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Found 6 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 6


Reconstruction of the Radiation Belts for Solar Cycles 17 – 24 (1933 – 2017)

AbstractWe present a reconstruction of the dynamics of the radiation belts from Solar Cycles 17 – 24 which allows us to study how radiation belt activity has varied between the different solar cycles. The radiation belt simulations are produced using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB)-3D code. The VERB-3D code simulations incorporate radial, energy, and pitch angle diffusion to reproduce the radiation belts. Our simulations use the historical measurements of Kp (available since Solar Cycle 17, i.e., 1933) to model the evolution radiation belt dynamics between L* = 1 – 6.6. A nonlinear auto regressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) neural network was trained off GOES 15 measurements (Jan. 2011 – March 2014) and used to supply the upper boundary condition (L* = 6.6) over the course of Solar Cycles 17 – 24 (i.e., 1933 – 2017). Comparison of the model with long term observations of the Van Allen Probes and CRRES demonstrates that our model, driven by the NARX boundary, can reconstruct the general evolution of the radiation belt fluxes. Solar Cycle 24 (Jan 2008 – 2017) has been the least active of the considered solar cycles which resulted in unusually low electron fluxes. Our results show that Solar Cycle 24 should not be used as a representative solar cycle for developing long term environment models. The developed reconstruction of fluxes can be used to develop or improve empirical models of the radiation belts.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Saikin, A.; Shprits, Y; Drozdov, A; Landis, D.; Zhelavskaya, I.; Cervantes, S.;

Published by: Space Weather      Published on: 02/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Radiation belts; numerical modeling; Particle acceleration; Magnetosphere: inner; forecasting; Van Allen Probes


Comparison of Electron Loss Models in the Inner Magnetosphere During the 2013~St. Patrick\textquoterights Day Geomagnetic Storm

Electrons with energies in the keV range play an important role in the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. Therefore, accurately modeling electron fluxes in this region is of great interest. However, these calculations constitute a challenging task since the lifetimes of electrons that are available have limitations. In this study, we simulate electron fluxes in the energy range of 20 eV to 100 keV to assess how well different electron loss models can account for the observed electron fluxes during the Geospace Environment Modelling Challenge Event of the 2013 St. Patrick\textquoterights Day storm. Three models (Case 1, Case 2, and Case 3) of electron lifetimes due to wave-induced pitch angle scattering are used to compute the fluxes, which are compared with measurements from the Van Allen Probes. The three models consider electron losses due to interactions with whistler mode hiss waves inside the plasmasphere and with whistler mode chorus waves outside the plasmasphere. The Case 1 (historical) model produces excessive loss at low L shells before and after the storm, suggesting that it overestimates losses due to hiss during quiet times. During the storm main phase and early recovery all three models show good agreement with the observations, indicating that losses due to chorus during disturbed times are, in general, well accounted for by the models. Furthermore, the more recent Case 2 and Case 3 models show overall better agreement with the observed fluxes.

Ferradas, C.; Jordanova, V.; Reeves, G.; Larsen, B.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026649

electron lifetime; electron loss; numerical modeling; pitch angle scattering; Van Allen Probes; Weimer electric field model


Electron Distributions in Kinetic Scale Field Line Resonances: A Comparison of Simulations and Observations

Observations in kinetic scale field line resonances, or eigenmodes of the geomagnetic field, reveal highly field-aligned plateaued electron distributions. By combining observations from the Van Allen Probes and Cluster spacecraft with a hybrid kinetic gyrofluid simulation we show how these distributions arise from the nonlocal self-consistent interaction of electrons with the wavefield. This interaction is manifested as electron trapping in the standing wave potential. The process operates along most of the field line and qualitatively accounts for electron observations near the equatorial plane and at higher latitudes. In conjunction with the highly field-aligned plateaus, loss cone features are also evident, which result from the action of the upward-directed wave parallel electric field on the untrapped electron populations.

Damiano, P.A.; Chaston, C.C.; Hull, A.J.; Johnson, J.R.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077748

Alfven waves; field line resonances; kinetic effects; numerical modeling; particle trapping; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes


Temporal evolution of ion spectral structures during a geomagnetic storm: Observations and modeling

Using the Van Allen Probes/Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) mass spectrometer, we perform a case study of the temporal evolution of ion spectral structures observed in the energy range of 1-~50 keV throughout the geomagnetic storm of 2 October 2013. The ion spectral features are observed near the inner edge of the plasma sheet and are signatures of fresh transport from the plasma sheet into the inner magnetosphere. We find that the characteristics of the ion structures are determined by the intensity of the convection electric field. Prior to the beginning of the storm, the plasma sheet inner edge exhibits narrow nose spectral structures that vary little in energy across L values. Ion access to the inner magnetosphere during these times is limited to the nose energy bands. As convection is enhanced and large amounts of plasma are injected from the plasma sheet during the main phase of the storm, ion access occurs at a wide energy range, as no nose structures are observed. As the magnetosphere recovers from the storm, single noses and then multiple noses are observed once again. We use a model of ion drift and losses due to charge exchange to simulate the ion spectra and gain insight into the main observed features.

Ferradas, C.; Zhang, J.-C.; Spence, H.; Kistler, L.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024702

Geomagnetic storm; ion injection; ion nose structure; numerical modeling; Van Allen Probes; Weimer electric field model


Drift paths of ions composing multiple-nose spectral structures near the inner edge of the plasma sheet

We present a case study of the H+, He+, and O+ multiple-nose structures observed by the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron instrument on board Van Allen Probe A over one complete orbit on 28 September 2013. Nose structures are observed near the inner edge of the plasma sheet and constitute the signatures of ion drift in the highly dynamic environment of the inner magnetosphere. We find that the multiple noses are intrinsically associated with variations in the solar wind. Backward ion drift path tracings show new details of the drift trajectories of these ions; i.e., multiple noses are formed by ions with a short drift time from the assumed source location to the inner region and whose trajectories (1) encircle the Earth different number of times or (2) encircle the Earth equal number of times but with different drift time, before reaching the observation site.

Ferradas, C.; Zhang, J.-C.; Spence, H.; Kistler, L.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 11/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071359

drift path; ion injection; ion nose structure; numerical modeling; Van Allen Probes; Weimer electric field model

Nonstorm time dropout of radiation belt electron fluxes on 24 September 2013

Radiation belt electron flux dropouts during the main phase of geomagnetic storms have received increasing attention in recent years. Here we focus on a rarely reported nonstorm time dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes on 24 September 2013. Within several hours, the radiation belt electron fluxes exhibited a significant (up to 2 orders of magnitude) depletion over a wide range of radial distances (L > 4.5), energies (\~500 keV to several MeV) and equatorial pitch angles (0\textdegree<=αe<=180\textdegree). STEERB simulations show that the relativistic electron loss in the region L = 4.5\textendash6.0 was primarily caused by the pitch angle scattering of observed plasmaspheric hiss and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. Our results emphasize the complexity of radiation belt dynamics and the importance of wave-driven precipitation loss even during nonstorm times.

Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zhu, Hui; Li, Wen; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Funsten, H.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022546

EMIC; numerical modeling; Plasmaspheric Hiss; precipitation loss; radiation belt dropout; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction