Found 21 entries in the Bibliography.
Showing entries from 1 through 21
Abstract Simultaneous observations from Van Allen Probes (RBSP) in Earth’s outer radiation belt (∼4-6 RE) and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) in the magnetotail plasma sheet at >20 RE geocentric distance are used to compare relative levels of relativistic electron phase space density (PSD) for constant values of the first adiabatic invariant, M. We present new evidence from two events showing: i) at times, there is sufficient PSD in the central plasma sheet to provide a source of >1 MeV electrons into the outer belt; ii) the most intense levels of relativistic electrons are not accelerated in the solar wind or transported from the inner magnetosphere and thus must be accelerated rapidly (within ∼minutes or less) and efficiently across a broad region of the magnetotail itself; and iii) the highest intensity relativistic electrons observed by MMS were confined within only the central plasma sheet. The answer to the title question here is: yes, it can, however whether Earth’s plasma sheet actually does provide a source of several 100s keV to >1 MeV electrons to the outer belt and how often it does so remain important outstanding questions.
Turner, Drew; Cohen, Ian; Michael, Adam; Sorathia, Kareem; Merkin, Slava; Mauk, Barry; Ukhorskiy, Sasha; Murphy, Kyle; Gabrielse, Christine; Boyd, Alexander; Fennell, Joseph; Blake, Bernard; Claudepierre, Seth; Drozdov, Alexander; Jaynes, Allison; Ripoll, Jean-Francois; Reeves, Geoffrey;
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 09/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL095495
Abstract We present a global survey of energetic electron precipitation from the equatorial magnetosphere due to hiss waves in the plasmasphere and plumes. Using Van Allen Probes measurements, we calculate the pitch angle diffusion coefficients at the bounce loss cone, and evaluate the energy spectrum of precipitating electron flux. Our ∼6.5-year survey shows that, during disturbed times, hiss inside the plasmasphere primarily causes the electron precipitation at L > 4 over 8 h < MLT < 18 h, and hiss waves in plumes cause the precipitation at L > 5 over 8 h < MLT < 14 h and L > 4 over 14 h < MLT < 20 h. The precipitating energy flux increases with increasing geomagnetic activity, and is typically higher in the plasmaspheric plume than the plasmasphere. The characteristic energy of precipitation increases from ∼20 keV at L = 6 to ∼100 keV at L = 3, potentially causing the loss of electrons at several hundred keV.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 07/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029644
Abstract Accurate measurements of trapped energetic electron fluxes are of major importance for the studies of the complex nature of radiation belts and the characterization of space radiation environment. The harmonization of measurements between different instruments increase the accuracy of scientific studies and the reliability of data-driven models that treat the specification of space radiation environment. An inter-calibration analysis of the energetic electron flux measurements of the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) and the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) instruments on-board the Van Allen Probes (VAP) Mission versus the measurements of the Extremely High Energy Electron Experiment (XEP) unit on-board Arase satellite is presented. The performed analysis demonstrates a remarkable agreement between the majority of MagEIS and XEP measurements and suggests the re-scaling of MagEIS HIGH unit and of REPT measurements for the treatment of flux spectra discontinuities. The proposed adjustments were validated successfully using measurements from ESA Environmental Monitoring Unit (EMU) on-board GSAT0207 and the Standard Radiation Monitor (SREM) on-board INTEGRAL. The derived results lead to the harmonization of science-class experiments on-board VAP (2012-2019) and Arase (2017-) and propose the use of the datasets as reference in a series of space weather and space radiation environment developments.
Published by: Space Weather Published on: 04/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020SW002692
Abstract We describe a new data product combining pitch angle resolved electron flux measurements from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Energetic Particle Composition and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Van Allen Probes. We describe the methodology used to combine each of the data sets and produce a consistent set of pitch-angle-resolved spectra for the entire Van Allen Probes mission. Three-minute-averaged flux spectra are provided spanning energies from 15 eV up to 20 MeV. This new data product offers researchers a consistent cross calibrated data set to explore the particle dynamics of the inner magnetosphere across a wide range of energies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028637
Using seven years of data from the HOPE instrument on the Van Allen Probes, equatorial pitch angle distributions (PADs) of 1 – 50 keV electrons in Earth s inner magnetosphere are investigated statistically. An empirical model of electron equatorial PADs as a function of radial distance, magnetic local time, geomagnetic activity, and electron energy is constructed using the method of Legendre polynomial fitting. Model results show that most equatorial PADs of 1 – 10s of keV electrons in Earth s inner magnetosphere are pancake PADs, and the lack of butterfly PADs is likely due to their relatively flat or positive flux radial gradients at higher altitudes. During geomagnetically quiet times, more anisotropic distributions of 1 – 10s of keV electrons at dayside than nightside are observed, which could be responsible for moderate chorus wave activities at dayside during quiet times as reported by previous studies. During active times, the anisotropy of 1 – 10s of keV electrons significantly enhances, consistent with the enhanced chorus wave activity during active times and suggesting the critical role of 1 – 10s of keV electrons in generating chorus waves in Earth s inner magnetosphere. Different enhanced anisotropy patterns of different energy electrons are also observed during active times: at R>∼4 RE, keV electrons are more anisotropic at dawn to noon, while 10s of keV electrons have larger anisotropy at midnight to dawn. These differences, combined with the statistical distribution of chorus waves shown in previous studies, suggest the differential roles of electrons with different energies in generating chorus waves with different properties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 12/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028322
We describe a new data product combining the spin-averaged electron flux measurements from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Energetic Particle Composition and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration\textquoterights Van Allen Probes. We describe the methodology used to combine each of the data sets and produce a consistent set of spectra for September 2013 to the present. Three-minute-averaged flux spectra are provided spanning energies from 15 eV up to 20 MeV. This new data product provides additional utility to the ECT data and offers a consistent cross calibrated data set for researchers interested in examining the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere across a wide range of energies.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 10/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026733
Based on the measurements of ~100-keV to 10-MeV electrons from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) and Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) on the Van Allen Probes, the radiation belt electron energy spectra characterization and evolution have been investigated systematically. The results show that the majority of radiation belt electron energy spectra can be represented by one of three types of distributions: exponential, power law, and bump-on-tail (BOT). The exponential spectra are generally dominant in the outer radiation belt outside the plasmasphere, power law spectra usually appear at high L-shells during injections of lower-energy electrons, and BOT spectra commonly dominate inside the plasmasphere at L>2.5 during relatively quiet times. The main features of three types of energy spectra have also been revealed. Specifically, for the BOT energy spectrum, the energy of local flux maximum usually ranges from approximately hundreds of keV to several MeV and the energy of local flux minimum varies from ~100 keV to ~MeV, both increasing as L-shell decreases, confirming the plasmaspheric hiss wave scattering to be the main mechanism forming the BOT energy spectra. Statistical results using 4-year observations from the Van Allen Probes on the relation between energy spectra and plasmapause location also show that the plasmasphere plays a critical role in shaping radiation belt electron energy spectrum: the peak location of BOT energy spectra is ~1 L-shell inside the minimum plasmapause, where BOT energy spectra mostly form in ~1\textendash2 days as a result of hiss wave scattering.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 05/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026697
Effects of scattering of electrons from whistler chorus waves and of ions due to field line curvature on diffuse precipitating particle fluxes and ionospheric conductance during the large 17 March 2013 storm are examined using the self-consistent Rice Convection Model Equilibrium (RCM-E) model. Electrons are found to dominate the diffuse precipitating particle integrated energy flux, with large fluxes from ~21:00 magnetic local time (MLT) eastward to ~11:00 MLT during the storm main phase. Simulated proton and oxygen ion precipitation due to field line curvature scattering is sporadic and localized, occurring where model magnetic field lines are significantly stretched on the night side at equatorial geocentric radial distances r0 ≳8 RE and/or at r0 ~5.5 to 6.5 RE from dusk to midnight where the partial ring current field has perturbed the magnetic field. The precipitating protons likewise contribute sporadically to the storm time Hall and Pedersen conductance in localized regions whereas the precipitating electrons are the dominate storm time contributor to enhanced Hall and Pedersen conductance at auroral magnetic latitudes on the night and morning side. The RCM-E model can reproduce general features of the Van Allen Probe/MagEIS observed trapped electron differential flux spectrograms over energies of ~37 to 150 keV. The simulations with a parameterized electron loss model also reproduce reasonably well the storm time Defense Meteorological Satellite Program integrated electron energy flux at 850 km at satellite crossings from predawn to midmorning. However, model-data agreement is not as good from dusk to premidnight where there are large uncertainties in the electron loss model.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 05/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026545
Published by: Nature Physics Published on: 02/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1038/nphys4351
Gyroresonant wave-particle interactions with very low frequency whistler mode chorus waves can accelerate subrelativistic seed electrons (hundreds of keV) to relativistic energies in the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. In this study, we conduct a superposed epoch analysis of the chorus wave activity, the seed electron development, and the outer radiation belt electron response between L* = 2.5 and 5.5, for 25 coronal mass ejection and 35 corotating interaction region storms using Van Allen Probes observations. Electron data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope instruments are used to monitor the storm-phase development of the seed and relativistic electrons, and magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science instrument are used to identify the chorus wave activity. Our results show a deeper (lower L*), stronger (higher flux), and earlier (epoch time) average seed electron enhancement and a resulting greater average radiation belt electron enhancement in coronal mass ejection storms compared to the corotating interaction region storms despite similar levels and lifetimes of average chorus wave activity for the two storm drivers. The earlier and deeper seed electron enhancement during the coronal mass ejection storms, likely driven by greater convection and substorm activity, provides a higher probability for local acceleration. These results emphasize the importance of the timing and the level of the seed electron enhancements in radiation belt dynamics.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 12/2018
YEAR: 2018   DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025963
We survey radiation belt enhancement events during the Van Allen Probes era to determine what mechanism is the dominant cause of enhancements and where it is most effective. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed: (1) betatron/Fermi acceleration due to the Earthward radial transport of electrons which produces monotonic gradients in phase space density (PSD) and (2) \textquotedblleftlocal acceleration" due to gyro/Landau resonant interaction with electromagnetic waves which produces radially localized, growing peaks in PSD. To differentiate between these processes, we examine radial profiles of PSD in adiabatic coordinates using data from the Van Allen Probes and THEMIS satellites for 80 outer belt enhancement events from October 2012-April 2017 This study shows that local acceleration is the dominant acceleration mechanism for MeV electrons in the outer belt, with 87\% of the enhancement events exhibiting growing peaks. The strong correlation of the location of these with geomagnetic activity further supports this conclusion.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 05/2018
YEAR: 2018   DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077699
Using the total radiation belt electron content calculated from Van Allen Probe phase space density (PSD), the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms is statistically studied. Using PSD reduces the impacts of adiabatic changes in the main phase, allowing a separation of adiabatic and non-adiabatic effects, and revealing a clear modality and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. This sequence exhibits an important first adiabatic invariant (μ) dependent behaviour in the seed (150 MeV/G), relativistic (1000 MeV/G), and ultra-relativistic (4000 MeV/G) populations. The outer radiation belt statistically shows an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase of rapid acceleration, whilst the seed population shows little loss and immediate enhancement. The time sequence of the transition to the acceleration is also strongly μ-dependent and occurs at low μ first, appearing to be repeatable from storm to storm.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 04/2018
YEAR: 2018   DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076674
The 17 March 2015 St. Patrick\textquoterights Day Storm is the largest geomagnetic storm to date of Solar Cycle 24, with a Dst of -223 nT. The magnetopause moved inside geosynchronous orbit under high solar wind dynamic pressure and strong southward IMF Bz causing loss, however a subsequent drop in pressure allowed for rapid rebuilding of the radiation belts. The 17 March 2013 storm also shows similar effects on outer zone electrons: first a rapid dropout due to inward motion of the magnetopause followed by rapid increase in flux above the pre-storm level early in the recovery phase and a slow increase over the next 12 days. These phases can be seen in temporal evolution of the electron phase space density measured by the ECT instruments on Van Allen Probes. Using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global MHD model driven by upstream solar wind measurements, we simulated both St. Patrick\textquoterights Day 2013 and 2015 events, analyzing LFM electric and magnetic fields to calculate radial diffusion coefficients. These coefficients have been implemented in a radial diffusion code, using the measured electron phase space density following the local heating as the initial radial profile and outer boundary condition for subsequent temporal evolution over the next 12 days, beginning 18 March. Agreement with electron phase space density at 1000 MeV/G measured by the MagEIS component of the ECT instrument suite on Van Allen Probes was much improved using radial diffusion coefficients from the MHD simulations relative to coefficients parametrized by a global geomagnetic activity index.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 06/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023846
We present a statistical analysis of phase space density data from the first 26 months of the Van Allen Probes mission. In particular we investigate the relationship between the 10s-100s keV seed electrons and >1 MeV core radiation belt electron population. Using a cross correlation analysis, we find that the seed and core populations are well correlated with a coefficient of ≈ 0.73 with a time lag of 10-15 hours. We present evidence of a seed population threshold that is necessary for subsequent acceleration. The depth of penetration of the seed population determines the inner boundary of the acceleration process. However, we show that an enhanced seed population alone is not enough to produce acceleration in the higher energies, implying that the seed population of 100s of keV electrons is only one of several conditions required for MeV electron radiation belt acceleration.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 07/2016
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022652
Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave\textendashparticle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. However, this has failed to accurately reproduce the third belt. Using a datadriven, time-dependent specification of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves we show for the first time how the third radiation belt is established as a simple, elegant consequence of storm-time extremely fast outward ULF wave transport. High-frequency wave\textendashparticle scattering loss into the atmosphere is not needed in this case. When rapid ULF wave transport coupled to a dynamic boundary is accurately specified, the sensitive dynamics controlling the enigmatic ultra-relativistic third radiation belt are naturally explained.
Published by: Nature Physics Published on: 06/2016
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1038/nphys3799
Substorms are fundamental and dynamic processes in the magnetosphere, converting captured solar wind magnetic energy into plasma energy. These substorms have been suggested to be a key driver of energetic electron enhancements in the outer radiation belts. Substorms inject a keV \textquotedblleftseed\textquotedblright population into the inner magnetosphere which is subsequently energized through wave-particle interactions up to relativistic energies; however, the extent to which substorms enhance the radiation belts, either directly or indirectly, has never before been quantified. In this study, we examine increases and decreases in the total radiation belt electron content (TRBEC) following substorms and geomagnetically quiet intervals. Our results show that the radiation belts are inherently lossy, shown by a negative median change in TRBEC at all intervals following substorms and quiet intervals. However, there are up to 3 times as many increases in TRBEC following substorm intervals. There is a lag of 1\textendash3 days between the substorm or quiet intervals and their greatest effect on radiation belt content, shown in the difference between the occurrence of increases and losses in TRBEC following substorms and quiet intervals, the mean change in TRBEC following substorms or quiet intervals, and the cross correlation between SuperMAG AL (SML) and TRBEC. However, there is a statistically significant effect on the occurrence of increases and decreases in TRBEC up to a lag of 6 days. Increases in radiation belt content show a significant correlation with SML and SYM-H, but decreases in the radiation belt show no apparent link with magnetospheric activity levels.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 06/2016
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022620
We present twin Van Allen Probes spacecraft observations of the effects of a solar wind shock impacting the magnetosphere on 8 October 2013. The event provides details both of the accelerating electric fields associated with the shock and the response of inner magnetosphere electron populations across a broad range of energies. During this period the two Van Allen Probes observed shock effects from the vantage point of the dayside magnetosphere at radial positions of L=3 and L=5, at the location where shock-induced acceleration of relativistic electrons occurs. The extended (~1 min) duration of the accelerating electric field across a broad extent of the dayside magnetosphere, coupled with energy dependent relativistic electron gradient drift velocities, selects a preferred range of energies (3 \textendash 4 MeV) for the initial enhancement. Those electrons—whose drift velocity closely matches the azimuthal phase velocity of the shock-induced pulse— stayed in the accelerating wave as it propagated tailward and received the largest increase in energy. Drift resonance with subsequent strong ULF waves further accentuated this range of electron energies. Phase space density and positional considerations permit identification of the source population of the energized electrons. Observations detail the promptness (<20 min), energy range (1.5-4.5 MeV), energy increase (~500 keV), and spatial extent (L*~3.5-4.0) of the enhancement of the relativistic electrons. Prompt acceleration by impulsive shock-induced electric fields and subsequent ULF wave processes therefore comprises a significant mechanism for the acceleration of highly relativistic electrons deep inside the outer radiation belt as shown clearly by this event.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 01/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020642
March 2013 provided the first equinoctial period when all of the instruments on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft were fully operational. This interval was characterized by disturbances of outer zone electrons with two timescales of variation, diffusive and rapid dropout and restoration [Baker et al., 2014]. A radial diffusion model was applied to the month-long interval to confirm that electron phase space density is well described by radial diffusion for the whole month at low first invariant <=400 MeV/G, but peaks in phase space density observed by the ECT instrument suite at higher first invariant are not reproduced by radial transport from a source at higher L. The model does well for much of the month-long interval, capturing three of four enhancements in phase space density which emerge from the outer boundary, while the strong enhancement following dropout on 17-18 March requires local acceleration at higher first invariant (M = 1000 MeV/G vs. 200 MeV/G) not included in our model. We have incorporated phase space density from ECT measurement at the outer boundary and plasmapause determination from the EFW instrument to separate hiss and chorus loss models.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 10/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020359
We present phase space density (PSD) observations using data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer instrument on the Van Allen Probes for the 17 March 2013 electron acceleration event. We confirm previous results and quantify how PSD gradients depend on the first adiabatic invariant. We find a systematic difference between the lower-energy electrons (
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 04/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059626
On 30 September 2012, a flux \textquotedblleftdropout\textquotedblright occurred throughout Earth\textquoterights outer electron radiation belt during the main phase of a strong geomagnetic storm. Using eight spacecraft from NASA\textquoterights Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) and Van Allen Probes missions and NOAA\textquoterights Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites constellation, we examined the full extent and timescales of the dropout based on particle energy, equatorial pitch angle, radial distance, and species. We calculated phase space densities of relativistic electrons, in adiabatic invariant coordinates, which revealed that loss processes during the dropout were > 90\% effective throughout the majority of the outer belt and the plasmapause played a key role in limiting the spatial extent of the dropout. THEMIS and the Van Allen Probes observed telltale signatures of loss due to magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial transport, including similar loss of energetic ring current ions. However, Van Allen Probes observations suggest that another loss process played a role for multi-MeV electrons at lower L shells (L* < ~4).
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 03/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019446
The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. Observations (up to E ~10 MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) changes during March 2013 in the context of the first year of Van Allen Probes operation. This March period demonstrates the classic signatures both of inward radial diffusive energization and abrupt localized acceleration deep within the outer Van Allen zone (L ~4.0 \textpm 0.5). This reveals graphically that both \textquotedblleftcompeting\textquotedblright mechanisms of multi-MeV electron energization are at play in the radiation belts, often acting almost concurrently or at least in rapid succession.
Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Li, X.; Henderson, M.; Kanekal, S.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Hudson, M.; Thorne, R.; Foster, J.; Erickson, P.; Malaspina, D.; Wygant, J.; Boyd, A.; Kletzing, C.; Drozdov, A.; Shprits, Y;
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 03/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058942