Found 19 entries in the Bibliography.
Showing entries from 1 through 19
Abstract The access of solar energetic protons into the inner magnetosphere on 7-8 September 2017 is investigated by following reversed proton trajectories to compute the proton cutoff energy using the Dartmouth geomagnetic cutoff code [Kress et al., 2010]. The cutoff energies for protons coming from the west and east direction, the minimum and maximum cutoff energy respectively, are calculated every five minutes along the orbit of Van Allen Probes using TS07 and the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) MHD magnetic field model. The result shows that the cutoff energy increases significantly as the radial distance decreases, and that the cutoff energy decreases with the building up of the ring current during magnetic storms. Solar wind dynamic pressure also affects cutoff suppression [Kress et al., 2004]. The LFM-RCM model shows stronger suppression of cutoff energy than TS07 during strong solar wind driving conditions. The simulation result is compared with proton flux measurements, showing consistent variation of the cutoff location during the 7-8 September 2017 geomagnetic storm. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 06/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029107
In this study we examine the ability of protons of solar origin to access the near-equatorial inner magnetosphere. Here we examine four distinct solar proton events from 20–200 MeV, concurrent with both quiet time and storm time conditions using proton data from the ACE satellite in the solar wind upstream of Earth and data from the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) instrument aboard Van Allen Probes. We examine the direct flux correspondence between interplanetary space and the inner magnetosphere. Small substructures in interplanetary space are observable in the REPT flux profiles, which can penetrate down to L values of ≤4. Furthermore, there are orbit-to-orbit variations in the west-to-east anisotropic flux ratios. The anisotropic flux ratios are used as a proxy for cutoff energies and display cutoff variations with L shell and energy. The dependence of the anisotropic flux ratio on Dst values is shown. The results paint a picture of highly dynamic spatial and temporal proton cutoff rigidities in the near-equatorial inner magnetosphere.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 05/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JA027584
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 11/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027331
In this study, access of solar energetic protons to the inner magnetosphere on 11 September 2017 is investigated by computing the reverse particle trajectories with the Dartmouth geomagnetic cutoff code [Kress et al., 2010]. The maximum and minimum cutoff rigidity at each point along the orbit of Van Allen Probe A is numerically computed by extending the code to calculate cutoff rigidity for particles coming from arbitrary direction. Pulse-height analyzed (PHA) data has the advantage of providing individual particle energies and effectively excluding background high energy proton contamination. This technique is adopted to study the cutoff locations for solar protons with different energy. The results demonstrate that cutoff latitude is lower for solar protons with higher energy, consistent with low altitude vertical cutoffs. Both the observations and numerical results show that proton access into the inner magnetosphere depends strongly on angle between particle arrival direction and magnetic west. The numerical result is approximately consistent with the observation that the energy of almost all solar protons stays above the minimum cutoff rigidity.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026380
Prompt enhancement of relativistic electron flux at L = 3-5 has been reported from Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) measurements associated with the 17 March 2015 interplanetary shock compression of the dayside magnetosphere. Acceleration by \~ 1 MeV is inferred on less than a drift time scale as seen in prior shock compression events, which launch a magetosonic azimuthal electric field impulse tailward. This impulse propagates from the dayside around the flanks accelerating electrons in drift resonance at the dusk flank. Such longitudinally localized acceleration events produce a drift echo signature which was seen at >1 MeV energy on both Van Allen Probe spacecraft, with sustained observations by Probe B outbound at L = 5 at 2100 MLT at the time of impulse arrival, measured by the Electric Fields and Waves instrument. MHD-test particle simulations are presented which reproduce drift echo features observed in the REPT measurements at Probe B, including the energy and pitch angle dependence of drift echoes observed. While the flux enhancement was short-lived for this event due to subsequent inward motion of the magnetopause, stronger events with larger electric field impulses, as observed in March 1991 and the Halloween 2003 storm, produce enhancements which can be quantified by the inward radial transport and energization determined by the induction electric field resulting from dayside compression.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024445
The loss of protons in the outer part of the inner radiation belt (L = 2 to 3) during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm was investigated using test particle simulations that follow full Lorentz trajectories with both magnetic and electric fields calculated from an empirical model. The simulation results presented here are compared with proton pitch angle measurements from the Van Allen Probe satellites Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) instrument before and after the coronal mass ejection-shock-driven storm of 17\textendash18 March 2015, with minimum Dst =- 223 nT, the strongest storm of Solar Cycle 24, for four different energy ranges with 30, 38, 50, and 66 MeV mean energies. Two simulations have been run, one with an inductive electric field and one without. All four energy channels show good agreement with the Van Allen Probes REPT measurements for low L (L < 2.4) in both simulations but diverge for higher L values. The inclusion of the inductive electric field, calculated from the time-changing magnetic field, significantly improves the agreement between simulation and REPT measurements at L > 2.4. A previous study using the Highly Elliptical Orbiter 3 spacecraft also showed improved agreement when including the inductive electric field but was unable to compare effects on the pitch angle distributions.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 11/2016
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023333
During the second Balloon Array for Radiation Belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) campaign two solar energetic proton (SEP) events were observed. Although BARREL was designed to observe X-rays created during electron precipitation events, it is sensitive to X-rays from other sources. The gamma lines produced when energetic protons hit the upper atmosphere are used in this paper to study SEP events. During the second SEP event starting on 7 January 2014 and lasting \~ 3 days, which also had a solar energetic electron (SEE) event occurring simultaneously, BARREL had 6 payloads afloat spanning all MLT sectors and L-values. Three payloads were in a tight array (\~ 2 hrs in MLT and \~ 2 Δ L) inside the inner magnetosphere and at times conjugate in both L and MLT with the Van Allen Probes (approximately once per day). The other three payloads mapped to higher L-values with one payload on open field lines for the entire event while the other two appear to be crossing from open to closed field lines. Using the observations of the SEE and SEP events, we are able to map the open-closed boundary. Halford et al.  demonstrated how BARREL can monitor electron precipitation following an ICME-shock impact at Earth while in this study we look at the SEP event precursor to the arrival of the ICME-Shock in our cradle-to-grave view: from flare, to SEE and SEP events, to radiation belt electron precipitation.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2016
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022462
Radiation belt protons in the kinetic energy range 24 to 76 MeV are being measured by the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope on each of the two Van Allen Probes. Data have been processed for the purpose of studying variability in the trapped proton intensity during October 2013 to August 2015. For the lower energies (≲32 MeV), equatorial proton intensity near L = 2 showed a steady increase that is consistent with inward diffusion of trapped solar protons, as shown by positive radial gradients in phase space density at fixed values of the first two adiabatic invariants. It is postulated that these protons were trapped with enhanced efficiency during the 7 March 2012 solar proton event. A model that includes radial diffusion, along with known trapped proton source and loss processes, shows that the observed average rate of increase near L = 2 is predicted by the same model diffusion coefficient that is required to form the entire proton radiation belt, down to low L, over an extended (\~103 year) interval. A slower intensity decrease for lower energies near L = 1.5 may also be caused by inward diffusion, though it is faster than predicted by the model. Higher-energy (≳40 MeV) protons near the L = 1.5 intensity maximum are from cosmic ray albedo neutron decay. Their observed intensity is lower than expected by a factor \~2, but the discrepancy is resolved by adding an unspecified loss process to the model with a mean lifetime \~120 years.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 03/2016
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022154
Coronal mass ejection (CME)-shock compression of the dayside magnetopause has been observed to cause both prompt enhancement of radiation belt electron flux due to inward radial transport of electrons conserving their first adiabatic invariant and prompt losses which at times entirely eliminate the outer zone. Recent numerical studies suggest that enhanced ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave activity is necessary to explain electron losses deeper inside the magnetosphere than magnetopause incursion following CME-shock arrival. A combination of radial transport and magnetopause shadowing can account for losses observed at radial distances into L = 4.5, well within the computed magnetopause location. We compare ULF wave power from the Electric Field and Waves (EFW) electric field instrument on the Van Allen Probes for the 8 October 2013 storm with ULF wave power simulated using the Lyon\textendashFedder\textendashMobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) magnetospheric simulation code coupled to the Rice Convection Model (RCM). Two other storms with strong magnetopause compression, 8\textendash9 October 2012 and 17\textendash18 March 2013, are also examined. We show that the global MHD model captures the azimuthal magnetosonic impulse propagation speed and amplitude observed by the Van Allen Probes which is responsible for prompt acceleration at MeV energies reported for the 8 October 2013 storm. The simulation also captures the ULF wave power in the azimuthal component of the electric field, responsible for acceleration and radial transport of electrons, at frequencies comparable to the electron drift period. This electric field impulse has been shown to explain observations in related studies (Foster et al., 2015) of electron acceleration and drift phase bunching by the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT) instrument on the Van Allen Probes.
Published by: Annales Geophysicae Published on: 08/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.5194/angeo-33-1037-2015
D test-particle simulation of energetic electrons (hundreds of keV to MeV), including both an initially trapped population and continuously injected population, driven by the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global MHD model coupled with Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupler/Solver (MIX) boundary conditions, is performed for the March 17, 2013 storm. The electron trajectories are calculated and weighted using the ESA model for electron flux vs. energy and L. The simulation captures the flux dropout at both GOES-13 and GOES-15 locations after a strong CME-shock arrival which produced a Dst=-132 nT storm, and recovery to the pre-storm value later, consistent with GOES satellite measurements. This study provides the first 3D test-particle simulation combining the trapped and injected populations. The result demonstrates that including both populations in the simulation is essential to study the dynamics of the outer radiation belt over the typical day-long timescale of ring current development, main phase and early recovery phase.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 06/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064627
The outer radiation belt consists of relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons trapped on closed trajectories around Earth where the magnetic field is nearly dipolar. During increased geomagnetic activity, electron intensities in the belt can vary by ordersof magnitude at different spatial and temporal scale. The main phase of geomagnetic storms often produces deep depletions of electron intensities over broad regions of the outer belt. Previous studies identified three possible processes that can contribute to the main-phase depletions: adiabatic inflation of electron drift orbits caused by the ring current growth, electron loss into the atmosphere, and electron escape through the magnetopause boundary. In this paper we investigate the relative importance of the adiabatic effect and magnetopause loss to the rapid depletion of the outer belt observed at the Van Allen Probes spacecraft during the main phase of March 17, 2013 storm. The intensities of >1 MeV electrons were depleted by more than an order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the belt in less than 6 hours after the sudden storm commencement. For the analysis we used three-dimensional test-particle simulations of global evolution of the outer belt in the Tsyganenko-Sitnov (TS07D) magnetic field model with an inductive electric field. Comparison of the simulation results with electron measurements from the MagEIS experiment shows that magnetopause loss accounts for most of the observed depletion at L>5, while at lower L shells the depletion is adiabatic. Both magnetopause loss and the adiabatic effect are controlled by the change in global configuration of the magnetic field due to storm-time development of the ring current; a simulation of electron evolution without a ring current produces a much weaker depletion.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 03/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020645
Balloon-borne instruments detecting radiation belt precipitation frequently observe oscillations in the mHz frequency range. Balloons measuring electron precipitation near the poles in the 100 keV to 2.5 MeV energy range, including the MAXIS, MINIS, and most recently the BARREL balloon experiments, have observed this modulation at ULF wave frequencies [e.g. Foat et al., 1998; Millan et al., 2002; Millan, 2011]. Although ULF waves in the magnetosphere are seldom directly linked to increases in electron precipitation since their oscillation periods are much larger than the gyroperiod and the bounce period of radiation belt electrons, test particle simulations show that this interaction is possible [Brito et al., 2012]. 3D simulations of radiation belt electrons were performed to investigate the effect of ULF waves on precipitation. The simulations track the behavior of energetic electrons near the loss cone, using guiding center techniques, coupled with an MHD simulation of the magnetosphere, using the LFM code, during a CME-shock event on 17 March 2013. Results indicate that ULF modulation of precipitation occurs even without the presence of EMIC waves, which are not resolved in the MHD simulation. The arrival of a strong CME-shock, such as the one simulated, disrupts the electric and magnetic fields in the magnetosphere and causes significant changes in both components of momentum, pitch angle and L-shell of radiation belt electrons, which may cause them to precipitate into the loss cone.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 03/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020838
The Van Allen Probes spacecraft have provided detailed observations of the energetic particles and fields environment for CME-shock driven storms in 2012 to 2013 which have now been modeled with MHD-test particle simulations. The Van Allen Probes orbital plane longitude moved from the dawn sector in 2012 to near midnight and pre-noon for equinoctial storms of 2013, providing particularly good measurements of the inductive electric field response to magnetopause compression for the 8 October 2013 CME-shock driven storm. An abrupt decrease in the outer boundary of outer zone electrons coincided with inward motion of the magnetopause for both 17 March and 8 October 2013 storms, as was the case for storms shortly after launch (Hudson et al., 2014). Modeling magnetopause dropout events in 2013 with electric field diagnostics that were not available for storms immediately following launch has improved our understanding of the complex role that ULF waves play in radial transport during such events.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 01/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020833
Measurements of inner radiation belt protons have been made by the Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes as a function of kinetic energy (24 to 76 MeV), equatorial pitch angle, and magnetic L shell, during late-2013 and early-2014. A probabilistic data analysis method reduces background from contamination by higher energy protons. Resulting proton intensities are compared to predictions of a theoretical radiation belt model. Then trapped protons originating both from cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND) and from trapping of solar protons are evident in the measured distributions. An observed double-peaked distribution in L is attributed, based on the model comparison, to a gap in the occurrence of solar proton events during the 2007 to 2011 solar minimum. Equatorial pitch angle distributions show that trapped solar protons are confined near the magnetic equator, but that CRAND protons can reach low-altitudes. Narrow pitch angle distributions near the outer edge of the inner belt are characteristic of proton trapping limits.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 08/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020188
Geomagnetic storms often include strong magnetospheric convection caused by sustained periods of southward interplanetary magnetic field. During periods of strong convection, the Alfv\ en layer, which separates the region of sunward convection from closed drift shells, is displaced earthward allowing plasma sheet particles with energies in the hundreds of keV direct access inside of geosynchronous. Subsequent outward motion of the Alfv\ en boundary and adiabatic energization during storm recovery traps plasma sheet electrons on closed drift shells providing a seed population for the outer radiation belts. In situ observations of the 8\textendash10 October 2012 geomagnetic storm and MHD test particle simulations illustrate the morphology of this process. Data and modeling results support the conclusion that recovery of ~ 1 MeV electrons at geosynchronous is mainly due to global convection and dipolarization associated injections from the plasma sheet.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 02/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058588
Three radiation belt flux dropout events seen by the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope soon after launch of the Van Allen Probes in 2012 (Baker et al., 2013a) have been simulated using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry MHD code coupled to the Rice Convection Model, driven by measured upstream solar wind parameters. MHD results show inward motion of the magnetopause for each event, along with enhanced ULF wave power affecting radial transport. Test particle simulations of electron response on 8 October, prior to the strong flux enhancement on 9 October, provide evidence for loss due to magnetopause shadowing, both in energy and pitch angle dependence. Severe plasmapause erosion occurred during ~ 14 h of strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field Bz beginning 8 October coincident with the inner boundary of outer zone depletion.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 02/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059222
As part of the International Heliospheric Year, the Whole Heliosphere Interval, Carrington Rotation 2068, from March 20 to April 16, 2008 was chosen as an internationally coordinated observing and modeling campaign. A pair of solar wind structures identified as Corotating Interaction Regions (CIR), characteristic of the declining phase of the solar cycle and solar minimum, was identified in solar wind plasma measurements from the ACE satellite. Such structures have previously been determined to be geoeffective in producing enhanced outer zone radiation belt electron fluxes, on average greater than at solar maximum. MHD fields from the Coupled Magnetosphere\textendashIonosphere\textendashThermosphere (CMIT) model driven by ACE solar wind measurements at L1 have been used to drive both 2D and 3D weighted test particle simulations of electron dynamics for the CIR subset of the month-long CMIT fields. Dropout in electron flux at geosynchronous orbit and enhancement during recovery phase, characteristic of CIR-driven storms, is seen in these moderate (Dstmin=-56, -33 nT) events, while the two CIRs were characterized by increased solar wind velocity in the 650\textendash750 km/s range. The first beginning March 26 produced a greater enhancement in IMF Bz southward and stronger magnetospheric convection, leading to a greater radiation belt electron response at GOES. This study provides the first comparison of 2D and 3D particle dynamics in MHD simulation fields, incorporating the additional diffusive feature of Shebansky orbit trapping of electrons in the magnetic minima on the dayside above and below the equatorial plane. Overall loss occurs during the main phase for 2D and 3D simulations, while incorporation of plasmasheet injection in 2D runs produces a moderate enhancement for the March 26\textendash30 storm, less than observed at GOES, and recovery to initial flux levels as seen for the April 4\textendash7 storm.
Published by: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics Published on: 07/2012
YEAR: 2012   DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2012.03.017
Test-particle trajectories are computed in fields from a global MHD magnetospheric model simulation of the 29 October 2003 Storm Commencement to investigate trapping and transport of solar energetic electrons (SEEs) in the magnetosphere during severe storms. SEEs are found to provide a source population for a newly formed belt of View the MathML source electrons in the Earth\textquoterights inner zone radiation belts, which was observed following the 29 October 2003 storm. Energy and pitch angle distributions of the new belt are compared with results previously obtained [Kress, B.T., Hudson, M.K., Looper, M.D., Albert, J., Lyon, J.G., Goodrich, C.C., 2007. Global MHD test particle simulations of >10 MeV radiation belt electrons during storm sudden commencement. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, A09215, doi:10.1029/2006JA012218], where outer belt electrons were used as a source for the new belt.
Published by: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics Published on: 11/2008
YEAR: 2008   DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2008.05.018
 Prior to 2003, there are two known cases where ultrarelativistic (≳10 MeV) electrons appeared in the Earth\textquoterights inner zone radiation belts in association with high speed interplanetary shocks: the 24 March 1991 and the less well studied 21 February 1994 storms. During the March 1991 event electrons were injected well into the inner zone on a timescale of minutes, producing a new stably trapped radiation belt population that persisted for \~10 years. More recently, at the end of solar cycle 23, a number of violent geomagnetic disturbances resulted in large variations in ultrarelativistic electrons in the inner zone, indicating that these events are less rare than previously thought. Here we present results from a numerical study of shock-induced transport and energization of outer zone electrons in the 1\textendash7 MeV range, resulting in a newly formed 10\textendash20 MeV electron belt near L \~ 3. Test particle trajectories are followed in time-dependent fields from an MHD magnetospheric model simulation of the 29 October 2003 storm sudden commencement (SSC) driven by solar wind parameters measured at ACE. The newly formed belt is predominantly equatorially mirroring. This result is in part due to an SSC electric field pulse that is strongly peaked in the equatorial plane, preferentially accelerating equatorially mirroring particles. The timescale for subsequent pitch angle diffusion of the new belt, calculated using quasi-linear bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients, is in agreement with the observed delay in the appearance of peak fluxes at SAMPEX in low Earth orbit. We also present techniques for modeling radiation belt dynamics using test particle trajectories in MHD fields. Simulations are performed using code developed by the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 09/2007
YEAR: 2007   DOI: 10.1029/2006JA012218