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Plain Language Summary The plasmasphere is the region filled with cold, dense ionized gas in geospace. The ionized gas mainly consists in protons, helium ions, oxygen ions and electrons, which come from Earth’s ionosphere and fill in magnetic flux tubes. The density distribution of the ionized gas along the flux tube provides important information to understand how the ions and electrons have been supplied from the ionosphere. Many satellites fly in the equatorial plane, hence, do not provide information on the electron density along the field. The RBSP and the Arase satellites have different inclinations and sometimes they simultaneously fly near the equator and off the equator on the same magnetic field line. Using electron densities observed by these satellites during the 7 Sep 2017 storm, we successfully estimated the electron density distribution along of the field lines inside the partially refilled plasmasphere, outside of the plasmasphere and in the tail-like structure called a plume.
Obana, Yuki; Miyashita, Yukinaga; Maruyama, Naomi; Shinbori, Atsuki; Nosé, Masahito; Shoji, Masafumi; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Matsuda, Shoya; Matsuoka, Ayako; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Shinohara, Iku; Kurth, William; Smith, Charles; MacDowall, Robert;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA029073
We perform test particle simulations of energetic electrons interacting with whistler mode chorus emissions. We compute trajectories of a large number of electrons forming a delta function with the same energy and equatorial pitch angle. The electrons are launched at different locations along the magnetic field line and different timings with respect to a pair of chorus emissions generated at the magnetic equator. We follow the evolution of the delta function and obtain a distribution function in energy and equatorial pitch angle, which is a numerical Green\textquoterights function for one cycle of chorus wave-particle interaction. We obtain the Green\textquoterights functions for the energy range 10 keV\textendash6 MeV and all pitch angles greater than the loss cone angle. By taking the convolution integral of the Green\textquoterights functions with the distribution function of the injected electrons repeatedly, we follow a long-time evolution of the distribution function. We find that the energetic electrons are accelerated effectively by relativistic turning acceleration and ultrarelativistic acceleration through nonlinear trapping by chorus emissions. Further, these processes result in the rapid formation of a dumbbell distribution of highly relativistic electrons within a few minutes after the onset of the continuous injection of 10\textendash30 keV electrons.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 11/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021563
We report observations of very low frequency (VLF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) chorus waves taken during the ELF/VLF Campaign observation with High-resolution Aurora Imaging Network (VLF-CHAIN) of 17\textendash25 February 2012 at subauroral latitudes at Athabasca (L=4.3), Canada. ELF/VLF waves were measured continuously with a sampling rate of 100 kHz to monitor daily variations in ELF/VLF emissions and derive their detailed structures. We found quasiperiodic (QP) emissions whose repetition period changes rapidly within a period of 1 h without corresponding magnetic pulsations. QP emissions showed positive correlation between amplitude and frequency sweep rate, similarly to rising-tone elements. We found an event of nearly simultaneous enhancements of QP emissions and Pc1/electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave intensities, suggesting that the temperature anisotropy of electrons and ions developed simultaneously at the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere. We also found QP emissions whose intensity suddenly increased in association with storm sudden commencement without changing their frequency. Falling-tone ELF/VLF emissions were observed with their rate of frequency change varying from 0.7 to 0.05 kHz/s over 10 min. Bursty-patch emissions in the lower and upper frequency bands are often observed during magnetically disturbed periods. Clear systematic correlation between these various ELF/VLF emissions and cosmic noise absorption was not obtained throughout the campaign period. These observations indicate several previously unknown features of ELF/VLF emissions in subauroral latitudes and demonstrate the importance of continuous measurements for monitoring temporal variations in these emissions.
Shiokawa, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Yu; Ieda, Akimasa; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Nomura, Reiko; Lee, Sungeun; Sunagawa, Naoki; Miyashita, Yukinaga; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Ishizaka, Kazumasa; Yagitani, Satoshi; Kataoka, Ryuho; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Schofield, Ian; Connors, Martin;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.910.1002/2014JA020161