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2018 
Determination of the Equatorial Electron Differential Flux From Observations at Low Earth Orbit Variations in the highenergy relativistic electron flux of the radiation belts depend on transport, acceleration, and loss processes, and importantly on the lowerenergy seed population. However, data on the seed population is limited to a few satellite missions. Here we present a new method that utilizes data from the Medium Energy Proton/Electron Detector on board the lowaltitude Polar Operational Environmental Satellites to retrieve the seed population at a pitch angle of 90\textdegree. The integral flux values measured by Medium Energy Proton/Electron Detector relate to a low equatorial pitch angle and were converted to omnidirectional flux using parameters obtained from fitting one or two urn:xwiley:jgra:media:jgra54628:jgra54628math0001 functions to pitch angle distributions given by three and a half years of Van Allen Probes data. Two methods to convert from integral to differential flux are explored. One utilizes integral and differential flux energy distributions from the AE9 model, the second employs an iterative fitting approach based on a Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method. The omnidirectional differential flux was converted to an equatorial pitch angle of 90\textdegree, again using statistical pitch angle distributions from Van Allen Probe data. We validate the resulting 90\textdegree flux for 100 to 600keV electrons against measurements from the Van Allen Probes and show an average agreement within a factor of 4 for L* > 3.7. The resulting data set offers a high time resolution, across multiple magnetic local time planes, and may be used to formulate eventspecific lowenergy boundary conditions for radiation belt models. Allison, Hayley; Horne, Richard; Glauert, Sarah; Del Zanna, Giulio; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 11/2018 YEAR: 2018 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025786 electrons; integral flux; Radiation belts; seed population; Van Allen Probes 
2016 
Statistical Properties of the Radiation Belt Seed Population We present a statistical analysis of phase space density data from the first 26 months of the Van Allen Probes mission. In particular we investigate the relationship between the 10s100s keV seed electrons and >1 MeV core radiation belt electron population. Using a cross correlation analysis, we find that the seed and core populations are well correlated with a coefficient of ≈ 0.73 with a time lag of 1015 hours. We present evidence of a seed population threshold that is necessary for subsequent acceleration. The depth of penetration of the seed population determines the inner boundary of the acceleration process. However, we show that an enhanced seed population alone is not enough to produce acceleration in the higher energies, implying that the seed population of 100s of keV electrons is only one of several conditions required for MeV electron radiation belt acceleration. Boyd, A.J.; Spence, H.E.; Huang, C.L.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Turner, D.L.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Shprits, Y.Y.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 07/2016 YEAR: 2016 DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022652 Phase space density; Radiation belt; seed population; Van Allen Probes 
2015 
Simultaneous observations of electron velocity distributions and chorus waves by the Van Allen Probe B are analyzed to identify longlasting (more than 6 h) signatures of electron Landau resonant interactions with oblique chorus waves in the outer radiation belt. Such Landau resonant interactions result in the trapping of \~1\textendash10 keV electrons and their acceleration up to 100\textendash300 keV. This kind of process becomes important for oblique whistler mode waves having a significant electric field component along the background magnetic field. In the inhomogeneous geomagnetic field, such resonant interactions then lead to the formation of a plateau in the parallel (with respect to the geomagnetic field) velocity distribution due to trapping of electrons into the wave effective potential. We demonstrate that the electron energy corresponding to the observed plateau remains in very good agreement with the energy required for Landau resonant interaction with the simultaneously measured oblique chorus waves over 6 h and a wide range of L shells (from 4 to 6) in the outer belt. The efficient parallel acceleration modifies electron pitch angle distributions at energies \~50\textendash200 keV, allowing us to distinguish the energized population. The observed energy range and the density of accelerated electrons are in reasonable agreement with test particle numerical simulations. Agapitov, O.; Artemyev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Mozer, F.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 12/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066887 Landau resonance; nonlinear acceleration of electrons; oblique whistlers; Radiation belts; seed population; Van Allen Probes 
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