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Found 4 entries in the Bibliography.

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Storm Time Plasma Pressure Inferred From Multimission Measurements and Its Validation Using Van Allen Probes Particle Data

The k-nearest-neighbor technique is used to mine a multimission magnetometer database for a subset of data points from time intervals that are similar to the storm state of the magnetosphere for a particular moment in time. These subsets of data are then used to fit an empirical magnetic field model. Performing this for each snapshot in time reconstructs the dynamic evolution of the magnetic and electric current density distributions during storms. However, because weaker storms occur more frequently than stronger storms, the reconstructions are biased toward them. We demonstrate that distance weighting the nearest-neighbors mitigates this issue while allowing a sufficient amount of data to be included in the fitting procedure to limit overfitting. Using this technique, we reconstruct the distribution of the magnetic field and electric currents and their evolution for two storms, the intense 17–19 March 2015 “Saint Patrick s Day” storm and a moderate storm occurring on 13–15 July 2013, from which the pressure distributions can be computed assuming isotropy and by integrating the steady-state force-balance equation. As the main phase of a storm progresses in time, the westward ring current density and pressure increases in the inner magnetosphere particularly on the nightside, becoming more symmetric as the recovery phase progresses. We validate the empirical pressure by comparing it to the observed pressures from the Van Allen Probes mission by summing over particle fluxes from all available energy channels and species.

Stephens, G.; Bingham, S.; Sitnov, M.; Gkioulidou, M.; Merkin, V.; Korth, H.; Tsyganenko, N.; Ukhorskiy, A;

Published by: Space Weather      Published on: 10/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

storms; empirical geomagnetic field; ring current; data mining; eastward current; plasma pressure; Van Allen Probes


Global Empirical Picture of Magnetospheric Substorms Inferred From Multimission Magnetometer Data

Magnetospheric substorms represent key explosive processes in the interaction of the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere with the solar wind, and their understanding and modeling are critical for space weather forecasting. During substorms, the magnetic field on the nightside is first stretched in the antisunward direction and then it rapidly contracts earthward bringing hot plasmas from the distant space regions into the inner magnetosphere, where they contribute to geomagnetic storms and Joule dissipation in the polar ionosphere, causing impressive splashes of aurora. Here we show for the first time that mining millions of spaceborne magnetometer data records from multiple missions allows one to reconstruct the global 3-D picture of these stretching and dipolarization processes. Stretching results in the formation of a thin (less than the Earth\textquoterights radius) and strong current sheet, which is diverted into the ionosphere during dipolarization. In the meantime, the dipolarization signal propagates further into the inner magnetosphere resulting in the accumulation of a longer lived current there, giving rise to a protogeomagnetic storm. The global 3-D structure of the corresponding substorm currents including the substorm current wedge is reconstructed from data.

Stephens, G.; Sitnov, M.; Korth, H.; Tsyganenko, N.; Ohtani, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025843

Current sheet thinning; Data-mining; Magnetotail dipolarization; Storm-substorm relationship; substorm current wedge; substorms; Van Allen Probes


On the formation and origin of substorm growth phase/onset auroral arcs inferred from conjugate space-ground observations

Magnetotail processes and structures related to substorm growth phase/onset auroral arcs remain poorly understood mostly due to the lack of adequate observations. In this study we make a comparison between ground-based optical measurements of the premidnight growth phase/onset arcs at subauroral latitudes and magnetically conjugate measurements made by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) at ~780 km in altitude and by the Van Allen Probe B (RBSP-B) spacecraft crossing L values of ~5.0\textendash5.6 in the premidnight inner tail region. The conjugate observations offer a unique opportunity to examine the detailed features of the arc location relative to large-scale Birkeland currents and of the magnetospheric counterpart. Our main findings include (1) at the early stage of the growth phase the quiet auroral arc emerged ~4.3\textdegree equatorward of the boundary between the downward Region 2 (R2) and upward Region 1 (R1) currents; (2) shortly before the auroral breakup (poleward auroral expansion) the latitudinal separation between the arc and the R1/R2 demarcation narrowed to ~1.0\textdegree; (3) RBSP-B observed a magnetic field signature of a local upward field-aligned current (FAC) connecting the arc with the near-Earth tail when the spacecraft footprint was very close to the arc; and (4) the upward FAC signature was located on the tailward side of a local plasma pressure increase confined near L ~5.2\textendash5.4. These findings strongly suggest that the premidnight arc is connected to highly localized pressure gradients embedded in the near-tail R2 source region via the local upward FAC.

Motoba, T.; Ohtani, S.; Anderson, B.; Korth, H.; Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L.; Shiokawa, K.; Connors, M.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v120.1010.1002/2015JA021676

FACs; growth phase/onset arc; M-I coupling; Van Allen Probes


Impact of toroidal ULF waves on the outer radiation belt electrons

Relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt exhibit highly variable complex behavior. Previous studies have established a strong correlation of electron fluxes and the inner magnetospheric ULF waves in the Pc 3\textendash5 frequency range. Resonant interaction of ULF waves with the drift motion of radiation belt electrons violates their third adiabatic invariant and consequently leads to their radial transport. If the wave-particle interaction has a stochastic character, then the electron transport is diffusive. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of toroidal ULF waves on radiation belt electrons. The study is based on direct measurements of ULF electric fields on the CRRES spacecraft. We show that the electric fields of inner magnetospheric toroidal ULF waves exhibit high asymmetry in magnetic local time and have narrow-band frequency spectra. Such narrow-band waves can induce radial diffusion of energetic electrons, if an extrinsic stochasticity is introduced in the system. The quasi-periodic variations in the solar wind dynamic pressure are identified as a possible source of extrinsic stochasticity. In the asymmetric magnetic field, drifting electrons can interact with both azimuthal and radial electric field components. We derive analytically and then calculate numerically the diffusion rates associated with azimuthal and radial electric field components of the waves. It is shown that even under highly disturbed geomagnetic conditions, when the background field asymmetry is large, the diffusion rates due to the radial field component are small. At the same time, the resonant scattering of energetic electrons by the azimuthal electric field of the waves provides an efficient form of radial diffusion and therefore can play an important role in the dynamics of the outer radiation belt.

Ukhorskiy, A; Takahashi, K; Anderson, B.; Korth, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 10/2005

YEAR: 2005     DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011017

Radial Transport