightside and propagates into dayside and (2) resupply starts from near dawn magnetic local time and propagates into the dayside following electron drift direction. That resupply of the particles might be caused by substorm injections due to enhanced convection. We found a significant precipitation in hundreds keV electrons during the dropout. We observe electromagnetic ion cyclotron and chorus waves both on the ground and in space. We find the drift shells are opened near the beginning of the first dropout. The dropout in MeV electrons at GEO might therefore be initiated due to the magnetopause shadowing, and the followed dropout in hundreds keV electrons might be the result of the combination of magnetopause shadowing and precipitation loss into the Earth\textquoterights atmosphere.

Hwang, J.; Choi, E.-J.; Park, J.-S.; Fok, M.-C.; Lee, D.-Y.; Kim, K.-C.; Shin, D.-K.; Usanova, M.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021085

atmospheric precipitation; flux dropout; Geomagnetic storm; magneopause shadowing; Radiation belt; RBE model