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Found 8 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 8


Suprathermal Electron Evolution Under the Competition Between Plasmaspheric Plume Hiss Wave Heating and Collisional Cooling

Suprathermal electrons are a major heat source of ionospheric plasma. How the suprathermal electrons evolve during their bounces inside the plasmasphere is a fundamental question for the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. On the basis of Van Allen Probes observations and quasi-linear simulations, we present here the first quantitative study on the evolution of suprathermal electrons under the competition between Landau heating by whistler mode hiss waves and Coulomb collisional cooling by background plasma inside a plasmaspheric plume. We show that the Landau heating can prevail over the collisional cooling for >50 eV electrons and cause the field-aligned suprathermal electron fluxes to increase by up to 1 order of magnitude within 1.5 hr. Our results imply that the plasmaspheric plume hiss waves could mediate energy from the ring current electrons to the ionospheric plasma.

Wang, Zhongshan; Su, Zhenpeng; Liu, Nigang; Dai, Guyue; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling; whistler mode hiss waves; Landau resonance; Coulomb collisions; suprathermal electrons; ring current; Van Allen Probes


Effect of Low-Harmonic Magnetosonic Waves on the Radiation Belt Electrons Inside the Plasmasphere

In this paper, we presented two observational cases and simulations to indicate the relationship between the formation of butterfly-like electron pitch angle distributions and the emission of low-harmonic (LH) fast magnetosonic (MS) waves inside the high-density plasmasphere. In the wave emission region, the pitch angle of relativistic (>1 MeV) electrons becomes obvious butterfly-like distributions for both events (near-equatorially mirroring electrons are transported to lower pitch angles). Unlike relativistic (>1 MeV) electrons, energetic electrons (<1 MeV) change slightly, except that relatively low-energy electrons (<~150 keV) show butterfly-like distributions in the 21 August 2013 event. In theory, the LH MS waves can affect different-energy electrons through the bounce resonance, Landau resonance, and transit time scattering. By performing the Fokker-Planck diffusion simulations, we demonstrate that the bounce resonance with the LH MS waves mainly leads to the butterfly pitch angle distribution of MeV electrons, whereas the Landau resonance and transit time scattering mainly affect energetic electrons in the high-density region.

Yu, J.; Li, L; Cui, J.; Cao, J.; Wang, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026328

bounce resonance; Electron acceleration; Landau resonance; magnetosonic waves; transit-time scattering; Van Allen Probes


Chorus Wave Modulation of Langmuir Waves in the Radiation Belts

Using high-resolution waveforms measured by the Van Allen Probes, we report a novel observation in the radiation belts. Namely, we show that multiband, discrete, rising-tone whistler mode chorus emissions exhibit a one-to-one correlation with Langmuir wave bursts. Moreover, the periodic Langmuir wave bursts are generally observed at the phase location where the chorus wave E|| component is oriented opposite to its propagation direction. The electron measurements show a beam in phase space density at the particle velocity that matches the parallel phase velocity of the chorus waves. Based on this evidence, we conclude that the chorus waves accelerate the suprathermal electrons via Landau resonance and generate a localized electron beam in phase space density. Consequently, the Langmuir waves are excited locally and are modulated by the chorus wave phase. This microscale interaction between chorus waves and high-frequency electrostatic waves provides a new insight into the nonlinear wave-particle interaction process.

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; An, Xin; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard; Zhou, Meng; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Funsten, Herbert; Spence, Harlan;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 12/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075877

Chorus wave; Landau resonance; Langmuir wave; nonlinear interaction; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; wave modulation

A positive correlation between energetic electron butterfly distributions and magnetosonic waves in the radiation belt slot region

Energetic (hundreds of keV) electrons in the radiation belt slot region have been found to exhibit the butterfly pitch angle distributions. Resonant interactions with magnetosonic and whistler-mode waves are two potential mechanisms for the formation of these peculiar distributions. Here we perform a statistical study of energetic electron pitch angle distribution characteristics measured by Van Allen Probes in the slot region during a three-year period from May 2013 to May 2016. Our results show that electron butterfly distributions are closely related to magnetosonic waves rather than to whistler-mode waves. Both electron butterfly distributions and magnetosonic waves occur more frequently at the geomagnetically active times than at the quiet times. In a statistical sense, more distinct butterfly distributions usually correspond to magnetosonic waves with larger amplitudes and vice versa. The averaged magnetosonic wave amplitude is less than 5 pT in the case of normal and flat-top distributions with a butterfly index BI = 1 but reaches \~ 35\textendash95 pT in the case of distinct butterfly distributions with BI > 1.3. For magnetosonic waves with amplitudes >50 pT, the occurrence rate of butterfly distribution is above 80\%. Our study suggests that energetic electron butterfly distributions in the slot region are primarily caused by magnetosonic waves.

Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Funsten, H.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073116

butterfly distributions; Electron acceleration; Landau resonance; magnetosonic wave; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction


Formation of Energetic Electron Butterfly Distributions by Magnetosonic Waves via Landau Resonance

Radiation belt electrons can exhibit different types of pitch angle distributions in response to various magnetospheric processes. Butterfly distributions, characterized by flux minima at pitch angles around 90\textdegree, are broadly observed in both the outer and inner belts and the slot region. Butterfly distributions close to the outer magnetospheric boundary have been attributed to drift shell splitting and losses to the magnetopause. However, their occurrence in the inner belt and the slot region has hitherto not been resolved. By analyzing the particle and wave data collected by the Van Allen Probes during a geomagnetic storm, we combine test particle calculations and Fokker-Planck simulations to reveal that scattering by equatorial magnetosonic waves is a significant cause for the formation of energetic electron butterfly distributions in the inner magnetosphere. Another event shows that a large-amplitude magnetosonic wave in the outer belt can create electron butterfly distributions in just a few minutes.

Li, Jinxing; Ni, Binbin; Ma, Qianli; Xie, Lun; Pu, Zuyin; Fu, Suiyan; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Chen, Lunjin; Li, Wen; Baker, Daniel; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Fennell, Joseph; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Funsten, Herbert; Summers, Danny;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL067853

butterfly distributions; energetic electrons; Landau resonance; magnetosonic waves; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions created by parallel acceleration due to magnetosonic waves

The Van Allen Probe observations during the recovery phase of a large storm that occurred on 17 March 2015 showed that the ultrarelativistic electrons at the inner boundary of the outer radiation belt (L* = 2.6\textendash3.7) exhibited butterfly pitch angle distributions, while the inner belt and the slot region also showed evidence of sub-MeV electron butterfly distributions. Strong magnetosonic waves were observed in the same regions and at the same time periods as these butterfly distributions. Moreover, when these magnetosonic waves extended to higher altitudes (L* = 4.1), the butterfly distributions also extended to the same region. Combining test particle calculations and Fokker-Planck diffusion simulations, we successfully reproduced the formation of the ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions, which primarily result from parallel acceleration caused by Landau resonance with magnetosonic waves. The coexistence of ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions with magnetosonic waves was also observed in the 24 June 2015 storm, providing further support that the magnetosonic waves play a key role in forming butterfly distributions.

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli; Baker, Daniel; Reeves, Geoffrey; Fennell, Joseph; Spence, Harlan; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Blake, Bernard.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022370

butterfly distributions; Landau resonance; magnetosonic waves; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes


Nonlinear local parallel acceleration of electrons through Landau trapping by oblique whistler mode waves in the outer radiation belt

Simultaneous observations of electron velocity distributions and chorus waves by the Van Allen Probe B are analyzed to identify long-lasting (more than 6 h) signatures of electron Landau resonant interactions with oblique chorus waves in the outer radiation belt. Such Landau resonant interactions result in the trapping of \~1\textendash10 keV electrons and their acceleration up to 100\textendash300 keV. This kind of process becomes important for oblique whistler mode waves having a significant electric field component along the background magnetic field. In the inhomogeneous geomagnetic field, such resonant interactions then lead to the formation of a plateau in the parallel (with respect to the geomagnetic field) velocity distribution due to trapping of electrons into the wave effective potential. We demonstrate that the electron energy corresponding to the observed plateau remains in very good agreement with the energy required for Landau resonant interaction with the simultaneously measured oblique chorus waves over 6 h and a wide range of L shells (from 4 to 6) in the outer belt. The efficient parallel acceleration modifies electron pitch angle distributions at energies \~50\textendash200 keV, allowing us to distinguish the energized population. The observed energy range and the density of accelerated electrons are in reasonable agreement with test particle numerical simulations.

Agapitov, O.; Artemyev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Mozer, F.; Krasnoselskikh, V.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 12/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066887

Landau resonance; nonlinear acceleration of electrons; oblique whistlers; Radiation belts; seed population; Van Allen Probes

Very Oblique Whistler Generation By Low Energy Electron Streams

Whistler-mode chorus waves are present throughout the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt as well as at larger distances from our planet. While the generation mechanisms of parallel lower-band chorus waves and oblique upper-band chorus waves have been identified and checked in various instances, the statistically significant presence in recent satellite observations of very oblique lower-band chorus waves near the resonance cone angle remains to be explained. Here we discuss two possible generation mechanisms for such waves. The first one is based on Landau resonance with sporadic very low energy (<4 keV) electron beams either injected from the plasmasheet or produced in situ. The second one relies on cyclotron resonance with low energy electron streams, such that their velocity distribution possesses both a significant temperature anisotropy above 3-4 keV and a plateau or heavy tail in parallel velocities at lower energies encompassing simultaneous Landau resonance with the same waves. The corresponding frequency and wave normal angle distributions of the generated very oblique lower-band chorus waves, as well as their frequency sweep rate, are evaluated analytically and compared with satellite observations, showing a reasonable agreement.

Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Agapitov, O.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Mozer, F.S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021135

Chorus wave; Cyclotron resonance; Landau resonance; oblique whistler; wave generation