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Found 16 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 16


Relation Between Shock-Related Impulse and Subsequent ULF Wave in the Earth s Magnetosphere

The generation of Pc4-5 ultralow frequency (ULF) waves after interplanetary shock-induced electric field impulses in the Earth s magnetosphere is studied using Van Allen Probes measurements by investigating the relationship between the first impulses and subsequent resonant ULF waves. In the dayside, the relevant time scales of the first impulse is correlated better with local Alfvén speed than with local eigenfrequency, implying that the temporal scale of the first impulse is more likely related to fast-mode wave propagation rather than local field line resonance. There are only 20 out of 51 events with narrow-band poloidal ULF waves induced after the first impulse, showing a higher chance for ULF wave generation at the locations where the impulse equivalent frequency scale matches the local eigenfrequency. It is suggested that the shock-related ULF wave can be excited in the magnetosphere on condition that shock-induced impulse has large enough amplitude with its frequency matching the local eigenfrequency.

Zhang, Dianjun; Liu, Wenlong; Li, Xinlin; Sarris, Theodore; Wang, Yongfu; Xiao, Chao; Zhang, Zhao; Wygant, John;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 11/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

ULF wave; interplanetary shock; Magnetosphere; Field line resonance; electric field; wave excitation; Van Allen Probes


Observations of impulsive electric fields induced by Interplanetary Shock

We investigate the characteristics of impulsive electric fields in Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere, as measured by the Van Allen Probes, in association with interplanetary shocks, as measured by ACE and Wind spacecraft in the solar wind from January 2013 to July 2016. It is shown that electric field impulses are mainly induced by global compressions by the shocks, mostly in the azimuthal direction and the amplitudes of the initial electric field impulses are positively correlated with the rate of increase of dynamic pressure across the shock in the dayside. It is also shown that the temporal profile of the impulse is related to the temporal profile of the solar wind dynamic pressure, Pd. It is suggested that during the first period of the impulse the evolution of the electric field is directly controlled by external solar wind forcing, and thus finite rates of change of Pd should be considered in the study of the interactions between solar wind and magnetosphere. Implications of shock-induced impulsive electric fields on the acceleration and transport of radiation belt electrons are also discussed.

Zhang, Dianjun; Liu, Wenlong; Li, Xinlin; Sarris, Theodore; Xiao, Chao; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078809

electric field; inner magnetosphere; interplanetary shock; particle accelaration; Van Allen Probes

Magnetic activity dependence of the electric drift below L=3

More than two years of magnetic and electric field measurements by the Van Allen Probes are analyzed with the objective of determining the average effects of magnetic activity on the electric drift below L=3. The study finds that an increase in magnetospheric convection leads to a decrease in the magnitude of the azimuthal component of the electric drift, especially in the night-side. The amplitude of the slowdown is a function of L, local time MLT, and Kp, in a pattern consistent with the storm-time dynamics of the ionosphere and thermosphere. To a lesser extent, magnetic activity also alters the average radial component of the electric drift below L=3. A global picture for the average variations of the electric drift with Kp is provided as a function of L and MLT. It is the first time that the signature of the ionospheric disturbance dynamo is observed in near-equatorial electric drift measurements.

Lejosne, ène; Mozer, F.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077873

electric drift; electric field; Inner radiation belt; ionospheric disturbance dynamo; plasmasphere; subcorotation; Van Allen Probes


SC-associated electric field variations in the magnetosphere and ionospheric convective flows

We examine magnetic and electric field perturbations associated with a sudden commencement (SC), caused by an interplanetary (IP) shock passing over the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere on 16 February 2013. The SC was identified in the magnetic and electric field data measured at THEMIS-E (THE-E: MLT = 12.4, L = 6.3), Van Allen Probe-A (VAP-A: MLT = 3.2, L = 5.1), and Van Allen Probe-B (VAP-B: MLT = 0.2. L= 4.9) in the magnetosphere. During the SC interval, THE-E observed a dawnward-then-duskward electric (E) field perturbation around noon, while VAP-B observed a duskward E-field perturbation around midnight. VAP-A observed a dawnward-then-duskward E-field perturbation in the postmidnight sector, but the duration and magnitude of the dawnward E-perturbation are much shorter and weaker than that at THE-E. That is, the E-field signature changes with local time during the SC interval. The SuperDARN radar data indicate that the ionospheric plasma motions during the SC are mainly due to the E-field variations observed in space. This indicates that the SC-associated E-field in space plays a significant role in determining the dynamic variations of the ionospheric convection flow. By comparing previous SC MHD simulations and our observations, we suggest that the E-field variations observed at the spacecraft are produced by magnetospheric convection flows due to deformation of the magnetosphere as the IP shock sweeps the magnetopause.

Kim, S.-I.; Kim, K.-H.; Kwon, H.-J.; Jin, H.; Lee, E.; Jee, G.; Nishitani, N.; Hori, T.; Lester, M.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024611

electric field; Sudden commencement; Van Allen Probes

Model-observation comparison for the geographic variability of the plasma electric drift in the Earth\textquoterights innermost magnetosphere

Plasmaspheric rotation is known to lag behind Earth rotation. The causes for this corotation lag are not yet fully understood. We have used more than two years of Van Allen Probe observations to compare the electric drift measured below L~2 with the predictions of a general model. In the first step, a rigid corotation of the ionosphere with the solid Earth was assumed in the model. The results of the model-observation comparison are twofold: (1) radially, the model explains the average observed geographic variability of the electric drift; (2) azimuthally, the model fails to explain the full amplitude of the observed corotation lag. In the second step, ionospheric corotation was modulated in the model by thermospheric winds, as given by the latest version of the Horizontal Wind Model (HWM14). Accounting for the thermospheric corotation lag at ionospheric E-region altitudes results in significantly better agreement between the model and the observations.

Lejosne, ène; Maus, Stefan; Mozer, F.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074862

corotation; electric field; Ionosphere; plasmasphere; thermosphere; Van Allen Probes; wind

An improved sheath impedance model for the Van Allen probes EFW instrument: Effects of the spin axis antenna

A technique to quantitatively determine the sheath impedance of the Van Allen Probes Electric Field and Waves (EFW) instrument is presented. This is achieved, for whistler mode waves, through a comparison between the total electric field wave power spectra calculated from magnetic field observations and cold plasma theory, and the total electric field wave power measured by the EFW spherical double probes instrument. In a previous study, a simple density-dependent sheath impedance model was developed in order to account for the differences between the observed and calculated wave electric field. The current study builds on this previous work by investigating the remaining discrepancies, identifying their cause, and developing an improved sheath impedance correction. Analysis reveals that anomalous gains are caused by the spin axis antennas measuring too much electric field at specific densities and frequencies. This is accounted for in an improved sheath impedance model by introducing a density-dependent function describing the relative effective length of the probe separation, Leff, in addition to the sheath capacitance and resistance values previously calculated. Leff values vary between between 0.5 and 1.2, with values >1 accounting for the anomalous gains and values <1 accounting for the shorting effect at low densities. Applying this improved sheath impedance model results in a significant increase in the agreement level between observed and calculated electric field power spectra and wave powers over the previous model.

Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Bounds, S.; Averkamp, T.; Bonnell, J.; ik, O.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023597

antenna sheath impedance; EFW; electric field; EMFISIS; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode waves

The role of the convection electric field in filling the slot region between the inner and outer radiation belts

The Van Allen Probes have reported frequent flux enhancements of 100s keV electrons in the slot region, with lower energy electrons exhibiting more dynamic behavior at lower L shells. Also, in situ electric field measurements from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), and the Van Allen Probes have provided evidence for large-scale electric fields at low L shells during active times. We study an event on 19 February 2014 where hundreds of keV electron fluxes were enhanced by orders of magnitude in the slot region and electric fields of 1\textendash2 mV/m were observed below L = 3. Using a 2-D guiding center particle tracer and a simple large-scale convection electric field model, we demonstrate that the measured electric fields can account for energization of electrons up to at least 500 keV in the slot region through inward radial transport.

Califf, S.; Li, X.; Zhao, H.; Kellerman, A.; Sarris, T.; Jaynes, A.; Malaspina, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023657

convection; electric field; electrons; Slot region; Van Allen Probes


Typical values of the electric drift E \texttimes B / B 2 in the inner radiation belt and slot region as determined from Van Allen Probe measurements

The electric drift E \texttimes B/B2 plays a fundamental role for the description of plasma flow and particle acceleration. Yet it is not well-known in the inner belt and slot region because of a lack of reliable in situ measurements. In this article, we present an analysis of the electric drifts measured below L ~ 3 by both Van Allen Probes A and B from September 2012 to December 2014. The objective is to determine the typical components of the equatorial electric drift in both radial and azimuthal directions. The dependences of the components on radial distance, magnetic local time, and geographic longitude are examined. The results from Van Allen Probe A agree with Van Allen Probe B. They show, among other things, a typical corotation lag of the order of 5 to 10\% below L ~ 2.6, as well as a slight radial transport of the order of 20 m s-1. The magnetic local time dependence of the electric drift is consistent with that of the ionosphere wind dynamo below L ~ 2 and with that of a solar wind-driven convection electric field above L ~ 2. A secondary longitudinal dependence of the electric field is also found. Therefore, this work also demonstrates that the instruments on board Van Allen Probes are able to perform accurate measurements of the electric drift below L ~ 3.

Lejosne, ène; Mozer, F.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023613

electric drift; electric field; Inner radiation belt; plasmasphere; subcorotation; Van Allen Probes

Control of the innermost electron radiation belt by large-scale electric fields

Electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer instruments on Van Allen Probes, for kinetic energies \~100 to 400 keV, show characteristic dynamical features of the innermost ( inline image) radiation belt: rapid injections, slow decay, and structured energy spectra. There are also periods of steady or slowly increasing intensity and of fast decay following injections. Local time asymmetry, with higher intensity near dawn, is interpreted as evidence for drift shell distortion by a convection electric field of magnitude \~0.4 mV/m during geomagnetically quiet times. Fast fluctuations in the electric field, on the drift time scale, cause inward diffusion. Assuming that they are proportional to changes in Kp, the resulting diffusion coefficient is sufficient to replenish trapped electrons lost by atmospheric scattering. Major electric field increases cause injections by inward electron transport. An injection associated with the June 2015 magnetic storm is consistent with an enhanced field magnitude \~5 mV/m. Subsequent drift echoes cause spectral structure.

Selesnick, R.; Su, Y.-J.; Blake, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022973

electric field; electrons; Inner radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probe measurements of the electric drift E \texttimes B/B2 at Arecibo\textquoterights L = 1.4 field line coordinate

We have used electric and magnetic measurements by Van Allen Probe B from 2013 to 2014 to examine the equatorial electric drift E \texttimes B/B2 at one field line coordinate set to Arecibo\textquoterights incoherent scatter radar location (L = 1.43). We report on departures from the traditional picture of corotational motion with the Earth in two ways: (1) the rotational angular speed is found to be 10\% smaller than the rotational angular speed of the Earth, in agreement with previous works on plasmaspheric notches, and (2) the equatorial electric drift displays a dependence in magnetic local time, with a pattern consistent with the mapping of the Arecibo ionosphere dynamo electric fields along equipotential magnetic field lines. The electric fields due to the ionosphere dynamo are therefore expected to play a significant role when discussing, for instance, the structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere or the transport of trapped particles in the inner belt.

Lejosne, Solène; Mozer, F.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069875

corotation; electric field; Inner radiation belt; Ionosphere; plasmasphere; Van Allen Probes

Large-amplitude electric fields in the inner magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes observations of subauroral polarization streams

The subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) is an important magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) coupling phenomenon that impacts a range of particle populations in the inner magnetosphere. SAPS studies often emphasize ionospheric signatures of fast westward flows, but the equatorial magnetosphere is also affected through strong radial electric fields in the dusk sector. This study focuses on a period of steady southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) during the 29 June 2013 geomagnetic storm where the Van Allen Probes observe a region of intense electric fields near the plasmapause over multiple consecutive outbound duskside passes. We show that the large-amplitude electric fields near the equatorial plane are consistent with SAPS by investigating the relationship between plasma sheet ion and electron boundaries, associated field-aligned currents, and the spatial location of the electric fields. By incorporating high-inclination DMSP data we demonstrate the spatial and temporal variability of the SAPS region, and we suggest that discrete, earthward-propagating injections are driving the observed strong electric fields at low L shells in the equatorial magnetosphere. We also show the relationship between SAPS and plasmasphere erosion, as well as a possible correlation with flux enhancements for 100 s keV electrons.

Califf, S.; Li, X.; Wolf, R.; Zhao, H.; Jaynes, A.; Wilder, F.; Malaspina, D.; Redmon, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022252

electric field; injection; SAPS; subauroral; Van Allen Probes

Structure and Evolution of Electron "Zebra Stripes" in the Inner Radiation Belt

Zebra stripes\textquotedblright are newly found energetic electron energy-spatial (L shell) distributed structure with an energy between tens to a few hundreds keV in the inner radiation belt. Using high-quality measurements of electron fluxes from Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) on board the twin Van Allen Probes, we carry out case and statistical studies from April 2013 to April 2014 to study the structural and evolutionary characteristics of zebra stripes below L = 3. It is revealed that the zebra stripes can be transformed into evenly spaced patterns in the electron drift frequency coordinate: the detrended logarithmic fluxes in each L shell region can be well described by sinusoidal functions of drift frequency. The \textquotedblleftwave number\textquotedblright of this sinusoidal function, which corresponds to the reciprocal of the gap between two adjacent peaks in the drift frequency coordinate, increases in proportion to real time. Further, these structural and evolutionary characteristics of zebra stripes can be reproduced by an analytic model of the evolution of the particle distribution under a single monochromatic or static azimuthal electric field. It is shown that the essential ingredient for the formation of multiple zebra stripes is the periodic drift of particles. The amplitude of the zebra stripes shows a good positive correlation with Kp index, which indicates that the generation mechanism of zebra stripes should be related to geomagnetic activities

Liu, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Foster, J.; Rankin, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022077

electric field; energetic electrons; particle dynamic; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; zebra stripes

The \textquotedblleftzebra stripes\textquotedblright: An effect of F-region zonal plasma drifts on the longitudinal distribution of radiation belt particles

We examine a characteristic effect, namely, the ubiquitous appearance of structured peaks and valleys called zebra stripes in the spectrograms of energetic electrons and ions trapped in the inner belt below L ~ 3. We propose an explanation of this phenomenon as a purely kinematic consequence of particle drift velocity modulation caused by F region zonal plasma drifts in the ionosphere. In other words, we amend the traditional assumption that the electric field associated with ionospheric plasma drives trapped particle distributions into rigid corotation with the Earth. An equation based on a simple first-order model is set up to determine quantitatively the appearance of zebra stripes as a function of magnetic time. Our numerical predictions are in agreement with measurements by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment detector onboard Van Allen Probes, namely: (1) the central energy of any peak identified in the spectrum on the dayside is the central energy of a spectral valley on the night side, and vice versa; (2) there is also an approximate peak-to-valley inversion when comparing the spectrum of trapped electrons with that of trapped ions in the same place; and (3) the actual energy separation between two consecutive peaks (or number of stripes) in the spectrogram of a trapped population is an indicator of the time spent by the particles drifting under quiet conditions.

Lejosne, Solène; Roederer, Juan;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021925

electric field; Ionosphere; Inner radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; zebra stripes


Van Allen Probes investigation of the large scale duskward electric field and its role in ring current formation and plasmasphere erosion in the June 1, 2013 storm

Using the Van Allen Probes we investigate the enhancement in the large scale duskward convection electric field during the geomagnetic storm (Dst ~ -120 nT) on June 1, 2013 and its role in ring current ion transport and energization, and plasmasphere erosion. During this storm, enhancements of ~1-2 mV/m in the duskward electric field in the co-rotating frame are observed down to L shells as low as ~2.3. A simple model consisting of a dipole magnetic field and constant, azimuthally westward, electric field is used to calculate the earthward and westward drift of 90\textdegree pitch angle ions. This model is applied to determine how far earthward ions can drift while remaining on Earth\textquoterights night side, given the strength and duration of the convection electric field. The calculation based on this simple model indicates that the enhanced duskward electric field is of sufficient intensity and duration to transport ions from a range of initial locations and initial energies characteristic of (though not observed by the Van Allen Probes) the earthward edge of the plasma sheet during active times ( L ~ 6\textendash10 and ~1-20 keV) to the observed location of the 58\textendash267 keV ion population, chosen as representative of the ring current (L ~3.5 \textendash 5.8). According to the model calculation, this transportation should be concurrent with an energization to the range observed, ~58-267 keV. Clear coincidence between the electric field enhancement and both plasmasphere erosion and ring current ion (58\textendash267 keV) pressure enhancements are presented. We show for the first time, nearly simultaneous enhancements in the duskward convection electric field, plasmasphere erosion, and increased pressure of 58\textendash267 keV ring current ions. These 58\textendash267 keV ions have energies that are consistent with what they are expected to pick up by gradient B drifting across the electric field. These observations strongly suggest that we are observing the electric field that energizes the ions and produces the erosion of the plasmasphere.

Thaller, S.; Wygant, J.; Dai, L.; Breneman, A.W.; Kersten, K.; Cattell, C.A.; Bonnell, J.W.; Fennell, J.F.; Gkioulidou, Matina; Kletzing, C.A.; De Pascuale, S.; Hospodarsky, G.B.; Bounds, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020875

electric field; inner magnetosphere; plasma convection; plasmasphere; ring current; Van Allen Probes


THEMIS measurements of quasi-static electric fields in the inner magnetosphere

We use four years of THEMIS double-probe measurements to offer, for the first time, a complete picture of the dawn-dusk electric field covering all local times and radial distances in the inner magnetosphere based on in situ equatorial observations. This study is motivated by the results from the CRRES mission, which revealed a local maximum in the electric field developing near Earth during storm times, rather than the expected enhancement at higher L shells that is shielded near Earth as suggested by the Volland-Stern model. The CRRES observations were limited to the dusk side, while THEMIS provides complete local time coverage. We show strong agreement with the CRRES results on the dusk side, with a local maximum near L =4 for moderate levels of geomagnetic activity and evidence of strong electric fields inside L =3 during the most active times. The extensive dataset from THEMIS also confirms the day/night asymmetry on the dusk side, where the enhancement is closest to Earth in the dusk-midnight sector, and is farther away closer to noon. A similar, but smaller in magnitude, local maximum is observed on the dawn side near L =4. The noon sector shows the smallest average electric fields, and for more active times, the enhancement develops near L =7 rather than L =4. We also investigate the impact of the uncertain boom-shorting factor on the results, and show that while the absolute magnitude of the electric field may be underestimated, the trends with geomagnetic activity remain intact.

Califf, S.; Li, X.; Blum, L.; Jaynes, A.; Schiller, Q.; Zhao, H.; Malaspina, D.; Hartinger, M.; Wolf, R.; Rowland, D.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020360

convection; double probe; electric field; inner magnetosphere

Photoelectron-mediated spacecraft potential fluctuations

Electric field fluctuations such as those due to plasma waves in Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere may modulate photoelectrons emitted from spacecraft surface, causing fluctuations in spacecraft potential. We experimentally investigate such photoelectron-mediated spacecraft potential fluctuations. The photoelectric charge of a spacecraft model is found to increase with increasing applied electric field as more photoelectrons escape the spacecraft model surface and dissipates with a decrease in the electric field through collection of ambient plasma electrons. When the applied electric field is driven to oscillate at a frequency lower than the response frequency of the spacecraft model, the surface potential follows the electric field oscillations. The spacecraft model maintains an approximately constant potential if the electric field oscillations are driven at a much higher frequency. When a high-frequency electric field modulated by a low-frequency envelope is applied, rectified oscillations in the potential of the spacecraft model are observed. Our experimental results indicate that photoelectron-mediated wave rectifications must be taken into account when spacecraft potential fluctuations are used to infer plasma density structures.

Wang, X.; Malaspina, D.; Ergun, R.; M., Hor\;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019502

chorus waves; electric field; Magnetosphere; photoelectrons; plasma density; spacecraft potential fluctuations