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2019 
Efficient acceleration of relativistic electrons at Landau resonance with obliquely propagating whistlermode chorus emissions is confirmed by theory, simulation, and observation. The acceleration is due to the perpendicular component of the wave electric field. We first review theoretical analysis of nonlinear motion of resonant electrons interacting with obliquely propagating whistlermode chorus. We have derived formulae of inhomogeneity factors for Landau and cyclotron resonances to analyze nonlinear wave trapping of energetic electrons by an obliquely propagating chorus element. We performed test particle simulations to confirm that nonlinear wave trapping by both Landau and cyclotron resonances can take place for a wide range of energies. For an element of large amplitude chorus waves observed by the Van Allen Probes, we have performed detailed analyses of the wave form data based on theoretical framework of nonlinear trapping of resonant electrons. We compare the efficiencies of accelerations by cyclotron and Landau resonances. We find significant acceleration can take place both in Landau and cyclotron resonances. What controls the dynamics of relativistic electrons in the Landau resonance is the perpendicular field components rather than the parallel electric field of the oblique chorus wave. In evaluating the efficiency of nonlinear trapping, we have taken into account variation of the wave trapping potential structure controlled by the inhomogeneity factors. Omura, Yoshiharu; Hsieh, YiKai; Foster, John; Erickson, Philip; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2019 YEAR: 2019 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026374 inner magnetosphere; nonlinear process; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interaction; whistlermode chorus 
2018 
In Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere, electromagnetic waves in the ultralow frequency (ULF) range play an important role in accelerating and diffusing charged particles via drift resonance. In conventional driftresonance theory, linearization is applied under the assumption of weak waveparticle energy exchange so particle trajectories are unperturbed. For ULF waves with larger amplitudes and/or durations, however, the conventional theory becomes inaccurate since particle trajectories are strongly perturbed. Here, we extend the driftresonance theory into a nonlinear regime, to formulate nonlinear trapping of particles in a wavecarried potential well, and predict the corresponding observable signatures such as rolledup structures in particle energy spectrum. After considering how this manifests in particle data with finite energy resolution, we compare the predicted signatures with Van Allen Probes observations. Their good agreement provides the first observational evidence for the occurrence of nonlinear drift resonance, highlighting the importance of nonlinear effects in magnetospheric particle dynamics under ULF waves. Li, Li; Zhou, XuZhi; Omura, Yoshiharu; Wang, ZiHan; Zong, QiuGang; Liu, Ying; Hao, YiXin; Fu, SuiYan; Kivelson, Margaret; Rankin, Robert; Claudepierre, Seth; Wygant, John; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 08/2018 YEAR: 2018 DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079038 drift resonance; nonlinear process; Particle acceleration; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; waveparticle interactions 
2015 
Most previous work on nonlinear waveparticle interactions between energetic electrons and VLF waves in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere has assumed parallel propagation, the underlying mechanism being nonlinear trapping of cyclotron resonant electrons in a parabolic magnetic field inhomogeneity. Here nonlinear waveparticle interaction in oblique whistlers in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere is investigated. The study is nonselfconsistent and assumes an arbitrarily chosen wave field. We employ a \textquotedblleftcontinuous wave\textquotedblright wave field with constant frequency and amplitude, and a model for an individual VLF chorus element. We derive the equations of motion and trapping conditions in oblique whistlers. The resonant particle distribution function, resonant current, and nonlinear growth rate are computed as functions of position and time. For all resonances of order n, resonant electrons obey the trapping equation, and provided the wave amplitude is big enough for the prevailing obliquity, nonlinearity manifests itself by a \textquotedbllefthole\textquotedblright or \textquotedbllefthill\textquotedblright in distribution function, depending on the zeroorder distribution function and on position. A key finding is that the n = 1 resonance is relatively unaffected by moderate obliquity up to 25\textdegree, but growth rates roll off rapidly at high obliquity. The n = 1 resonance saturates due to the adiabatic effect and here reaches a maximum growth at ~20 pT, 2000 km from the equator. Damping due to the n = 0 resonance is not subject to adiabatic effects and maximizes at some 8000 km from the equator at an obliquity ~55\textdegree. Nunn, David; Omura, Yoshiharu; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020898 Chorus; nonlinear process; oblique propagation; simulation; Waveparticle interaction; whistler 
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