Found 8 entries in the Bibliography.
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Abstract Rapid injection of MeV electrons associated with strong substorm dipolarization has been suggested as a potential explanation for some radiation belt enhancement events. However, it has been difficult to quantify the contribution of MeV electron injections to radiation belt enhancements. This paper presents two isolated MeV electron injection events for which we quite precisely quantify how the entire outer-belt immediately changed with the injections. Tracking detailed outer-belt evolution observed by Van Allen Probes, for both events, we identify large step-like relativistic electron enhancements (roughly 1-order of magnitude increase for ∼2 MeV electron fluxes) for L ≳ 3.8 and L ≳ 4.6, respectively, that occurred on ∼30-min timescales nearly instantaneously with the injections. The enhancements occurred almost simultaneously for 10s keV to multi-MeV electrons, with the lowest-L of enhancement region located farther out for higher energy. The outer-belt stayed at these new levels for ≳ several hours without substantial subsequent enhancements.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 05/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093151
Anisotropic velocity distributions of protons have long been considered as free energy sources for exciting electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. Here we rigorously calculated the proton anisotropy parameter using proton data obtained from Van Allen Probe-A observations. The calculations are performed for times during EMIC wave events (distinguishing the times immediately after and before EMIC wave onsets) and for times exhibiting no EMIC waves. We find that the anisotropy values are often larger immediately after EMIC wave onsets than the times just before EMIC wave onsets and the non-EMIC wave times. The increase in anisotropy immediately after the EMIC wave onsets is rather small but discernible, such that the average increase is by ~15\% relative to the anisotropy values during the non-EMIC wave times and ~8\% compared to those just before the EMIC wave onsets. Based on the calculated anisotropy values, we test the criterion for ion cyclotron instability suggested by Kennel and Petschek (1966, https://doi.org/10.1029/JZ071i001p00001) by applying it to the EMIC wave events. We find that despite the weak increase in anisotropy, the majority of the EMIC wave events satisfy the instability criterion. We suggest that the proton distributions often remain close to the marginal state to ion cyclotron instability, and consequently, the proton anisotropy values should often be observed near threshold values for ion cyclotron instability. Additionally, we demonstrate the usefulness and limitation of the instability criteria expressed in the form of an inverse relation between the anisotropy and plasma beta.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 08/2018
YEAR: 2018   DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025385
We present observations of very fast radiation belt loss as resolved using high-time resolution electron flux data from the constellation of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. The timescale of these losses is revealed to be as short as \~0.5 - 2 hours during intense magnetic storms, with some storms demonstrating almost total loss on these timescales and which we characterize as radiation belt extinction. The intense March 2013 and March 2015 storms both show such fast extinction, with a rapid recovery, while the September 2014 storm shows fast extinction but no recovery for around two weeks. By contrast, the moderate September 2012 storm which generated a three radiation belt morphology shows more gradual loss. We compute the last closed drift shell (LCDS) for each of these four storms and show a very strong correspondence between the LCDS and the loss patterns of trapped electrons in each storm. Most significantly, the location of the LCDS closely mirrors the high time resolution losses observed in GPS flux. The fast losses occur on a timescale shorter than the Van Allen Probes orbital period, are explained by proximity to the LCDS, and progress inward, consistent with outward transport to the LCDS by fast ULF wave radial diffusion. Expressing the location of the LCDS in L*, and not model magnetopause standoff distance in units of RE, clearly reveals magnetopause shadowing as the cause of the fast loss observed by the GPS satellites.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2018
YEAR: 2018   DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025190
In this paper, using the multisatellite (the Van Allen Probes and two GOES satellites) observations in the inner magnetosphere, we examine two electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave events that are triggered by Pdyn enhancements under prolonged northward interplanetary magnetic field quiet time preconditions. For both events, the impact of enhanced Pdyn causes EMIC waves at multiple points. However, we find a strong spatial dependence that EMIC waves due to enhanced Pdyn impact can occur at multiple points (likely globally but not necessarily everywhere) but with different wave properties. For Event 1, three satellites situated at a nearly same dawnside zone but at slightly different L shells see occurrence of EMIC waves but in different frequencies relative to local ion gyrofrequencies and with different polarizations. These waves are found inside or at the outer edge of the plasmasphere. Another satellite near noon observes no dramatic EMIC wave despite the strongest magnetic compression there. For Event 2, the four satellites are situated at widely separated magnetic local time zones when they see occurrence of EMIC waves. They are again found at different frequencies relative to local ion gyrofrequencies with different polarizations and all outside the plasmasphere. We propose two possible explanations that (i) if triggered by enhanced Pdyn impact, details of ion cyclotron instability growth can be sensitive to local plasma conditions related to background proton distributions, and (ii) there can be preexisting waves with a specific spatial distribution, which determines occurrence and specific properties of EMIC waves depending on satellite\textquoterights relative position after an enhanced Pdyn arrives.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 05/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023827
Magnetospheric compression due to impact of enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure Pdyn has long been considered as one of the generation mechanisms of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. With the Van Allen Probe-A observations, we identify three EMIC wave events that are triggered by Pdyn enhancements under prolonged northward IMF quiet time preconditions. They are in contrast to one another in a few aspects. Event 1 occurs in the middle of continuously increasing Pdyn while Van Allen Probe-A is located outside the plasmapause at post-midnight and near the equator (magnetic latitude (MLAT) ~ -3o). Event 2 occurs by a sharp Pdyn pulse impact while Van Allen Probe-A is located inside the plasmapause in the dawn sector and rather away from the equator (MLAT ~ 12o). Event 3 is characterized by amplification of a pre-existing EMIC wave by a sharp Pdyn pulse impact while Van Allen Probe-A is located outside the plasmapause at noon and rather away from the equator (MLAT ~ -15o). These three events represent various situations where EMIC waves can be triggered by Pdyn increases. Several common features are also found among the three events. (i) The strongest wave is found just above the He+ gyrofrequency. (ii) The waves are nearly linearly polarized with a rather oblique propagation direction (~28o to ~39o on average). (iii) The proton fluxes increase in immediate response to the Pdyn impact, most significantly in tens of keV energy, corresponding to the proton resonant energy. (iv) The temperature anisotropy with T⊥ > T|| is seen in the resonant energy for all the events, although its increase by the Pdyn impact is not necessarily always significant. The last two points (iii) and (iv) may imply that, in addition to the temperature anisotropy, the increase of the resonant protons must have played a critical role in triggering the EMIC waves by the enhanced Pdyn impact.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2016
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022841
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are closely related to precipitating loss of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts, and thereby, a model of the radiation belts requires inclusion of the pitch angle diffusion caused by EMIC waves. We estimated the pitch angle diffusion rates and the corresponding precipitation time scales caused by H and He band EMIC waves using the Tsyganenko 04 (T04) magnetic field model at their probable regions in terms of geomagnetic conditions. The results correspond to enhanced pitch angle diffusion rates and reduced precipitation time scales compared to those based on the dipole model, up to several orders of magnitude for storm times. While both the plasma density and the magnetic field strength varied in these calculations, the reduction of the magnetic field strength predicted by the T04 model was found to be the main cause of the enhanced diffusion rates relative to those with the dipole model for the same Li values, where Li is defined from the ionospheric foot points of the field lines. We note that the bounce-averaged diffusion rates were roughly proportional to the inversion of the equatorial magnetic field strength and thus suggest that scaling the diffusion rates with the magnetic field strength provides a good approximation to account for the effect of the realistic field model in the EMIC wave-pitch angle diffusion modeling.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 10/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020644
Plasmaspheric virtual resonance (PVR) model has been proposed as one of source mechanisms for low-latitude Pi2 pulsations. Since PVR-associated Pi2 pulsations are not localized inside the plasmasphere, simultaneous multipoint observations inside and outside the plasmasphere require to test the PVR model. Until now, however, there are few studies using simultaneous multisatellite observations inside and outside the plasmasphere for understanding the radial structure of Pi2 pulsation. In this study, we focus on the Pi2 event observed at low-latitude Bohyun (BOH, L = 1.35) ground station in South Korea in the postmidnight sector (magnetic local time (MLT) = 3.0) for the interval from 1730 to 1900 UT on 12 March 2013. By using electron density derived from the frequency of the upper hybrid waves detected at Van Allen Probe-A (VAP-A) and Van Allen Probe-B (VAP-B), the plasmapause is identified. At the time of the Pi2 event, VAP-A was outside the plasmasphere near midnight (00:55 MLT and L = ~6), while VAP-B was inside the plasmasphere in the postmidnight sector (02:15 MLT and L = ~5). VAP-B observed oscillations in the compressional magnetic field component (Bz) and the dawn-to-dusk electric field component (Ey), having high coherence with the BOH Pi2 pulsation in the H component. The H - Bz and H - Ey cross phases at VAP-B inside the plasmasphere were near -180\textdegree and -90\textdegree, respectively.These phase relationships among Bz, Ey, and H are consistent with a radially standing oscillation of the fundamental mode reported in previous studies. At VAP-A outside the plasmasphere, Bz oscillations were highly correlated with BOH Pi2 pulsations with ~-180\textdegree phase delay, and the H-Ey cross phase is near -90\textdegree. From these two-satellite observations, we suggest that the fundamental PVR mode is directly detected by VAP-A and VAP-B.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 05/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021095
We investigate an electron flux dropout during a weak storm on 7\textendash8 November 2008, with Dst minimum value being -37 nT. During this period, two clear dropouts were observed on GOES 11 > 2 MeV electrons. We also find a simultaneous dropout in the subrelativistic electrons recorded by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms probes in the outer radiation belt. Using the Radiation Belt Environment model, we try to reproduce the observed dropout features in both relativistic and subrelativistic electrons. We found that there are local time dependences in the dropout for both observation and simulation in subrelativistic electrons: (1) particle loss begins from nightside and propagates into dayside and (2) resupply starts from near dawn magnetic local time and propagates into the dayside following electron drift direction. That resupply of the particles might be caused by substorm injections due to enhanced convection. We found a significant precipitation in hundreds keV electrons during the dropout. We observe electromagnetic ion cyclotron and chorus waves both on the ground and in space. We find the drift shells are opened near the beginning of the first dropout. The dropout in MeV electrons at GEO might therefore be initiated due to the magnetopause shadowing, and the followed dropout in hundreds keV electrons might be the result of the combination of magnetopause shadowing and precipitation loss into the Earth\textquoterights atmosphere.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 05/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021085