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2021 
Abstract Based on Van Allen Probes observations, in this study we perform a statistical analysis of the spectral intensities of plasmaspheric hiss at Lshells of 1.8 – 3.0 in the slot region. Our results show that slot region hiss power intensifies with a strong daynight asymmetry as the level of substorm activity or Lshell increases. Using the statistical spectral profiles of plasmaspheric hiss, we calculate the drift and bounceaveraged electron pitch angle diffusion coefficients and subsequently obtain the resultant electron loss timescales through 1D FokkerPlanck simulations. We find that slot region electron loss timescales vary significantly from <1 day to several years, showing a strong dependence on electron energy, Lshell and substorm activity. We also construct an empirical model of slot region electron loss timescales due to scattering by plasmaspheric hiss, which agrees well with the 1D simulation results and can be readily used in modeling the dynamics of slot region electrons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Zhu, Qi; Cao, Xing; Gu, Xudong; Ni, Binbin; Xiang, Zheng; Fu, Song; Summers, Danny; Hua, Man; Lou, Yuequn; Ma, Xin; Guo, YingJie; Guo, DeYu; Zhang, Wenxun; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2021 YEAR: 2021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA029057 Plasmaspheric Hiss; Slot region; Electron loss timescales; Van Allen Probes 
2019 
Whistler mode hiss acts as an important loss mechanism contributing to the radiation belt electron dynamics inside the plasmasphere and plasmaspheric plumes. Based on Van Allen Probes observations from September 2012 to December 2015, we conduct a detailed analysis of hiss properties in plasmaspheric plumes and illustrate that corresponding to the highest occurrence probability of plumes at L = 5.0\textendash6.0 and MLT = 18\textendash21, hiss emissions occur concurrently with a rate of >~80\%. Plume hiss can efficiently scatter ~10 to 100keV electrons at rates up to ~104 s1 near the loss cone, and the resultant electron loss timescales vary largely with energy, that is, from less than an hour for tens of kiloelectron volt electrons to several days for hundreds of kiloelectron volt electrons and to >100 days for >5MeV electrons. These newly obtained statistical properties of plume hiss and associated electron scattering effects are useful to future modeling efforts of radiation belt electron dynamics. Zhang, Wenxun; Ni, Binbin; Huang, He; Summers, Danny; Fu, Song; Xiang, Zheng; Gu, Xudong; Cao, Xing; Lou, Yuequn; Hua, Man; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 05/2019 YEAR: 2019 DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081863 Electron scattering; plasmaspheric plumes; plume hiss; Van Allen Probes 
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves have long been recognized to play a crucial role in the dynamic loss of ring current protons. While the fieldaligned propagation approximation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves was widely used to quantify the scattering loss of ring current protons, in this study, we find that the wave normal distribution strongly affects the pitch angle scattering efficiency of protons. Increase of peak normal angle or angular width can considerably reduce the scattering rates of <=10 keV protons. For >10 keV protons, the fieldaligned propagation approximation results in a pronounced underestimate of the scattering of intermediate equatorial pitch angle protons and overestimates the scattering of high equatorial pitch angle protons by orders of magnitude. Our results suggest that the wave normal distribution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves plays an important role in the pitch angle evolution and scattering loss of ring current protons and should be incorporated in future global modeling of ring current dynamics. Cao, Xing; Ni, Binbin; Summers, Danny; Shprits, Yuri; Gu, Xudong; Fu, Song; Lou, Yuequn; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Xin; Zhang, Wenxun; Huang, He; Yi, Juan; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 01/2019 YEAR: 2019 DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081550 EMIC waves; Quasilinear diffusion; Ring current protons; Van Allen Probes; waveparticle interactions 
2018 
Electromagnetic whistlermode chorus and electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves can contribute significantly to auroral electron precipitation and radiation belt electron acceleration. In the past, linear and nonlinear waveparticle interactions have been proposed to explain the occurrences of these magnetospheric waves. By analyzing Van Allen Probes data, we present here the first evidence for nonlinear coupling between chorus and ECH waves. The sumfrequency and differencefrequency interactions produced the ECH sidebands with discrete frequency sweeping structures exactly corresponding to the chorus rising tones. The newlygenerated weak sidebands did not satisfy the original electrostatic wave dispersion relation. After the generation of chorus and normal ECH waves by hot electron instabilities, the nonlinear wavewave interactions could additionally redistribute energy among the resonant waves, potentially affecting to some extent the magnetospheric electron dynamics. Gao, Zhonglei; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Summers, Danny; Liu, Nigang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wei, Fengsi; Wang, Shui; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 11/2018 YEAR: 2018 DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080635 aurora; Chorus wave; electron cyclotron harmonic wave; nonlinear wavewave interaction; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes 
Fine structure of whistlermode hiss in plasmaspheric plumes observed by the Van Allen Probes We survey 3 years (20132015) of data from the Van Allen Probes related to plasmaspheric plume crossing events. We detect 194 plume crossing events, and we find that 97\% of the plumes are accompanied by VLF hiss emissions. The plumes are mainly detected on the duskside or dayside. Careful examination of the hiss spectra reveals that all hiss emissions consist of obvious fine structure. Application of a band pass filter reveals that the fine structure is consistent with the occurrence of discrete wave packets. The hiss data display high coherency. The events are classified by location. Dusk side hiss and night side hiss tend to have extremely high polarization with no chorus at the highfrequency end of the dynamic spectrum. The dusk side hiss has a distinct upper frequency limit. On the other hand, the dawn side hiss has strong chorus elements at the upper hiss frequency which makes the upper frequency limit ambiguous. We show that the structure of whistlermode hiss is different from artificial random noise. Although noise also has fine spectral characteristics, the polarization and waveform data are totally different from the hiss cases. Our results strongly suggest that whistlemode hiss in plasmaspheric plumes universally possesses fine structure. Nakamura, S.; Omura, Y.; Summers, D.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 10/2018 YEAR: 2018 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025803 fine structure; hiss; nonlinear; plasmaspheric plume; Van Allen Probes 
Electron Scattering by Plasmaspheric Hiss in a Nightside Plume Plasmaspheric hiss is known to play an important role in radiation belt electron dynamics in high plasma density regions. We present observations of two crossings of a plasmaspheric plume by the Van Allen Probes on 26 December 2012, which occurred unusually at the postmidnighttodawn sector between L ~ 4\textendash6 during a geomagnetically quiet period. This plume exhibited pronounced electron densities higher than those of the average plume level. Moderate hiss emissions accompanied the two plume crossings with the peak power at about 100 Hz. Quantification of quasilinear bounceaveraged electron scattering rates by hiss in the plume demonstrates that the waves are efficient to pitch angle scatter ~10\textendash100 keV electrons at rates up to ~104 s1 near the loss cone but become gradually insignificant to scatter the higher energy electron population. The resultant timescales of electron loss due to hiss in the nightside plume vary largely with electron kinetic energy over 3 orders of magnitude, that is, from several hours for tens of keV electrons to a few days for hundreds of keV electrons to well above 100 days for >1 MeV electrons. Changing slightly with Lshell and the multiquartile profile of hiss spectral intensity, these electron loss timescales suggest that hiss emissions in the nightside plume act as a viable candidate for the fast loss of the ≲100 keV electrons and the slow decay of higher energy electrons. Zhang, Wenxun; Fu, Song; Gu, Xudong; Ni, Binbin; Xiang, Zheng; Summers, Danny; Zou, Zhengyang; Cao, Xing; Lou, Yuequn; Hua, Man; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 05/2018 YEAR: 2018 DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077212 Electron scattering; nightside plumes; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes 
2017 
Energetic proton spectra measured by the Van Allen Probes We test the hypothesis that pitchangle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can limit ring current proton fluxes. For two chosen magnetic storms, during March 1720, 2013 and March 1720, 2015, we measure proton energy spectra in the region 3 <= L <= 6 using the RBSPICE B instrument on the Van Allen Probes. The most intense proton spectra are observed to occur during the recovery periods of the respective storms. Using proton precipitation data from the POES (NOAA and MetOp) spacecraft, we deduce that EMIC wave action was prevalent at the times and Lshell locations of the most intense proton spectra. We calculate limiting ring current proton energy spectra from recently developed theory. Comparisons between the observed proton energy spectra and the theoretical limiting spectra show reasonable agreement. We conclude that the measurements of the most intense proton spectra are consistent with selflimiting by EMIC wave scattering. Summers, Danny; Shi, Run; Engebretson, Mark; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Manweiler, Jerry; Mitchell, Donald; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2017 YEAR: 2017 DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024484 EMICwave proton scattering; proton ring current; Van Allen Probes 
Bounceresonant interactions with magnetospheric waves have been proposed as important contributing mechanisms for scattering nearequatorially mirroring electrons by violating the second adiabatic invariant associated with the electron bounce motion along a geomagnetic field line. This study demonstrates that lowfrequency plasmaspheric hiss with significant wave power below 100 Hz can bounceresonate efficiently with radiation belt electrons. By performing quantitative calculations of pitchangle scattering rates, we show that lowfrequency hiss induced bounceresonant scattering of electrons has a strong dependence on equatorial pitchangle αeq. For electrons with αeq close to 90\textdegree, the timescale associated with bounce resonance scattering can be comparable to or even less than 1 hour. Cyclotron and Landauresonant interactions between lowfrequency hiss and electrons are also investigated for comparisons. It is found that while the bounce and Landau resonances are responsible for the diffusive transport of nearequatorially mirroring electrons to lower αeq, pitchangle scattering by cyclotron resonance could take over to further diffuse electrons into the atmosphere. Bounce resonance provides a more efficient pitchangle scattering mechanism of relativistic (>= 1 MeV) electrons than Landau resonance due to the stronger scattering rates and broader resonance coverage of αeq, thereby demonstrating that bounce resonance scattering by lowfrequency hiss can contribute importantly to the evolution of the electron pitchangle distribution and the loss of radiation belt electrons. Cao, Xing; Ni, Binbin; Summers, Danny; Zou, Zhengyang; Fu, Song; Zhang, Wenxun; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 09/2017 YEAR: 2017 DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075104 bounce resonance; Lowfrequency hiss; Radiation Belt Dynamics; Van Allen Probes; waveparticle interactions 
2016 
Observational evidence of the nonlinear wave growth theory of plasmaspheric hiss We test the recently developed nonlinear wave growth theory of plasmaspheric hiss against discrete rising tone elements of hiss emissions observed by the Van Allen Probes. From the phase variation of the waveforms processed by bandpass filters, we calculate the instantaneous frequencies and wave amplitudes. We obtain the theoretical relation between the wave amplitude and frequency sweep rates at the observation point by applying the convective growth rates and dispersion factors to the known relation at the equator. By plotting the theoretical relation over scatterplots of the wave amplitudes and the frequency sweep rates for rising tone elements, we find good agreement between the hiss observations and the nonlinear theory. We also find that the duration periods of the hiss elements are in good agreement with the nonlinear transition time necessary for the formation of a resonant current through coherent nonlinear waveparticle interactions. Nakamura, Satoko; Omura, Yoshiharu; Summers, Danny; Kletzing, Craig; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 09/2016 YEAR: 2016 DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070333 magnetospheric dynamics; nonlinear wave growth theory; plasma wave; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes; whistlermode chorus 
A statistical study of ring currentenergy proton pitch angle distributions (PADs) in Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere is reported here. The data are from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) on board the Van Allen Probe B spacecraft from January 1, 2013 to April 15, 2015. By fitting the data to the functional form sinnα, where α is the proton pitch angle, we examine proton PADs at the energies 50, 100, 180, 328 and 488 keV in the Lshell range from L = 2.5 to L = 6. Three PAD types are classified: trapped (90\textdegree peaked), butterfly and isotropic. The proton PAD dependence on the particle energy, MLT, Lshell, and geomagnetic activity are analyzed in detail. The results show a strong dependence of the proton PADs on MLT. On the nightside, the n values outside the plasmapause are clearly lower than those inside the plasmapause. At higher energies and during intense magnetic activity, nightside butterfly PADs can be observed at Lshells down to the vicinity of the plasmapause. The averaged n values on the dayside are larger than on the nightside. A maximum of the averagedn values occurs around L = 4.5 in the postnoon sector (12  16MLT). The averaged n values show a dawndusk asymmetry with lower values on the dawnside at high Lshells, which is consistent with previous studies of butterfly PADs. The MLT dependence of the proton PADs becomes more distinct with increasing particle energy. These features suggest that driftshell splitting coupled with a radial flux gradient play an important role in the formation of PADs, particularly at L > ~ 4.5 Shi, Run; Summers, Danny; Ni, Binbin; Manweiler, Jerry; Mitchell, Donald; Lanzerotti, Louis; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 05/2016 YEAR: 2016 DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022140 
Formation of Energetic Electron Butterfly Distributions by Magnetosonic Waves via Landau Resonance Radiation belt electrons can exhibit different types of pitch angle distributions in response to various magnetospheric processes. Butterfly distributions, characterized by flux minima at pitch angles around 90\textdegree, are broadly observed in both the outer and inner belts and the slot region. Butterfly distributions close to the outer magnetospheric boundary have been attributed to drift shell splitting and losses to the magnetopause. However, their occurrence in the inner belt and the slot region has hitherto not been resolved. By analyzing the particle and wave data collected by the Van Allen Probes during a geomagnetic storm, we combine test particle calculations and FokkerPlanck simulations to reveal that scattering by equatorial magnetosonic waves is a significant cause for the formation of energetic electron butterfly distributions in the inner magnetosphere. Another event shows that a largeamplitude magnetosonic wave in the outer belt can create electron butterfly distributions in just a few minutes. Li, Jinxing; Ni, Binbin; Ma, Qianli; Xie, Lun; Pu, Zuyin; Fu, Suiyan; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Chen, Lunjin; Li, Wen; Baker, Daniel; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Fennell, Joseph; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Funsten, Herbert; Summers, Danny; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 04/2016 YEAR: 2016 DOI: 10.1002/2016GL067853 butterfly distributions; energetic electrons; Landau resonance; magnetosonic waves; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes 
2015 
A statistical survey of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) is performed based on the pitch angle resolved flux observations from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument on board the Van Allen Probes during the period from 1 October 2012 to 1 May 2015. By fitting the measured PADs to a sinnα form, where α is the local pitch angle and n is the power law index, we investigate the dependence of PADs on electron kinetic energy, magnetic local time (MLT), the geomagnetic Kp index and Lshell. The difference in electron PADs between the inner and outer belt is distinct. In the outer belt, the common averaged n values are less than 1.5, except for large values of the Kp index and high electron energies. The averaged n values vary considerably with MLT, with a peak in the afternoon sector and an increase with increasing Lshell. In the inner belt, the averaged n values are much larger, with a common value greater than 2. The PADs show a slight dependence on MLT, with a weak maximum at noon. A distinct region with steep PADs lies in the outer edge of the inner belt where the electron flux is relatively low. The distance between the inner and outer belt and the intensity of the geomagnetic activity together determine the variation of PADs in the inner belt. Besides being dependent on electron energy, magnetic activity and Lshell, the results show a clear dependence on MLT, with higher n values on the dayside. Shi, Run; Summers, Danny; Ni, Binbin; Fennell, Joseph; Blake, Bernard; Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoffrey; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 12/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021724 
We perform test particle simulations of energetic electrons interacting with whistler mode chorus emissions. We compute trajectories of a large number of electrons forming a delta function with the same energy and equatorial pitch angle. The electrons are launched at different locations along the magnetic field line and different timings with respect to a pair of chorus emissions generated at the magnetic equator. We follow the evolution of the delta function and obtain a distribution function in energy and equatorial pitch angle, which is a numerical Green\textquoterights function for one cycle of chorus waveparticle interaction. We obtain the Green\textquoterights functions for the energy range 10 keV\textendash6 MeV and all pitch angles greater than the loss cone angle. By taking the convolution integral of the Green\textquoterights functions with the distribution function of the injected electrons repeatedly, we follow a longtime evolution of the distribution function. We find that the energetic electrons are accelerated effectively by relativistic turning acceleration and ultrarelativistic acceleration through nonlinear trapping by chorus emissions. Further, these processes result in the rapid formation of a dumbbell distribution of highly relativistic electrons within a few minutes after the onset of the continuous injection of 10\textendash30 keV electrons. Omura, Yoshiharu; Miyashita, Yu; Yoshikawa, Masato; Summers, Danny; Hikishima, Mitsuru; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kubota, Yuko; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 11/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021563 Chorus; nonlinear waveparticle interaction; Particle acceleration; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; simulation 
Subpacket structures in EMIC rising tone emissions observed by the THEMIS probes We report subpacket structures found in electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) rising tone emissions observed by the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) probles. We investigate three typical cases in detail. The first case shows a continuous single rising tone with obvious four subpackets, and the second case is characterized by a patchy emission with multiple subpackets triggered in a broadband frequency. The third case looks like a smooth rising tone without any obvious subpacket in the FFT spectrum, while its amplitude contains small peaks with increasing frequencies. The degree of polarization of each subpacket is generally higher than 0.8 with a lefthanded polarization, and the wave direction of the subpackets is typically fieldaligned. We show that the time evolution of the observed frequency and amplitude can be reproduced consistently by nonlinear growth theory. We also compare the observed time span of each subpacket structure with the theoretical trapping time for secondorder cyclotron resonance. They are consistent, indicating that an individual subpacket is generated through a nonlinear wave growth process which excites an element in accordance with the theoretically predicted optimum amplitude. Nakamura, Satoko; Omura, Yoshiharu; Shoji, Masafumi; e, Masahito; Summers, Danny; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 08/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020764 EMIC wave; inner magnetosphere; The nonlinear wave growth; THEMIS 
2014 
Fine structure of plasmaspheric hiss Plasmaspheric hiss has been widely regarded as a broadband, structureless, incoherent emission. In this study, by examining burstmode vector waveform data from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument on the Van Allen Probes mission, we show that plasmaspheric hiss is a coherent emission with complex fine structure. Specifically, plasmaspheric hiss appears as discrete rising tone and falling tone elements. Our study comprises the analysis of two onehour samples within which a total of 8 onesecond samples were analyzed. By means of waveform analysis on two samples we identify typical amplitudes, phase profiles, and sweep rates of the rising and falling tone elements. The exciting new observations reported here can be expected to fuel a reexamination of the properties of plasmaspheric hiss, including a further reanalysis of the generation mechanism for hiss. Summers, Danny; Omura, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Satoko; Kletzing, Craig; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 12/2014 YEAR: 2014 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020437 
Limiting energy spectrum of an electron radiation belt To determine the KennelPetschek limiting particle flux in a planetary radiation belt in a fully relativistic regime, without assuming a predetermined form for the particle energy distribution, has been a longstanding challenge in space physics. In this paper, for the case of whistler mode waveelectron interaction, we meet this challenge. The limiting flux is determined by a steady state marginal stability criterion in which a convective wave gain condition is applied over all frequencies for which wave growth occurs. This condition produces an integral equation for the trapped flux. We find that in the relativistic regime the limiting electron energy spectrum varies asymptotically as 1/E, for large energy E, just as in the nonrelativistic case. However, the scaling coefficient in the relativistic case is twice that in the nonrelativistic result. We compare numerical solutions for the limiting spectra with measured energetic electron spectra at Jupiter. Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 08/2014 YEAR: 2014 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020250 
2007 
Radiation belt electrons can interact with various modes of plasma wave in their drift orbits about the Earth, including whistlermode chorus outside the plasmasphere, and both whistlermode hiss and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves inside the plasmasphere. Electrons undergo gyroresonant diffusion in their interactions with these waves. To determine the timescales for electron momentum diffusion and pitch angle diffusion, we develop bounceaveraged quasilinear resonant diffusion coefficients for fieldaligned electromagnetic waves in a hydrogen or multiion (H+, He+, O+) plasma. We assume that the Earth\textquoterights magnetic field is dipolar and that the wave frequency spectrum is Gaussian. Evaluation of the diffusion coefficients requires the solution of a sixthorder polynomial equation for the resonant wave frequencies in the case of a multiion (H+, He+, O+) plasma, compared to the solution of a fourthorder polynomial equation for a hydrogen plasma. In some cases, diffusion coefficients for fieldaligned waves can provide a valuable approximation for diffusion rates for oblique waves calculated using higherorder resonances. Bounceaveraged diffusion coefficients for fieldaligned waves can be evaluated generally in minimal CPU time and can therefore be profitably incorporated into comprehensive kinetic radiation belt codes. Summers, D.; Ni, Binbin; Meredith, Nigel; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 04/2007 YEAR: 2007 DOI: 10.1029/2006JA011801 
2006 
Energetic outer zone electron loss timescales during low geomagnetic activity Following enhanced magnetic activity the fluxes of energetic electrons in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt gradually decay to quiettime levels. We use CRRES observations to estimate the energetic electron loss timescales and to identify the principal loss mechanisms. Gradual loss of energetic electrons in the region 3.0 <= L <= 5.0 occurs during quiet periods (Kp < 3) following enhanced magnetic activity on timescales ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 days for 214 keV electrons to 5.5 to 6.5 days for 1.09 MeV electrons. The intervals of decay are associated with large average values of the ratio fpe/fce (>7), indicating that the decay takes place in the plasmasphere. We compute loss timescales for pitchangle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss using the PADIE code with wave properties based on CRRES observations. The resulting timescales suggest that pitch angle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss propagating at small or intermediate wave normal angles is responsible for electron loss over a wide range of energies and L shells. The region where hiss dominates loss is energydependent, ranging from 3.5 <= L <= 5.0 at 214 keV to 3.0 <= L <= 4.0 at 1.09 MeV. Plasmaspheric hiss at large wave normal angles does not contribute significantly to the loss rates. At E = 1.09 MeV the loss timescales are overestimated by a factor of \~5 for 4.5 <= L <= 5.0. We suggest that resonant waveparticle interactions with EMIC waves, which become important at MeV energies for larger L (L > \~4.5), may play a significant role in this region. Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Glauert, Sarah; Thorne, Richard; Summers, D.; Albert, Jay; Anderson, Roger; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 05/2006 YEAR: 2006 DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011516 
2005 
Timescale for MeV electron microburst loss during geomagnetic storms Energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt can resonate with intense bursts of whistlermode chorus emission leading to microburst precipitation into the atmosphere. The timescale for removal of outer zone MeV electrons during the main phase of the October 1998 magnetic storm has been computed by comparing the rate of microburst loss observed on SAMPEX with trapped flux levels observed on Polar. Effective lifetimes are comparable to a day and are relatively independent of L shell. The lifetimes have also been evaluated by theoretical calculations based on quasilinear scattering by fieldaligned waves. Agreement with the observations requires average wideband wave amplitudes comparable to 100 pT, which is consistent with the intensity of chorus emissions observed under active conditions. MeV electron scattering is most efficient during firstorder cyclotron resonance with chorus emissions at geomagnetic latitudes above 30 degrees. Consequently, the zone of MeV microbursts tends to maximize in the prenoon (0400\textendash1200 MLT) sector, since nightside chorus is more strongly confined to the equator. Thorne, R.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Shprits, Y; Summers, D.; Horne, R.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 09/2005 YEAR: 2005 DOI: 10.1029/2004JA010882 
2003 
We perform a survey of the plasma wave and particle data from the CRRES satellite during 26 geomagnetically disturbed periods to investigate the viability of a local stochastic electron acceleration mechanism to relativistic energies driven by Dopplershifted cyclotron resonant interactions with whistler mode chorus. Relativistic electron flux enhancements associated with moderate or strong storms may be seen over the whole outer zone (3 < L < 7), typically peaking in the range 4 < L < 5, whereas those associated with weak storms and intervals of prolonged substorm activity lacking a magnetic storm signature (PSALMSS) are typically observed further out in the regions 4 < L < 7 and 4.5 < L < 7, respectively. The most significant relativistic electron flux enhancements are seen outside of the plasmapause and are associated with periods of prolonged substorm activity with AE greater than 100 nT for a total integrated time greater than 2 days or greater than 300 nT for a total integrated time greater than 0.7 days. These events are also associated with enhanced fluxes of seed electrons and enhanced lowerband chorus wave power with integrated lowerband chorus wave intensities of greater than 500 pT2 day. No significant flux enhancements are seen unless the level of substorm activity is sufficiently high. These results are consistent with a local, stochastic, chorusdriven electron acceleration mechanism involving the energization of a seed population of electrons with energies of a few hundred keV to relativistic energies operating on a timescale of the order of days. Meredith, Nigel; Cain, Michelle; Horne, Richard; Thorne, Richard; Summers, D.; Anderson, Roger; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 06/2003 YEAR: 2003 DOI: 10.1029/2002JA009764 
[1] During magnetic storms, relativistic electrons execute nearly circular orbits about the Earth and traverse a spatially confined zone within the duskside plasmapause where electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are preferentially excited. We examine the mechanism of electron pitchangle diffusion by gyroresonant interaction with EMIC waves as a cause of relativistic electron precipitation loss from the outer radiation belt. Detailed calculations are carried out of electron cyclotron resonant pitchangle diffusion coefficients Dαα for EMIC waves in a multiion (H+, He+, O+) plasma. A simple functional form for Dαα is used, based on quasilinear theory that is valid for parallelpropagating, smallamplitude electromagnetic waves of general spectral density. For typical observed EMIC wave amplitudes (1\textendash10nT), the rates of resonant pitchangle diffusion are close to the limit of \textquotedblleftstrong\textquotedblright diffusion, leading to intense electron precipitation. In order for gyroresonance to take place, electrons must possess a minimum kinetic energy Emin which depends on the value of the ratio (electron plasma frequency/electron gyrofrequency); Emin also depends on the properties of the EMIC wave spectrum and the ion composition. Geophysically interesting scattering, with Emin comparable to 1 MeV, can only occur in regions where (electron plasma frequency/electron gyrofrequency) >=10, which typically occurs within the duskside plasmapause. Under such conditions, electrons with energy >=1 MeV can be removed from the outer radiation belt by EMIC wave scattering during a magnetic storm over a timescale of several hours to a day. Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 04/2003 YEAR: 2003 DOI: 10.1029/2002JA009489 
1998 
Resonant diffusion curves for electron cyclotron resonance with fieldaligned electromagnetic R mode and L mode electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are constructed using a fully relativistic treatment. Analytical solutions are derived for the case of a singleion plasma, and a numerical scheme is developed for the more realistic case of a multiion plasma. Diffusion curves are presented, for plasma parameters representative of the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere at locations both inside and outside the plasmapause. The results obtained indicate minimal electron energy change along the diffusion curves for resonant interaction with L mode waves. Intense storm time EMIC waves are therefore ineffective for electron stochastic acceleration, although these waves could induce rapid pitch angle scattering for ≳ 1 MeV electrons near the duskside plasmapause. In contrast, significant energy change can occur along the diffusion curves for interaction between resonant electrons and whistler (R mode) waves. The energy change is most pronounced in regions of low plasma density. This suggests that whistler mode waves could provide a viable mechanism for electron acceleration from energies near 100 keV to above 1 MeV in the region outside the plasmapause during the recovery phase of geomagnetic storms. A model is proposed to account for the observed variations in the flux and pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons during geomagnetic storms by combining pitch angle scattering by intense EMIC waves and energy diffusion during cyclotron resonant interaction with whistler mode chorus outside the plasmasphere. Summers, D.; Thorne, Richard; Xiao, Fuliang; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 09/1998 YEAR: 1998 DOI: 10.1029/98JA01740 
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