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Found 5 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 5


A Multi-instrument Study of a Dipolarization Event in the Inner Magnetosphere

Abstract A dipolarization of the background magnetic field was observed during a conjunction of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft and Van Allen Probe B on 22 September 2018. The spacecraft were located in the inner magnetosphere at L ∼ 6 − 7 just before midnight magnetic local time (MLT). The radial separation between MMS and Probe B was ∼ 1RE. Gradual dipolarization or an increase of the northward component BZ of the background field occurred on a timescale of minutes. Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) located 0.5 MLT eastward at a similar L shell also measured a gradual increase. The spatial scale was of the order of 1 RE. On top of that, MMS and Probe B measured BZ increases, and a decrease in one case, on a timescale of seconds, accompanied by large electric fields with amplitudes > several tens of mV/m. Spatial scale lengths were of the order of the ion inertial length and the ion gyroradius. The inertial term in the momentum equation and the Hall term in the generalized Ohm’s law were sometimes non-negligible. These small-scale variations are discussed in terms of the ballooning/interchange instability (BICI) and kinetic Alfvén waves among others. It is inferred that physics of multiple scales was involved in the dynamics of this dipolarization event. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Matsui, H.; Torbert, R.; Spence, H.; Argall, M.; Cohen, I.; Cooper, M.; Ergun, R.; Farrugia, C.; Fennell, J.; Fuselier, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Matsuoka, A.; Russell, C.; Shoji, M.; Strangeway, R.; Turner, D.; Vaith, H.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Dipolarization; inner magnetosphere; Multiple Scale Dynamics; Van Allen Probes


The Storm-Time Ring Current Response to ICMEs and CIRs Using Van Allen Probe Observations

Using Van Allen Probe observations of the inner magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs), we characterize the impact of these drivers on the storm-time ring current development. Using 25 ICME- and 35 CIR-driven storms, we have determined the ring current pressure development during the prestorm, main, early-recovery, and late-recovery storm phases, as a function of magnetic local time, L shell and ion species (H+, He+, and O+) over the 100- to 600-keV energy range. Consistent with previous results, we find that during the storm main phase, most of the ring current pressure in the inner magnetosphere is contributed by particles on open drift paths drifting duskward leading to a strong partial ring current. The largest difference between the ICME and CIR ring current responses during the storm main and early-recovery phases is the difference in the response of the <~55-keV O+ to these drivers. While the H+ pressure response shows similar source and convection patterns for ICME and CIR storms, the O+ pressure response is significantly stronger for ICME storms. The ICME O+ pressure increases more strongly than H+ with decreasing L and peaks at lower L shells than H+.

Mouikis, C.; Bingham, S.; Kistler, L.; Farrugia, C.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Gkioulidou, M.; Mitchell, D.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026695

ICME vs CI; R Ion composition; Ring Current Pressure; Storm phases; Van Allen Probes


The outer radiation belt response to the storm time development of seed electrons and chorus wave activity during CME and CIR storms

Gyroresonant wave-particle interactions with very low frequency whistler mode chorus waves can accelerate subrelativistic seed electrons (hundreds of keV) to relativistic energies in the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. In this study, we conduct a superposed epoch analysis of the chorus wave activity, the seed electron development, and the outer radiation belt electron response between L* = 2.5 and 5.5, for 25 coronal mass ejection and 35 corotating interaction region storms using Van Allen Probes observations. Electron data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope instruments are used to monitor the storm-phase development of the seed and relativistic electrons, and magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science instrument are used to identify the chorus wave activity. Our results show a deeper (lower L*), stronger (higher flux), and earlier (epoch time) average seed electron enhancement and a resulting greater average radiation belt electron enhancement in coronal mass ejection storms compared to the corotating interaction region storms despite similar levels and lifetimes of average chorus wave activity for the two storm drivers. The earlier and deeper seed electron enhancement during the coronal mass ejection storms, likely driven by greater convection and substorm activity, provides a higher probability for local acceleration. These results emphasize the importance of the timing and the level of the seed electron enhancements in radiation belt dynamics.

Bingham, S.; Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L.; Boyd, A.; Paulson, K.; Farrugia, C.; Huang, C.; Spence, H.; Claudepierre, S.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025963

CIR storms; CME storms; Radiation belts; seed electrons; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves


Relativistic electron increase during chorus wave activities on the 6-8 March 2016 geomagnetic storm

There was a geomagnetic storm on 6\textendash8 March 2016, in which Van Allen Probes A and B separated by \~2.5 h measured increase of relativistic electrons with energies \~ several hundred keV to 1 MeV. Simultaneously, chorus waves were measured by both Van Allen Probes and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. Some of the chorus elements were rising-tones, possibly due to nonlinear effects. These measurements are compared with a nonlinear theory of chorus waves incorporating the inhomogeneity ratio and the field equation. From this theory, a chorus wave profile in time and one-dimensional space is simulated. Test particle calculations are then performed in order to examine the energization rate of electrons. Some electrons are accelerated, although more electrons are decelerated. The measured time scale of the electron increase is inferred to be consistent with this nonlinear theory.

Matsui, H.; Torbert, R.; Spence, H.; Argall, M.; Alm, L.; Farrugia, C.; Kurth, W.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Ergun, R.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Lindqvist, P.-A.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024540

chorus waves; Geomagnetic storm; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes


Extreme geomagnetic disturbances due to shocks within CMEs

We report on features of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling elicited by shocks propagating through coronal mass ejections (CMEs) by analyzing the intense geomagnetic storm of 6 August 1998. During this event, the dynamic pressure enhancement at the shock combined with a simultaneous increase in the southward component of the magnetic field resulted in a large earthward retreat of Earth\textquoterights magnetopause, which remained close to geosynchronous orbit for more than 4 h. This occurred despite the fact that both shock and CME were weak and relatively slow. Another similar example of a weak shock inside a slow CME resulting in an intense geomagnetic storm is the 30 September 2012 event, which strongly depleted the outer radiation belt. We discuss the potential of shocks inside CMEs to cause large geomagnetic effects at Earth, including magnetopause shadowing.

Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C.; Huang, C.-L.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064530

coronal mass ejections; Geomagnetic storm; magnetopause; magnetosheath; shocks