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Found 21 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 1 through 21


2019

Comparison of Van Allen Probes Energetic Electron Data with Corresponding GOES-15 Measurements: 2012-2018

Baker, D.N.; Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S.G.; Jaynes, A.N.; Kress, B.T.; Rodriguez, J.V.; Singer, H.J.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Fennell, J.F.; Hoxie, V.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027331

energetic particles; Magnetosphere:Inner; Magnetospheric configuration; Radiation belts; Space weather; Van Allen Probes

Reply to \textquoterightThe dynamics of Van Allen belts revisited\textquoteright

Mann, I.; Ozeke, L.; Morley, S.; Murphy, K.; Claudepierre, S.; Turner, D.; Baker, D.; Rae, I.; Kale, A.; Milling, D.; Boyd, A.; Spence, H.; Singer, H.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I.; Honary, F.;

Published by: Nature Physics      Published on: 02/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1038/nphys4351

Van Allen Probes

2018

MMS, Van Allen Probes, GOES 13, and Ground Based Magnetometer Observations of EMIC Wave Events Before, During, and After a Modest Interplanetary Shock

The stimulation of EMIC waves by a magnetospheric compression is perhaps the closest thing to a controlled experiment that is currently possible in magnetospheric physics, in that one prominent factor that can increase wave growth acts at a well-defined time. We present a detailed analysis of EMIC waves observed in the outer dayside magnetosphere by the four Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft, Van Allen Probe A, and GOES 13, and by four very high latitude ground magnetometer stations in the western hemisphere before, during, and after a modest interplanetary shock on December 14, 2015. Analysis shows several features consistent with current theory, as well as some unexpected features. During the most intense MMS wave burst, which began ~ 1 min after the end of a brief magnetosheath incursion, independent transverse EMIC waves with orthogonal linear polarizations appeared simultaneously at all four spacecraft. He++ band EMIC waves were observed by MMS inside the magnetosphere, whereas almost all previous studies of He++ band EMIC waves observed them only in the magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layers. Transverse EMIC waves also appeared at Van Allen Probe A and GOES 13 very near the times when the magnetic field compression reached their locations, indicating that the compression lowered the instability threshold to allow for EMIC wave generation throughout the outer dayside magnetosphere. The timing of the EMIC waves at both MMS and Van Allen Probe A was consistent with theoretical expectations for EMIC instabilities based on characteristics of the proton distributions observed by instruments on these spacecraft.

Engebretson, M.; Posch, J.; Capman, N.; Campuzano, N.; elik, P.; Allen, R.; Vines, S.; Anderson, B.; Tian, S.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Fuselier, S.; Argall, M.; Lessard, M.; Torbert, R.; Moldwin, M.; Hartinger, M.; Kim, H.; Russell, C.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Singer, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025984

Van Allen Probes

EMIC wave events during the four GEM QARBM challenge intervals

This paper presents observations of EMIC waves from multiple data sources during the four GEM challenge events in 2013 selected by the GEM \textquotedblleftQuantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling\textquotedblright focus group: March 17-18 (Stormtime Enhancement), May 31-June 2 (Stormtime Dropout), September 19-20 (Non-storm Enhancement), and September 23-25 (Non-storm Dropout). Observations include EMIC wave data from the Van Allen Probes, GOES, and THEMIS spacecraft in the near-equatorial magnetosphere and from several arrays of ground-based search coil magnetometers worldwide, as well as localized ring current proton precipitation data from low-altitude POES spacecraft. Each of these data sets provides only limited spatial coverage, but their combination shows consistent occurrence patterns and reveals some events that would not be identified as significant using near-equatorial spacecraft alone. Relativistic and ultrarelativistic electron flux observations, phase space density data, and pitch angle distributions based on data from the REPT and MagEIS instruments on the Van Allen Probes during these events show two cases during which EMIC waves are likely to have played an important role in causing major flux dropouts of ultrarelativistic electrons, particularly near L* ~ 4.0. In three other cases identifiable smaller and more short-lived dropouts appeared, and in five other cases these waves evidently had little or no effect.

Engebretson, M.; Posch, J.; Braun, D.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Kellerman, A.; Huang, C.-L.; Kanekal, S.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.; Spence, H.; Baker, D.; Fennell, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Singer, H.; Lessard, M.; Horne, R.; Raita, T.; Shiokawa, K.; Rakhmatulin, R.; Dmitriev, E.; Ermakova, E.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025505

Van Allen Probes

Ion Injection Triggered EMIC Waves in the Earth\textquoterights Magnetosphere

We present Van Allen Probe observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves triggered solely due to individual substorm-injected ions in the absence of storms or compressions of the magnetosphere during 9 August 2015. The time at which the injected ions are observed directly corresponds to the onset of EMIC waves at the location of Van Allen Probe A (L = 5.5 and 18:06 magnetic local time). The injection was also seen at geosynchronous orbit by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite and Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft, and the westward(eastward) drift of ions(electrons) was monitored by Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft at different local times. The azimuthal location of the injection was determined by tracing the injection signatures backward in time to their origin assuming a dipolar magnetic field of Earth. The center of this injection location was determined to be close to \~20:00 magnetic local time. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite and ground magnetometer responses confirm substorm onset at approximately the same local time. The observed EMIC wave onsets at Van Allen Probe were also associated with a magnetic field decrease. The arrival of anisotropic ions along with the decrease in the magnetic field favors the growth of the EMIC wave instability based on linear theory analysis.

Remya, B.; Sibeck, D.; Halford, A.; Murphy, K.; Reeves, G.; Singer, H.; Wygant, J.; Perez, Farinas; Thaller, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025354

EMIC waves; Ion injections; magnetic dip; substorm; Van Allen Probes

Spatial Development of the Dipolarization Region in the Inner Magnetosphere

The present study examines dipolarization events observed by the Van Allen Probes within 5.8 RE from Earth. It is found that the probability of occurrence is significantly higher in the dusk-to-midnight sector than in the midnight-to-dawn sector, and it deceases sharply earthward. A comparison with observations made at nearby satellites shows that dipolarization signatures are often highly correlated (c.c. > 0.8) within 1 hr in MLT and 1 RE in RXY, and the dipolarization region expands earthward and westward in the dusk-to-midnight sector. The westward expansion velocity is estimated at 0.4 hr (in MLT) per minute, or 60 km/s, which is consistent with the previously reported result for geosynchronous dipolarization. The earthward expansion is apparently less systematic than the westward expansion. Its velocity is estimated at 50 km/s (0.5 RE/min), comparable to the westward expansion velocity, but it is suggested that the earthward expansion slows down as the dipolarization region approaches Earth, and it eventually stops. This idea is consistent with the earthward reduction of the occurrence probability of dipolarization events. Whereas this earthward expansion is difficult to explain with the conventional wedge current system, it may be understood in terms of a current system with two wedges, one with the R1 polarity outside and the other with the R2 polarity closer to Earth. For such a current system the region of dipolarization is confined in radial distance between the two wedge currents, and it is considered to expand earthward as the R2-sense wedge moves earthward along with injected plasma.

Ohtani, S.; Motoba, T.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Singer, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025443

Dipolarization; injection; inner magnetosphere; R1 and R2 currents; substorm current wedge; substorms; Van Allen Probes

2017

Global observations of magnetospheric high- m poloidal waves during the 22 June 2015 magnetic storm

We report global observations of high-m poloidal waves during the recovery phase of the 22 June 2015 magnetic storm from a constellation of widely spaced satellites of five missions including Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm (THEMIS), Cluster, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). The combined observations demonstrate the global spatial extent of storm time poloidal waves. MMS observations confirm high azimuthal wave numbers (m ~ 100). Mode identification indicates the waves are associated with the second harmonic of field line resonances. The wave frequencies exhibit a decreasing trend as L increases, distinguishing them from the single-frequency global poloidal modes normally observed during quiet times. Detailed examination of the instantaneous frequency reveals discrete spatial structures with step-like frequency changes along L. Each discrete L shell has a steady wave frequency and spans about 1 RE, suggesting that there exist a discrete number of drift-bounce resonance regions across L shells during storm times.

Le, G.; Chi, P.; Strangeway, R.; Russell, C.; Slavin, J.; Takahashi, K.; Singer, H.; Anderson, B.; Bromund, K.; Fischer, D.; Kepko, E.; Magnes, W.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Torbert, R.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073048

field line resonances; high-m poloidal waves; magnetic storm; magnetospheric multiscale mission; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Second harmonic poloidal waves observed by Van Allen Probes in the dusk-midnight sector

This paper presents observations of ultralow-frequency (ULF) waves from Van Allen Probes. The event that generated the ULF waves occurred 2 days after a minor geomagnetic storm during a geomagnetically quiet time. Narrowband pulsations with a frequency of about 7 mHz with moderate amplitudes were registered in the premidnight sector when Probe A was passing through an enhanced density region near geosynchronous orbit. Probe B, which passed through the region earlier, did not detect the narrowband pulsations but only broadband noise. Despite the single-spacecraft measurements, we were able to determine various wave properties. We find that (1) the observed waves are a second harmonic poloidal mode propagating westward with an azimuthal wave number estimated to be \~100; (2) the magnetic field fluctuations have a finite compressional component due to small but finite plasma beta (\~0.1); (3) the energetic proton fluxes in the energy ranging from above 10 keV to about 100 keV exhibit pulsations with the same frequency as the poloidal mode and energy-dependent phase delays relative to the azimuthal component of the electric field, providing evidence for drift-bounce resonance; and (4) the second harmonic poloidal mode may have been excited via the drift-bounce resonance mechanism with free energy fed by the inward radial gradient of \~80 keV protons. We show that the wave active region is where the plume overlaps the outer edge of ring current and suggest that this region can have a wide longitudinal extent near geosynchronous orbit.

Min, Kyungguk; Takahashi, Kazue; Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr; Manweiler, Jerry; Spence, Harlan; Singer, Howard; Claudepierre, Seth; Larsen, Brian; Soto-Chavez, Rualdo; Cohen, Ross;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023770

drift-bounce resonance; high m ULF waves; Second harmonic poloidal mode; Van Allen Probes

Second harmonic poloidal waves observed by Van Allen Probes in the dusk-midnight sector

This paper presents observations of ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves from Van Allen Probes. The event that generated the ULF waves occurred two days after a minor geomagnetic storm during a geomagnetically quiet time. Narrowband pulsations with a frequency of about 7 mHz with moderate amplitudes were registered in the pre-midnight sector when Probe A was passing through an enhanced density region near geosynchronous orbit. Probe B, which passed through the region earlier, did not detect the narrowband pulsations but only broadband noise. Despite the single-spacecraft measurements, we were able to determine various wave properties. We find that (1) the observed waves are a second harmonic poloidal mode propagating westward with an azimuthal wave number estimated to be \~100; (2) the magnetic field fluctuations have a finite compressional component due to small but finite plasma beta (\~0.1); (3) the energetic proton fluxes in the energy ranging from above 10 keV to about 100 keV exhibit pulsations with the same frequency as the poloidal mode and energy-dependent phase delays relative to the azimuthal component of the electric field, providing evidence for drift-bounce resonance; and (4) the second harmonic poloidal mode may have been excited via the drift-bounce resonance mechanism with free energy fed by the inward radial gradient of \~80 keV protons. We show that the wave active region is where the plume overlaps the outer edge of ring current and suggest that this region can have a wide longitudinal extent near geosynchronous orbit.

Min, Kyungguk; Takahashi, Kazue; Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr; Manweiler, Jerry; Spence, Harlan; Singer, Howard; Claudepierre, Seth; Larsen, Brian; Soto-Chavez, Rualdo; Cohen, Ross;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023770

drift-bounce resonance; high m ULF waves; Second harmonic poloidal mode; Van Allen Probes

2016

Propagation of ULF waves from the upstream region to the midnight sector of the inner magnetosphere

Ultralow frequency (ULF) waves generated in the ion foreshock are a well-known source of Pc3-Pc4 waves (7\textendash100 mHz) observed in the dayside magnetosphere. We use data acquired on 10 April 2013 by multiple spacecraft to demonstrate that ULF waves of upstream origin can propagate to the midnight sector of the inner magnetosphere. At 1130\textendash1730 UT on the selected day, the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft and the geostationary ETS-VIII satellite detected compressional 20 to 40 mHz magnetic field oscillations between L \~ 4 and L \~ 7 in the midnight sector, along with other spacecraft located closer to noon. Upstream origin of the oscillations is concluded from the wave frequency that matches a theoretical model, globally coherent amplitude modulation, and duskward propagation that is consistent with expected entry of the upstream wave energy through the dawnside flank under the observed interplanetary magnetic field. The oscillations are attributed to magnetohydrodynamic fast-mode waves based on their propagation velocity of \~300 km/s and the relationship between the electric and magnetic field perturbations. The magnitude of the azimuthal wave number is estimated to be \~30. There is no evidence that the oscillations propagated to the ground in the midnight sector.

Takahashi, Kazue; Hartinger, Michael; Malaspina, David; Smith, Charles; Koga, Kiyokazu; Singer, Howard; ├╝hauff, Dennis; Baishev, Dmitry; Moiseev, Alexey; Yoshikawa, Akimasa;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022958

midnight sector; Pc3 waves; plasmasphere; upstream waves; Van Allen Probes

Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt

Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave\textendashparticle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. However, this has failed to accurately reproduce the third belt. Using a datadriven, time-dependent specification of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves we show for the first time how the third radiation belt is established as a simple, elegant consequence of storm-time extremely fast outward ULF wave transport. High-frequency wave\textendashparticle scattering loss into the atmosphere is not needed in this case. When rapid ULF wave transport coupled to a dynamic boundary is accurately specified, the sensitive dynamics controlling the enigmatic ultra-relativistic third radiation belt are naturally explained.

Mann, I.; Ozeke, L.; Murphy, K.; Claudepierre, S.; Turner, D.; Baker, D.; Rae, I.; Kale, A.; Milling, D.; Boyd, A.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Singer, H.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I.; Honary, F.;

Published by: Nature Physics      Published on: 06/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1038/nphys3799

Astrophysical plasmas; Magnetospheric physics; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, and Cluster Observations of EMIC waves, ULF pulsations, and an electron flux dropout

We examined an electron flux dropout during the 12\textendash14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm using observations from seven spacecraft: the two Van Allen Probes, THEMIS-A (P5), Cluster 2, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 13, 14, and 15. The electron fluxes for energies greater than 2.0 MeV observed by GOES 13, 14, and 15 at geosynchronous orbit and by the Van Allen Probes remained at or near instrumental background levels for more than 24 hours from 12\textendash14 November. For energies of 0.8 MeV, the GOES satellites observed two shorter intervals of reduced electron fluxes. The first interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 12\textendash13 November was associated with an interplanetary shock and a sudden impulse. Cluster, THEMIS, and GOES observed intense He+ EMIC waves from just inside geosynchronous orbit out to the magnetopause across the dayside to the dusk flank. The second interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 13\textendash14 November was associated with a solar sector boundary crossing and development of a geomagnetic storm with Dst < -100 nT. At the start of the recovery phase, both the 0.8 and 2.0 MeV electron fluxes finally returned to near pre-storm values, possibly in response to strong ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes near dawn. A combination of adiabatic effects, losses to the magnetopause, scattering by EMIC waves, and acceleration by ULF waves can explain the observed electron behavior.

Sigsbee, K.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, Robert; Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoff; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Green, J.; Singer, H.; Carr, C.; ik, O.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020877

Dst Effect; Electron Flux Dropouts; EMIC waves; magnetopause shadowing; ULF Pulsations; Van Allen Probes

2015

Magnetohydrodynamic modeling of three Van Allen Probes storms in 2012 and 2013

Coronal mass ejection (CME)-shock compression of the dayside magnetopause has been observed to cause both prompt enhancement of radiation belt electron flux due to inward radial transport of electrons conserving their first adiabatic invariant and prompt losses which at times entirely eliminate the outer zone. Recent numerical studies suggest that enhanced ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave activity is necessary to explain electron losses deeper inside the magnetosphere than magnetopause incursion following CME-shock arrival. A combination of radial transport and magnetopause shadowing can account for losses observed at radial distances into L = 4.5, well within the computed magnetopause location. We compare ULF wave power from the Electric Field and Waves (EFW) electric field instrument on the Van Allen Probes for the 8 October 2013 storm with ULF wave power simulated using the Lyon\textendashFedder\textendashMobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) magnetospheric simulation code coupled to the Rice Convection Model (RCM). Two other storms with strong magnetopause compression, 8\textendash9 October 2012 and 17\textendash18 March 2013, are also examined. We show that the global MHD model captures the azimuthal magnetosonic impulse propagation speed and amplitude observed by the Van Allen Probes which is responsible for prompt acceleration at MeV energies reported for the 8 October 2013 storm. The simulation also captures the ULF wave power in the azimuthal component of the electric field, responsible for acceleration and radial transport of electrons, at frequencies comparable to the electron drift period. This electric field impulse has been shown to explain observations in related studies (Foster et al., 2015) of electron acceleration and drift phase bunching by the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT) instrument on the Van Allen Probes.

Paral, J.; Hudson, M.; Kress, B.; Wiltberger, M.; Wygant, J.; Singer, H.;

Published by: Annales Geophysicae      Published on: 08/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.5194/angeo-33-1037-2015

MHD; Van Allen Probes

Observations of coincident EMIC wave activity and duskside energetic electron precipitation on 18-19 January 2013

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been suggested to be a cause of radiation belt electron loss to the atmosphere. Here simultaneous, magnetically conjugate measurements are presented of EMIC wave activity, measured at geosynchronous orbit and on the ground, and energetic electron precipitation, seen by the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) campaign, on two consecutive days in January 2013. Multiple bursts of precipitation were observed on the duskside of the magnetosphere at the end of 18 January and again late on 19 January, concurrent with particle injections, substorm activity, and enhanced magnetospheric convection. The structure, timing, and spatial extent of the waves are compared to those of the precipitation during both days to determine when and where EMIC waves cause radiation belt electron precipitation. The conjugate measurements presented here provide observational support of the theoretical picture of duskside interaction of EMIC waves and MeV electrons leading to radiation belt loss.

Blum, L.; Halford, A.; Millan, R.; Bonnell, J.; Goldstein, J.; Usanova, M.; Engebretson, M.; Ohnsted, M.; Reeves, G.; Singer, H.; Clilverd, M.; Li, X.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065245

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Source and Seed Populations for Relativistic Electrons: Their Roles in Radiation Belt Changes

Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in August-September 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen Probes particle and fields data to study the process of radiation belt electron acceleration. One particular interval, 13-22 September, initiated by a short-lived geomagnetic storm and characterized by a long period of primarily northward IMF, showed strong depletion of relativistic electrons (including an unprecedented observation of long-lasting depletion at geostationary orbit) while an immediately preceding, and another immediately subsequent, storm showed strong radiation belt enhancement. We demonstrate with these data that two distinct electron populations resulting from magnetospheric substorm activity are crucial elements in the ultimate acceleration of highly relativistic electrons in the outer belt: the source population (tens of keV) that give rise to VLF wave growth; and the seed population (hundreds of keV) that are, in turn, accelerated through VLF wave interactions to much higher energies. ULF waves may also play a role by either inhibiting or enhancing this process through radial diffusion effects. If any components of the inner magnetospheric accelerator happen to be absent, the relativistic radiation belt enhancement fails to materialize.

Jaynes, A.N.; Baker, D.N.; Singer, H.J.; Rodriguez, J.V.; Loto\textquoterightaniu, T.M.; Ali, A.; Elkington, S.R.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S.G.; Fennell, J.F.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.M.; Kletzing, C.A.; Spence, H.E.; Reeves, G.D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021234

Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; substorms; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves

Van Allen probes, NOAA, GOES, and ground observations of an intense EMIC wave event extending over 12 hours in MLT

Although most studies of the effects of EMIC waves on Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt have focused on events in the afternoon sector in the outer plasmasphere or plume region, strong magnetospheric compressions provide an additional stimulus for EMIC wave generation across a large range of local times and L shells. We present here observations of the effects of a wave event on February 23, 2014 that extended over 8 hours in UT and over 12 hours in local time, stimulated by a gradual 4-hour rise and subsequent sharp increases in solar wind pressure. Large-amplitude linearly polarized hydrogen band EMIC waves (up to 25 nT p-p) appeared for over 4 hours at both Van Allen Probes, from late morning through local noon, when these spacecraft were outside the plasmapause, with densities ~5-20 cm-3. Waves were also observed by ground-based induction magnetometers in Antarctica (near dawn), Finland (near local noon), Russia (in the afternoon), and in Canada (from dusk to midnight). Ten passes of NOAA-POES and METOP satellites near the northern footpoint of the Van Allen Probes observed 30-80 keV subauroral proton precipitation, often over extended L shell ranges; other passes identified a narrow L-shell region of precipitation over Canada. Observations of relativistic electrons by the Van Allen Probes showed that the fluxes of more field-aligned and more energetic radiation belt electrons were reduced in response to both the emission over Canada and the more spatially extended emission associated with the compression, confirming the effectiveness of EMIC-induced loss processes for this event.

Engebretson, M.; Posch, J.; Wygant, J.; Kletzing, C.; Lessard, M.; Huang, C.-L.; Spence, H.; Smith, C.; Singer, H.; Omura, Y.; Horne, R.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Gkioulidou, M.; Oksavik, K.; Mann, I.; Raita, T; Shiokawa, K.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021227

EMIC waves; magnetospheric compressions; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Three-dimensional current systems and ionospheric effects associated with small dipolarisation fronts

We present a case study of eight successive plasma sheet (PS) activations (usually referred to as bursty bulk flows or dipolarization fronts ) associated with small individual inline image increases on 31 March 2009 (0200\textendash0900 UT), observed by the THEMIS mission. This series of events happens during very quiet solar wind conditions, over a period of 7 hours preceding a substorm onset at 1230 UT. The amplitude of the dipolarizations increases with time. The low-amplitude dipolarization fronts are associated with few (1 or 2) rapid flux transport events (RFT, Eh > 2mV/m), whereas the large-amplitude ones encompass many more RFT events. All PS activations are associated with small and localized substorm current wedge (SCW) like current system signatures, which seems to be the consequence of RFT arrival in the near tail. The associated ground magnetic perturbations affect a larger part of the contracted auroral oval when, in the magnetotail, more RFT are embedded in PS activations (> 5). Dipolarization fronts with very low amplitude, a type usually not included in statistical studies, are of particular interest because we found even those to be associated with clear small SCW-like current system and particle injections at geosynchronous orbit. This exceptional dataset highlights the role of flow bursts in the magnetotail and leads to the conclusion that we may be observing the smallest form of a substorm, or rather its smallest element. This study also highlights the gradual evolution of the ionospheric current disturbance as the plasma sheet is observed to heat-up.

Palin, L.; Jacquey, C.; Opgenoorth, H.; Connors, M.; Sergeev, V.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Nakamura, R.; Reeves, G.D.; Singer, H.J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Turc, L.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021040

bursty bulk flow; dipolarization front; field-aligned currents; substorm; substorm current wedge; wedgelet

The global context of the 14 November, 2012 storm event

From 2 to 5 UT on 14 November, 2012, the Van Allen Probes observed repeated particle flux dropouts during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm as the satellites traversed the post-midnight to dawnside inner magnetosphere. Each flux dropout corresponded to an abrupt change in the magnetic topology, i.e., from a more dipolar configuration to a configuration with magnetic field lines stretched in the dawn-dusk direction. Geosynchronous GOES spacecraft located in the dusk and near-midnight sectors and the LANL constellation with wide local time coverage also observed repeated flux dropouts and stretched field lines with similar occurrence patterns to those of the Van Allen Probe events. THEMIS recorded multiple transient abrupt expansions of the evening-side magnetopause ~20\textendash30 min prior to the sequential Van Allen Probes observations. Ground-based magnetograms and all sky images demonstrate repeatable features in conjunction with the dropouts. We combine the various in-situ and ground-based measurements to define and understand the global spatiotemporal features associated with the dropouts observed by the Van Allen Probes. We discuss various proposed hypotheses for the mechanism that plausibly caused this storm-time dropout event as well as formulate a new hypothesis that explains the combined in-situ and ground-based observations: the earthward motion of magnetic flux ropes containing lobe plasmas that form along an extended magnetotail reconnection line in the near-Earth plasma sheet.

Hwang, K.-J.; Sibeck, D.; Fok, M.-C.; Zheng, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Lee, J.-J.; Glocer, A.; Partamies, N.; Singer, H.; Reeves, G.; Mitchell, D.; Kletzing, C.; Onsager, T.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020826

Van Allen Probes

2014

Testing a two-loop pattern of the substorm current wedge (SCW2L)

Recent quantitative testing of the classical (region 1 sense) substorm current wedge (SCI) model revealed systematic discrepancies between the observed and predicted amplitudes, which suggested us to include additional region 2 sense currents (R2 loop) earthward of the dipolarized region (SCW2L model). Here we discuss alternative circuit geometries of the 3-D substorm current system and interpret observations of the magnetic field dipolarizations made between 6.6RE and 11RE, to quantitatively investigate the SCW2L model parameters. During two cases of a dipole-like magnetotail configuration, the dipolarization/injection front fortuitously stopped at r ~ 9RE for the entire duration of ~ 30 min long SCW-related dipolarization within a unique, radially distributed multispacecraft constellation, which allowed us to determine the locations and total currents of both SCW2L loops. In addition, we analyzed the dipolarization amplitudes in events, simultaneously observed at 6.6RE, 11RE and at colatitudes under a wide range of magnetograph conditions. We infer that the ratio I2/I1 varies in the range 0.2 to 0.6 (median value 0.4) and that the equatorial part of the R2 current loop stays at r>6.6RE in the case of a dipole-like field geometry (BZ0>75 nT at 6.6RE prior to the onset), but it is located at r<6.6RE in the case of a stretched magnetic field configuration (with BZ0<60 nT). Since the ground midlatitude perturbations are sensitive to the combined effect of the R1 and R2 sense current loops with the net current roughly equal to I1-I2, the ratio I2/I1 becomes an important issue when attempting to monitor the current disruption intensity from ground observations.

Sergeev, V.; Nikolaev, A.; Tsyganenko, N.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Singer, H.; Yang, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019629

injections; magnetotail; substorm current wedge; substorms

2009

On the loss of relativistic electrons at geosynchronous altitude: Its dependence on magnetic configurations and external conditions

[1] The present study statistically examines geosynchronous magnetic configurations and external conditions that characterize the loss of geosynchronous MeV electrons. The loss of MeV electrons often takes place during magnetospheric storms, but it also takes place without any clear storm activity. It is found that irrespective of storm activity, the day-night asymmetry of the geosynchronous H (north-south) magnetic component is pronounced during electron loss events. For the loss process, the magnitude, rather than the duration, of the magnetic distortion appears to be important, and its effective duration can be as short as \~30 min. The solar wind dynamic pressure tends to be high and interplanetary magnetic field BZ tends to be southward during electron loss events. Under such external conditions the dayside magnetopause moves closer to Earth, and the day-night magnetic asymmetry is enhanced. As a consequence the area of closed drift orbits shrinks. The magnetic field at the subsolar magnetopause, which is estimated from force balance with the solar wind dynamic pressure, is usually stronger than the nightside geosynchronous magnetic field during electron loss events. It is therefore suggested that geosynchronous MeV electrons on the night side are very often on open drift paths when geosynchronous MeV electrons are lost. Whereas the present result does not preclude the widely accepted idea that MeV electrons are lost to the atmosphere by wave-particle interaction, it suggests that magnetopause shadowing is another plausible loss process of geosynchronous MeV electrons.

Ohtani, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Singer, H.; Weygand, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 01/2009

YEAR: 2009     DOI: 10.1029/2008JA013391

Magnetopause Losses

1994

Large amplitude electric and magnetic field signatures in the inner magnetosphere during injection of 15 MeV electron drift echoes

Electric and magnetic fields were measured by the CRRES spacecraft at an L-value of 2.2 to 2.6 near 0300 magnetic local time during a strong storm sudden commencement (SSC) on March 24, 1991. The electric field signature at the spacecraft at the time of the SSC was characterized by a large amplitude oscillation (80 mV/m peak to peak) with a period corresponding to the 150 second drift echo period of the simultaneously observed 15 MeV electrons. Considerations of previous statistical studies of the magnitude of SSC electric and magnetic fields versus local time and analysis of the energization and cross-L transport of the particles imply the existence of 200 to 300 mV/m electric fields over much of the dayside magnetosphere. These observations also suggest that the 15 MeV drift echo electrons were selectively energized because their gradient drift velocity allowed them to reside in the region of strong electric fields for the duration of the accelerating phase of the electric field.

Wygant, J.; Mozer, F.; Temerin, M.; Blake, J.; Maynard, N.; Singer, H.; Smiddy, M.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/1994

YEAR: 1994     DOI: 10.1029/94GL00375

Shock-Induced Transport. Slot Refilling and Formation of New Belts.



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