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Abstract A dipolarization of the background magnetic field was observed during a conjunction of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft and Van Allen Probe B on 22 September 2018. The spacecraft were located in the inner magnetosphere at L ∼ 6 − 7 just before midnight magnetic local time (MLT). The radial separation between MMS and Probe B was ∼ 1RE. Gradual dipolarization or an increase of the northward component BZ of the background field occurred on a timescale of minutes. Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) located 0.5 MLT eastward at a similar L shell also measured a gradual increase. The spatial scale was of the order of 1 RE. On top of that, MMS and Probe B measured BZ increases, and a decrease in one case, on a timescale of seconds, accompanied by large electric fields with amplitudes > several tens of mV/m. Spatial scale lengths were of the order of the ion inertial length and the ion gyroradius. The inertial term in the momentum equation and the Hall term in the generalized Ohm’s law were sometimes non-negligible. These small-scale variations are discussed in terms of the ballooning/interchange instability (BICI) and kinetic Alfvén waves among others. It is inferred that physics of multiple scales was involved in the dynamics of this dipolarization event. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Matsui, H.; Torbert, R.; Spence, H.; Argall, M.; Cohen, I.; Cooper, M.; Ergun, R.; Farrugia, C.; Fennell, J.; Fuselier, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Matsuoka, A.; Russell, C.; Shoji, M.; Strangeway, R.; Turner, D.; Vaith, H.; Wygant, J.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 05/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029294
We use the UNH-IMEF, Weimer 1996, https://doi.org/10.1029/96GL02255 and Volland-Stern electric field models along with a dipole magnetic field to calculate drift paths for particles that reach the Van Allen Probes\textquoteright orbit for two inbound passes during two large geomagnetic storms. We compare the particle access in the models with the observed particle access using both realistic and enhanced solar wind model parameters. To test the accuracy of the drift paths, we estimate the H+ charge exchange loss along these drift paths. While increasing the strength of the model electric field drives particles further inward, improving agreement, energy-dependent cutoffs in the spectra do not agree, indicating that potential patterns for highly disturbed times are inaccurate. While none of the models were able to reproduce the observed features of the more dawnward pass during the 17 March 2013 storm, the UNH-IMEF model with enhanced inputs was able to adequately reproduce the access, charge exchange loss, and H+ particle pressure during the 17 March 2015 storm.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026683
There was a geomagnetic storm on 6\textendash8 March 2016, in which Van Allen Probes A and B separated by \~2.5 h measured increase of relativistic electrons with energies \~ several hundred keV to 1 MeV. Simultaneously, chorus waves were measured by both Van Allen Probes and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. Some of the chorus elements were rising-tones, possibly due to nonlinear effects. These measurements are compared with a nonlinear theory of chorus waves incorporating the inhomogeneity ratio and the field equation. From this theory, a chorus wave profile in time and one-dimensional space is simulated. Test particle calculations are then performed in order to examine the energization rate of electrons. Some electrons are accelerated, although more electrons are decelerated. The measured time scale of the electron increase is inferred to be consistent with this nonlinear theory.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 10/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024540
In this study, we investigate the possibility of nonlinearity in chorus waves during a geomagnetic storm on 1 November 2012. The data we use were measured by the Van Allen Probe B. Wave data and plasma sheet electron data are analyzed. Chorus waves were frequently measured in the morning side during the main phase of this storm. Large-amplitude chorus waves were seen of the order of \~0.6 nT and >7 mV/m, which are similar to or larger than the typical ULF waves. The waves quite often consist of rising tones during the burst sampling. Since the rising tone is known as a signature of nonlinearity, a large portion of the waves are regarded as nonlinear at least during the burst sampling periods. These results underline the importance of nonlinearity in the dynamics of chorus waves. We further compare the measurement and the nonlinear theories, based on the inhomogeneity ratio, our own calculation derived from the field equation and the backward wave oscillator model. The wave quantities examined are frequency, amplitude, frequency drift rate, and duration. This type of study is useful to more deeply understand wave-particle interactions and hence may lead to predicting the generation and loss of radiation belt electrons in the future.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 01/2016
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021772