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Found 7 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 7


Upper Limit of Electron Fluxes Observed in the Radiation Belts

Radiation belt electrons have a complicated relationship with geomagnetic activity. We select electron measurements from 7 years of DEMETER and 6 years of Van Allen Probes data during geomagnetic storms to conduct statistical analysis focusing on the correlation between electron flux and Dst index. We report, for the first time, an upper limit of electron fluxes observed by both satellites throughout the inner and outer belts across a wide energy range from ?100s keV to multi-MeV. The upper flux limit is determined at different L s and energies, for example, 1.9 × 107/cm2-s-sr-MeV at 470 keV at L = 1.5 and 3.6 × 105/cm2-s-sr-MeV at 3.4 MeV at L = 4 (Van Allen Probes). We present the energy spectra of the electron flux upper limit at different L shells and find the measured upper flux limit to be at least three times higher than the predicted flux from the AE8/AE9 models, although the spectral shape is remarkably similar. We show that the average flux with an applied time lag is better correlated with the Dst index and that the time lag optimizing the correlation coefficient is larger at lower L and at higher energies. These findings present the underlying challenges to model the dynamic variation of relativistic electrons in the inner magnetosphere and are important information for space weather considerations.

Zhang, Kun; Li, Xinlin; Zhao, Hong; Xiang, Zheng; Khoo, Leng; Zhang, Wenxun; Hogan, Benjamin; Temerin, Michael;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on:

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

electron; Radiation belt; statistics; upper limit; Van Allen Probes


Local Generation of High-Frequency Plasmaspheric Hiss Observed by Van Allen Probes

The generation of a high-frequency plasmaspheric hiss (HFPH) wave observed by Van Allen Probes is studied in this letter for the first time. The wave has a moderate power spectral density (\~10-6 nT2/Hz), with a frequency range extended from 2 to 10 kHz. The correlated observations of waves and particles indicate that HFPH is associated with the enhancement of electron flux during the substorm on 6 January 2014. Calculations of the wave linear growth rate driven by the fitted electron phase space density show that the electron distribution after the substorm onset is efficient for the HFPH generation. The energy of the contributing electrons is about 1\textendash2 keV, which is consistent with the observation. These results support that the observed HFPH is likely to be generated locally inside the plasmasphere due to the instability of injected kiloelectron volt electrons.

He, Zhaoguo; Chen, Lunjin; Liu, Xu; Zhu, Hui; Liu, Si; Gao, Zhonglei; Cao, Yong;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 01/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081578

electron; high frequency; local generation; Plasmaspheric Hiss; substorm injection; Van Allen Probes


Simultaneous event-specific estimates of transport, loss, and source rates for relativistic outer radiation belt electrons

The most significant unknown regarding relativistic electrons in Earth\textquoterights outer Van Allen radiation belt is the relative contribution of loss, transport, and acceleration processes within the inner magnetosphere. Detangling each individual process is critical to improve the understanding of radiation belt dynamics, but determining a single component is challenging due to sparse measurements in diverse spatial and temporal regimes. However, there are currently an unprecedented number of spacecraft taking measurements that sample different regions of the inner magnetosphere. With the increasing number of varied observational platforms, system dynamics can begin to be unraveled. In this work, we employ in situ measurements during the 13\textendash14 January 2013 enhancement event to isolate transport, loss, and source dynamics in a one-dimensional radial diffusion model. We then validate the results by comparing them to Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations, indicating that the three terms have been accurately and individually quantified for the event. Finally, a direct comparison is performed between the model containing event-specific terms and various models containing terms parameterized by geomagnetic index. Models using a simple 3/Kp loss time scale show deviation from the event-specific model of nearly 2 orders of magnitude within 72 h of the enhancement event. However, models using alternative loss time scales closely resemble the event-specific model.

Schiller, Q.; Tu, W.; Ali, A.; Li, X.; Godinez, H.; Turner, D.; Morley, S.; Henderson, M.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023093

CubeSat; data assimilation; electron; event specific; Modeling; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes


Prompt acceleration of magnetospheric electrons to ultrarelativistic energies by the 17 March 2015 interplanetary shock

Trapped electrons in Earth\textquoterights outer Van Allen radiation belt are influenced profoundly by solar phenomena such as high-speed solar wind streams, coronal mass ejections (CME), and interplanetary (IP) shocks. In particular, strong IP shocks compress the magnetosphere suddenly and result in rapid energization of electrons within minutes. It is believed that the electric fields induced by the rapid change in the geomagnetic field are responsible for the energization. During the latter part of March 2015, a CME impact led to the most powerful geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -223 nT at 17 March, 23 UT) observed not only during the Van Allen Probe era but also the entire preceding decade. Magnetospheric response in the outer radiation belt eventually resulted in elevated levels of energized electrons. The CME itself was preceded by a strong IP shock whose immediate effects vis-a-vis electron energization were observed by sensors on board the Van Allen Probes. The comprehensive and high-quality data from the Van Allen Probes enable the determination of the location of the electron injection, timescales, and spectral aspects of the energized electrons. The observations clearly show that ultrarelativistic electrons with energies E > 6 MeV were injected deep into the magnetosphere at L ≈ 3 within about 2 min of the shock impact. However, electrons in the energy range of ≈250 keV to ≈900 keV showed no immediate response to the IP shock. Electric and magnetic fields resulting from the shock-driven compression complete the comprehensive set of observations that provide a full description of the near-instantaneous electron energization.

Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Fennell, J.; Jones, A.; Schiller, Q.; Richardson, I.; Li, X.; Turner, D.; Califf, S.; Claudepierre, S.; Wilson, L.; Jaynes, A.; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022596

electron; energizaiton; IP shock; ultrarelativsti; Van Allen Probes

Electron butterfly distribution modulation by magnetosonic waves

The butterfly pitch angle distribution is observed as a dip in an otherwise normal distribution of electrons centered about αeq=90\textdegree. During storm times, the formation of the butterfly distribution on the nightside magnetosphere has been attributed to L shell splitting combined with magnetopause shadowing and strong positive radial flux gradients. It has been shown that this distribution can be caused by combined chorus and magnetosonic wave scattering where the two waves work together but at different local times. Presented in our study is an event on 21 August 2013, using Van Allen Probe measurements, where a butterfly distribution formation is modulated by local magnetosonic coherent magnetosonic waves intensity. Transition from normal to butterfly distributions coincides with rising magnetosonic wave intensity while an opposite transition occurs when wave intensity diminishes. We propose that bounce resonance with waves is the underlying process responsible for such rapid modulation, which is confirmed by our test particle simulation.

Maldonado, Armando; Chen, Lunjin; Claudepierre, Seth; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Spence, Harlan;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068161

butterfly; electron; magnetosonic; Magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interaction


Electron lifetimes from narrowband wave-particle interactions within the plasmasphere

This paper is devoted to the systematic study of electron lifetimes from narrowband wave-particle interactions within the plasmasphere. It relies on a new formulation of the bounce-averaged quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion coefficients parameterized by a single frequency, ω, and wave normal angle, θ. We first show that the diffusion coefficients scale with ω/Ωce, where Ωce is the equatorial electron gyrofrequency, and that maximal pitch angle diffusion occurs along the line α0 = π/2\textendashθ, where α0 is the equatorial pitch angle. Lifetimes are computed for L shell values in the range [1.5, 3.5] and energies, E, in the range [0.1, 6] MeV as a function of frequency and wave normal angle. The maximal pitch angle associated with a given lifetime is also given, revealing the frequencies that are able to scatter nearly equatorial pitch angle particles. The lifetimes are relatively independent of frequency and wave normal angle after taking into consideration the scaling law, with a weak dependence on wave normal angle up to 60\textendash70\textdegree, increasing to infinity as the wave normal angle approaches the resonance cone. We identify regions in the (L, E) plane in which a single wave type (hiss, VLF transmitters, or lightning-generated waves) is dominant relative to the others. We find that VLF waves dominate the lifetime for 0.2\textendash0.4 MeV at L ~ 2 and for 0.5\textendash0.8 MeV at L ~ 1.5, while hiss dominates the lifetime for 2\textendash3 MeV at L = 3\textendash3.5. The influence of lightning-generated waves is always mixed with the other two and cannot be easily differentiated. Limitations of the method for addressing effects due to restricted latitude or pitch angle domains are also discussed. Finally, for each (L, E) we search for the minimum lifetime and find that the optimal frequency that produces this lifetime increases as L diminishes. Restricting the search to very oblique waves, which could be emitted during the Demonstration and Science Experiments satellite mission, we find that the optimal frequency is always close to 0.16Ωce.

Ripoll, J.-F.; Albert, J.; Cunningham, G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020217

DSX; electron; narrowband; plasmasphere; wave-particle interactions

On long decays of electrons in the vicinity of the slot region observed by HEO3

Long decay periods of electron counts, which follow abrupt rises and last from weeks to months, have been observed by the HEO3 spacecraft in the vicinity of the slot region between the years 1998 and 2007. During the most stable decay periods as selected, e-folding timescales are extracted and statistically analyzed from observations as a function of L-shell and electron energy. A challenge is to reproduce the observed timescales from simulations of pitch angle diffusion by three acting waves\textendashthe plasmaspheric hiss, lightning-generated whistlers, and VLF transmitter waves. We perform full numerical simulations to accurately compute electron lifetimes. We choose to use the method and wave parameters proposed by Abel \& Thorne [1998] with the goal to assess whether they can reproduce lifetimes extracted from HEO observations. We show how hiss dominantly affect high energy electrons (E > 2 MeV) for L in [2, 3.5] and VLF transmitter waves control residency times of low energy electrons (<0.4 MeV) around L = 2. These interactions induce characteristic shapes of the lifetime profiles that will be discussed. We show how the wave amplitudes can be adjusted for the particular energy particles that are dominantly affected by one wave type only. Using these amplitudes, mean HEO lifetimes are reproduced within a factor 2 to 5. VLF occurrence rates and hiss amplitude turn out significantly higher than those proposed by Abel \& Thorne [1998]. The wide energy response of the sensors complicates the analysis because it blurs the electron lifetime dependence on energy, increases the overall lifetimes and reduces the differences between the different channel lifetimes. In particular, our simulations suggest the flux measured by an integrated energy sensor aboard HEO has a variable slope, i.e. a variable lifetime, during 10-20 days in our data, due to the faster decay of the low residency time particles while slower decaying particles control the steady decay. It can explain some of the multi-slopes decays observed by HEO. HEO electron long decay timescales are also compared to the timescales previously observed from SAMPEX and CRRES with differences attributed to factors such as instrument characteristic and different satellite orbits.

Ripoll, J.-F.; Chen, Y.; Fennell, J.; Friedel, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020449

electron; HEO; Slot region