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Found 6 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 6


Generation of EMIC Waves and Effects on Particle Precipitation During a Solar Wind Pressure Intensification with B z >

During geomagnetic storms, some fraction of the solar wind energy is coupled via reconnection at the dayside magnetopause, a process that requires a southward interplanetary magnetic field Bz. Through a complex sequence of events, some of this energy ultimately drives the generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, which can then scatter energetic electrons and ions from the radiation belts. In the event described in this paper, the interplanetary magnetic field remained northward throughout the event, a condition unfavorable for solar wind energy coupling through low-latitude reconnection. While this resulted in SYM/H remaining positive throughout the event (so this may not be considered a storm, in spite of the very high solar wind densities), pressure fluctuations were directly transferred into and then propagated throughout the magnetosphere, generating EMIC waves on global scales. The generation mechanism presumably involved the development of temperature anisotropies via perpendicular pressure perturbations, as evidenced by strong correlations between the pressure variations and the intensifications of the waves globally. Electron precipitation was recorded by the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses balloons, although it did not have the same widespread signatures as the waves and, in fact, appears to have been quite patchy in character. Observations from Van Allen Probe A satellite (at postmidnight local time) showed clear butterfly distributions, and it may be possible that the EMIC waves contributed to the development of these distribution functions. Ion precipitation was also recorded by the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite satellites, though tended to be confined to the dawn-dusk meridians.

Lessard, Marc; Paulson, Kristoff; Spence, Harlan; Weaver, Carol; Engebretson, Mark; Millan, Robyn; Woodger, Leslie; Halford, Alexa; Horne, Richard; Rodger, Craig; Hendry, Aaron;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026477

Van Allen Probes


The outer radiation belt response to the storm time development of seed electrons and chorus wave activity during CME and CIR storms

Gyroresonant wave-particle interactions with very low frequency whistler mode chorus waves can accelerate subrelativistic seed electrons (hundreds of keV) to relativistic energies in the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. In this study, we conduct a superposed epoch analysis of the chorus wave activity, the seed electron development, and the outer radiation belt electron response between L* = 2.5 and 5.5, for 25 coronal mass ejection and 35 corotating interaction region storms using Van Allen Probes observations. Electron data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope instruments are used to monitor the storm-phase development of the seed and relativistic electrons, and magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science instrument are used to identify the chorus wave activity. Our results show a deeper (lower L*), stronger (higher flux), and earlier (epoch time) average seed electron enhancement and a resulting greater average radiation belt electron enhancement in coronal mass ejection storms compared to the corotating interaction region storms despite similar levels and lifetimes of average chorus wave activity for the two storm drivers. The earlier and deeper seed electron enhancement during the coronal mass ejection storms, likely driven by greater convection and substorm activity, provides a higher probability for local acceleration. These results emphasize the importance of the timing and the level of the seed electron enhancements in radiation belt dynamics.

Bingham, S.; Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L.; Boyd, A.; Paulson, K.; Farrugia, C.; Huang, C.; Spence, H.; Claudepierre, S.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025963

CIR storms; CME storms; Radiation belts; seed electrons; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves


EMIC wave scale size in the inner magnetosphere: Observations from the dual Van Allen Probes

Estimating the spatial scales of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is critical for quantifying their overall scattering efficiency and effects on thermal plasma, ring current, and radiation belt particles. Using measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes in 2013\textendash2014, we characterize the spatial and temporal extents of regions of EMIC wave activity and how these depend on local time and radial distance within the inner magnetosphere. Observations are categorized into three types\textemdashwaves observed by only one spacecraft, waves measured by both spacecraft simultaneously, and waves observed by both spacecraft with some time lag. Analysis reveals that dayside (and H+ band) EMIC waves more frequently span larger spatial areas, while nightside (and He+ band) waves are more often localized but can persist many hours. These investigations give insight into the nature of EMIC wave generation and support more accurate quantification of their effects on the ring current and outer radiation belt.

Blum, L.; Bonnell, J.; Agapitov, O.; Paulson, K.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL072316

EMIC waves; inner magnetosphere; multipoint; spatial scales; Van Allen Probes


In situ statistical observations of Pc1 pearl pulsations and unstructured EMIC waves by the Van Allen Probes

We present here the first in situ statistical survey of structured Pc1 pearl pulsations compared with unstructured electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft. This data set was compiled from observations spanning 8 September 2012 through 31 August 2015 and comprises over 1630 h of total EMIC wave activity, of which 291 h exhibited pearl structure. Additionally, we have identified 29 wave events demonstrating periodically oscillating wave packets, mostly about the magnetic equator, indicated by the reversal of Poynting flux along the background magnetic field. We have found several stark differences between Pc1 pearl pulsations and unstructured EMIC waves. While unstructured EMIC waves demonstrate the predicted behavior of a higher occurrence across the dayside with enhanced wave power at dusk, pearl pulsations occur uniformly across magnetic local time, with a small enhancement in the late morning sector. Pearl pulsations were more often observed during magnetospherically quiet periods, particularly in the late recovery period of geomagnetic storms. The mean excitation frequency of pearl pulsations was observed to be independent of the local ion cyclotron frequency, and individual wave investigations indicate that the modulation period also remained constant for the duration of the event over a finite range in L. We examine three possible generation mechanisms\textemdashthe bouncing wave packet model, modulation by ultralow-frequency Pc4 and Pc5 waves, and the formation of an ion cyclotron resonator\textemdashbut are unable to definitively confirm the validity of any one model.

Paulson, K.; Smith, C.; Lessard, M.; Torbert, R.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023160

EMIC waves; Pc1 pearl pulsations; Van Allen Probes

Nonlinearity in chorus waves during a geomagnetic storm on 1 November 2012

In this study, we investigate the possibility of nonlinearity in chorus waves during a geomagnetic storm on 1 November 2012. The data we use were measured by the Van Allen Probe B. Wave data and plasma sheet electron data are analyzed. Chorus waves were frequently measured in the morning side during the main phase of this storm. Large-amplitude chorus waves were seen of the order of \~0.6 nT and >7 mV/m, which are similar to or larger than the typical ULF waves. The waves quite often consist of rising tones during the burst sampling. Since the rising tone is known as a signature of nonlinearity, a large portion of the waves are regarded as nonlinear at least during the burst sampling periods. These results underline the importance of nonlinearity in the dynamics of chorus waves. We further compare the measurement and the nonlinear theories, based on the inhomogeneity ratio, our own calculation derived from the field equation and the backward wave oscillator model. The wave quantities examined are frequency, amplitude, frequency drift rate, and duration. This type of study is useful to more deeply understand wave-particle interactions and hence may lead to predicting the generation and loss of radiation belt electrons in the future.

Matsui, H.; Paulson, K.; Torbert, R.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Skoug, R.; Larsen, B.; Breneman, A.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021772

chorus waves; Geomagnetic storm; nonlinearity; Van Allen Probes


In situ observations of Pc1 pearl pulsations by the Van Allen Probes

We present in situ observations of Pc1 pearl pulsations using the Van Allen Probes. These waves are often observed using ground-based magnetometers, but are rarely observed by orbiting satellites. With the Van Allen Probes, we have seen at least 14 different pearl pulsation events during the first year of operations. These new in situ measurements allow us to identify the wave classification based on local magnetic field conditions. Additionally, by using two spacecraft, we are able to observe temporal changes in the region of observation. The waves appear to be generated at an overall central frequency, as often observed on the ground, and change polarization from left- to right-handedness as they propagate into a region where they are resonant with the crossover frequency (where R- and L-mode waves have the same phase velocity). By combining both in situ and ground-based data, we have found that the region satisfying electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave generation conditions is azimuthally large while radially narrow. The observation of a similar modulation period on the ground as in the magnetosphere contradicts the bouncing wave packet mechanism of generation.

Paulson, K.; Smith, C.; Lessard, M.; Engebretson, M.; Torbert, R.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059187

Van Allen Probes